Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

retention time Related Abstracts

6 Analysis of Caffeic Acid from Myrica nagi Leaves by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Preeti Panthari, Harsha Kharkwal


Myrica nagi belongs to Myricaceae family. It is known for its therapeutic use since ancient times. The leaves were extracted with methanol and further fractioned with different solvents with increasing polarity. The n-butanol fraction of methanol extract was passed through celite, on separation through silica gel column chromatography yielded ten fractions. For the first time we report isolation of Caffeic acid from n-butanol fraction of Myrica nagi leaves in Chloroform: methanol (70:30) fraction. The mobile phase used for analysis in HPLC was Methanol: water (60:40) at the flow rate of 1 ml/min at wavelength of 280 nm. The retention time was 2.66 mins.

Keywords: column chromatography, caffeic acid, Myrica nagi, retention time

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5 Influence of the Flow Rate Ratio in a Jet Pump on the Size of Air Bubbles

Authors: L. Grinis, N. Lubashevsky, Y. Ostrovski


In waste water treatment processes, aeration introduces air into a liquid. In these systems, air is introduced by different devices submerged in the waste water. Smaller bubbles result in more bubble surface area per unit of volume and higher oxygen transfer efficiency. Jet pumps are devices that use air bubbles and are widely used in waste water treatment processes. The principle of jet pumps is their ability to transfer energy of one fluid, called primary or motive, into a secondary fluid or gas. These pumps have no moving parts and are able to work in remote areas under extreme conditions. The objective of this work is to study experimentally the characteristics of the jet pump and the size of air bubbles in the laboratory water tank. The effect of flow rate ratio on pump performance is investigated in order to have a better understanding about pump behavior under various conditions, in order to determine the efficiency of receiving air bubbles different sizes. The experiments show that we should take care when increasing the flow rate ratio while seeking to decrease bubble size in the outlet flow. This study will help improve and extend the use of the jet pump in many practical applications.

Keywords: Waste water, retention time, jet pump, air bubbles size

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4 Analysis of Performance of 3T1D Dynamic Random-Access Memory Cell

Authors: Gagnesh Kumar, Nawang Chhunid


On-chip memories consume a significant portion of the overall die space and power in modern microprocessors. On-chip caches depend on Static Random-Access Memory (SRAM) cells and scaling of technology occurring as per Moore’s law. Unfortunately, the scaling is affecting stability, performance, and leakage power which will become major problems for future SRAMs in aggressive nanoscale technologies due to increasing device mismatch and variations. 3T1D Dynamic Random-Access Memory (DRAM) cell is a non-destructive read DRAM cell with three transistors and a gated diode. In 3T1D DRAM cell gated diode (D1) acts as a storage device and also as an amplifier, which leads to fast read access. Due to its high tolerance to process variation, high density, and low cost of memory as compared to 6T SRAM cell, it is universally used by the advanced microprocessor for on chip data and program memory. In the present paper, it has been shown that 3T1D DRAM cell can perform better in terms of fast read access as compared to 6T, 4T, 3T SRAM cells, respectively.

Keywords: retention time, DRAM Cell, Read Access Time, Average Power dissipation

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3 Removal of Nitrogen Compounds from Industrial Wastewater Using Sequencing Batch Reactor: The Effects of React Time

Authors: Hassnen M. Jafer, Khalid S. Hashim, Ali W. Alattabi, Ali Alzeyadi


This study was performed to optimise the react time (RT) and study its effects on the removal rates of nitrogen compounds in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating synthetic industrial wastewater. The results showed that increasing the RT from 4 h to 10, 16 and 22 h significantly improved the nitrogen compounds’ removal efficiency, it was increased from 69.5% to 95%, 75.7 to 97% and from 54.2 to 80.1% for NH3-N, NO3-N and NO2-N respectively. The results obtained from this study showed that the RT of 22 h was the optimum for nitrogen compounds removal efficiency.

Keywords: nitrite, sequencing batch reactor, retention time, nitrate, sludge characteristics, ammonia-nitrogen

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2 A Physical Treatment Method as a Prevention Method for Barium Sulfate Scaling

Authors: M. A. Salman, G. Al-Nuwaibit, M. Safar, M. Rughaibi, A. Al-Mesri


Barium sulfate (BaSO₄) is a hard scaling usually precipitates on the surface of equipment in many industrial systems, as oil and gas production, desalination and cooling and boiler operation. It is a scale that extremely resistance to both chemical and mechanical cleaning. So, BaSO₄ is a problematic and expensive scaling. Although barium ions are present in most natural waters at a very low concentration as low as 0.008 mg/l, it could result of scaling problems in the presence of high concentration of sulfate ion or when mixing with incompatible waters as in oil produced water. The scaling potential of BaSO₄ using seawater at the intake of seven desalination plants in Kuwait, brine water and Kuwait oil produced water was calculated and compared then the best location in regards of barium sulfate scaling was reported. Finally, a physical treatment method (magnetic treatment method) and chemical treatment method were used to control BaSO₄ scaling using saturated solutions at different operating temperatures, flow velocities, feed pHs and different magnetic strengths. The results of the two methods were discussed, and the more economical one with the reasonable performance was recommended, which is the physical treatment method.

Keywords: retention time, flow velocity, barium sulfate, magnetic field strength

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1 Effect of Retention Time on Kitchen Wastewater Treatment Using Mixed Algal-Bacterial Consortia

Authors: Keerthi Katam, Abhinav B. Tirunaghari, Vinod Vadithya, Toshiyuki Shimizu, Satoshi Soda, Debraj Bhattacharyya


Researchers worldwide are increasingly focusing on the removal of carbon and nutrient from wastewater using algal-bacterial hybrid systems. Algae produce oxygen during photosynthesis, which is taken up by heterotrophic bacteria for mineralizing organic carbon to carbon dioxide. This phenomenon reduces the net mechanical aeration requirement of aerobic biological wastewater treatment processes. Consequently, the treatment cost is also reduced. Microalgae also participate in the treatment process by taking up nutrient (N, P) from wastewater. Algal biomass, if harvested, can generate value-added by-products. The aim of the present study was to compare the performance of two systems - System A (mixed microalgae and bacteria) and System B (diatoms and bacteria) in treating kitchen wastewater (KWW). The test reactors were operated at five different solid retention times (SRTs) -2, 4, 6, 8, and 10-days in draw-and-fill mode. The KWW was collected daily from the dining hall-kitchen area of the Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad. The influent and effluent samples were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) using TOC-L analyzer. A colorimetric method was used to analyze anionic surfactant. Phosphorus (P) and chlorophyll were measured by following standard methods. The TOC, TN, and P of KWW were in the range of 113.5 to 740 mg/L, 2 to 22.8 mg/L, and 1 to 4.5 mg/L, respectively. Both the systems gave similar results with 85% of TOC removal and 60% of TN removal at 10-d SRT. However, the anionic surfactant removal in System A was 99% and 60% in System B. The chlorophyll concentration increased with an increase in SRT in both the systems. At 2-d SRT, no chlorophyll was observed in System B, whereas 0.5 mg/L was observed in System A. At 10-d SRT, the chlorophyll concentration in System A was 7.5 mg/L, whereas it was 4.5 mg/L in System B. Although both the systems showed similar performance in treatment, the increase in chlorophyll concentration suggests that System A demonstrated a better algal-bacterial symbiotic relationship in treating KWW than System B.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, Microalgae, diatoms, retention time

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