Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

retinoblastoma Related Abstracts

3 Medical Advances in Diagnosing Neurological and Genetic Disorders

Authors: Simon B. N. Thompson

Abstract:

Retinoblastoma is a rare type of childhood genetic cancer that affects children worldwide. The diagnosis is often missed due to lack of education and difficulty in presentation of the tumor. Frequently, the tumor on the retina is noticed by photography when the red-eye flash, commonly seen in normal eyes, is not produced. Instead, a yellow or white colored patch is seen or the child has a noticeable strabismus. Early detection can be life-saving though often results in removal of the affected eye. Remaining functioning in the healthy eye when the child is young has resulted in super-vision and high or above-average intelligence. Technological advancement of cameras has helped in early detection. Brain imaging has also made possible early detection of neurological diseases and, together with the monitoring of cortisol levels and yawning frequency, promises to be the next new early diagnostic tool for the detection of neurological diseases where cortisol insufficiency is particularly salient, such as multiple sclerosis and Cushing’s disease.

Keywords: cortisol, yawning, thompson cortisol hypothesis, neurological disease, retinoblastoma

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2 Deciphering Tumor Stroma Interactions in Retinoblastoma

Authors: Rajeswari Raguraman, Sowmya Parameswaran, Krishnakumar Subramanian, Jagat Kanwar, Rupinder Kanwar

Abstract:

Background: Tumor microenvironment has been implicated in several cancers to regulate cell growth, invasion and metastasis culminating in outcome of therapy. Tumor stroma consists of multiple cell types that are in constant cross-talk with the tumor cells to favour a pro-tumorigenic environment. Not much is known about the existence of tumor microenvironment in the pediatric intraocular malignancy, Retinoblastoma (RB). In the present study, we aim to understand the multiple stromal cellular subtypes and tumor stromal interactions expressed in RB tumors. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemistry for stromal cell markers CD31, CD68, alpha-smooth muscle (α-SMA), vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was performed on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues sections of RB (n=12). The differential expression of stromal target molecules; fibroblast activation protein (FAP), tenascin-C (TNC), osteopontin (SPP1), bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST2), stromal derived factor 2 and 4 (SDF2 and SDF4) in primary RB tumors (n=20) and normal retina (n=5) was studied by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. The differential expression was correlated with the histopathological features of RB. The interaction between RB cell lines (Weri-Rb-1, NCC-RbC-51) and Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) was also studied using direct co-culture and indirect co-culture methods. The functional effect of the co-culture methods on the RB cells was evaluated by invasion and proliferation assays. Global gene expression was studied by using Affymetrix 3’ IVT microarray. Pathway prediction was performed using KEGG and the key molecules were validated using qRT-PCR. Results: The immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of several stromal cell types such as endothelial cells (CD31+;Vim+/-); macrophages (CD68+;Vim+/-); Fibroblasts (Vim+; CD31-;CD68- );myofibroblasts (α-SMA+/ Vim+) and invading retinal astrocytes/ differentiated retinal glia (GFAP+; Vim+). A characteristic distribution of these stromal cell types was observed in the tumor microenvironment, with endothelial cells predominantly seen in blood vessels and macrophages near actively proliferating tumor or necrotic areas. Retinal astrocytes and glia were predominant near the optic nerve regions in invasive tumors with sparse distribution in tumor foci. Fibroblasts were widely distributed with rare evidence of myofibroblasts in the tumor. Both gene and protein expression revealed statistically significant (P<0.05) up-regulation of FAP, TNC and BST2 in primary RB tumors compared to the normal retina. Co-culture of BMSC with RB cells promoted invasion and proliferation of RB cells in direct and indirect contact methods respectively. Direct co-culture of RB cell lines with BMSC resulted in gene expression changes in ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, IL-8 and TGF-β signaling pathways associated with cancer. In contrast, various metabolic pathways such a glucose, fructose and amino acid metabolism were significantly altered under the indirect co-culture condition. Conclusion: The study suggests that the close interaction between RB cells and the stroma might be involved in RB tumor invasion and progression which is likely to be mediated by ECM-receptor interactions and secretory factors. Targeting the tumor stroma would be an attractive option for redesigning treatment strategies for RB.

Keywords: tumor microenvironment, retinoblastoma, gene expression profiles, stromal cells

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1 Outcome of Unilateral Retinoblastoma: A Ten Years Experience of Children's Cancer, Hospital Egypt

Authors: Ahmed Elhussein, Hossam El-Zomor, Adel Alieldin, Mahmoud A. Afifi, Abdullah Elhusseiny, Hala Taha, Amal Refaat, Soha Ahmed, Mohamed S. Zagloul

Abstract:

Background: A majority of children with retinoblastoma (60%) have a disease in one eye only (unilateral disease). This is a retrospective study to evaluate two different treatment modalities in those patients for saving their lives and vision. Methods: Four hundred and four patients were diagnosed with unilateral intraocular retinoblastoma at Children’s Cancer, Hospital Egypt (CCHE) through the period of July/2007 until December/2017. Management strategies included primary enucleation versus ocular salvage treatment. Results: Patients presented with mean age 24.5 months with range (1.2-154.3 months). According to the international retinoblastoma classification, Group D (n=172, 42%) was the most common, followed by group E (n=142, 35%), group C (n=63, 16%), and group B (n=27, 7%). All patients were alive at the end of the study except four patients who died, with 5-years overall survival 98.3% [CI, (96.5-100%)]. Patients presented with advanced disease and poor visual prognosis (n=241, 59.6%) underwent primary enucleation with 6 cycles adjuvant chemotherapy if they had high-risk features in the enucleated eye; only four patients out of 241 ended-up either with extraocular metastasis (n=3) or death (n=1). While systemic chemotherapy and focal therapy were the primary treatment for those who presented with favorable disease status and good visual prognosis (n=163, 40.4%); seventy-seven patients of them (47%) ended up with a pre-defined event (enucleation, EBRT, off protocol chemotherapy or 2ry malignancy). Ocular survival for patients received primary chemotherapy + focal therapy was [50.9% (CI, 43.5-59.6%)] at 3 years and [46.9% (CI,39.3-56%)] at 5 years. Comparison between upfront enucleation and primary chemotherapy for occurrence of extraocular metastasis revealed that there was no statistical difference between them except in group D (p value). While for occurrence of death, no statistical difference in all classification groups. Conclusion: In retinoblastoma, primary chemotherapy is a reasonable option and has a good probability for ocular salvage without increasing the risk of metastasis in comparison to upfront enucleation except in group D.

Keywords: Chemotherapy, retinoblastoma, CCHE, enucleation

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