Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Retention Related Abstracts

19 Enhancing Students’ Achievement, Interest and Retention in Chemistry through an Integrated Teaching/Learning Approach

Authors: K. V. F. Fatokun, P. A. Eniayeju

Abstract:

This study concerns the effects of concept mapping-guided discovery integrated teaching approach on the learning style and achievement of chemistry students. The sample comprised 162 senior secondary school (SS 2) students drawn from two science schools in Nasarawa State which have equivalent mean scores of 9.68 and 9.49 in their pre-test. Five instruments were developed and validated while the sixth was purely adopted by the investigator for the study, Four null hypotheses were tested at α = 0.05 level of significance. Chi square analysis showed that there is a significant shift in students’ learning style from accommodating and diverging to converging and assimilating when exposed to concept mapping- guided discovery approach. Also t-test and ANOVA that those in experimental group achieve and retain content learnt better. Results of the Scheffe’s test for multiple comparisons showed that boys in the experimental group performed better than girls. It is therefore concluded that the concept mapping-guided discovery integrated approach should be used in secondary schools to successfully teach electrochemistry. It is strongly recommended that chemistry teachers should be encouraged to adopt this method for teaching difficult concepts.

Keywords: Retention, achievement, integrated teaching approach, concept mapping-guided discovery, learning styles and interest

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18 Management Trainee Program

Authors: Ambreen Amir Ali

Abstract:

In todays’ dynamic environment, it has become very crucial to have comprehensive management trainee program to hire future leaders of organization. It is being proved that fresh graduates mostly join organizations because of its institution but later on they leave organization because of their immediate manager or supervisor. The concept of coaching and mentoring in talent management systems are very important, because mentors are those who can advise, facilitate, help and support new entrants to advance in their career. When it comes to going for talent hunt, one point needs to be highlighted that MTs are the raw talent for your organization, now it’s the responsibility of employers to nourish them, polish and developed them so that they can enthusiastically take care of senior leadership roles.

Keywords: Coaching, Retention, Leadership Roles, management trainee

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17 Indigenous Pre-Service Teacher Education: Developing, Facilitating, and Maintaining Opportunities for Retention and Graduation

Authors: Karen Trimmer, Raelene Ward, Linda Wondunna-Foley

Abstract:

Within Australian tertiary institutions, the subject of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander education has been a major concern for many years. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander teachers are significantly under-represented in Australian schools and universities. High attrition rates in teacher education and in the teaching industry have contributed to a minimal growth rate in the numbers of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander teachers in previous years. There was an increase of 500 Indigenous teachers between 2001 and 2008 but these numbers still only account for one percent of teaching staff in government schools who identified as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (Ministerial Council for Education, Early Childhood Development and Youth Affairs 2010). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander teachers are paramount in fostering student engagement and improving educational outcomes for Indigenous students. Increasing the numbers of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander teachers is also a key factor in enabling all students to develop understanding of and respect for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories, cultures, and language. An ambitious reform agenda to improve the recruitment and retention of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander teachers will be effective only through national collaborative action and co-investment by schools and school authorities, university schools of education, professional associations, and Indigenous leaders and community networks. Whilst the University of Southern Queensland currently attracts Indigenous students to its teacher education programs (61 students in 2013 with an average of 48 enrollments each year since 2010) there is significant attrition during pre-service training. The annual rate of exiting before graduation remains high at 22% in 2012 and was 39% for the previous two years. These participation and retention rates are consistent with other universities across Australia. Whilst aspirations for a growing number of Indigenous people to be trained as teachers is present, there is a significant loss of students during their pre-service training and within the first five years of employment as a teacher. These trends also reflect the situation where Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander teachers are significantly under-represented, making up less than 1% of teachers in schools across Australia. Through a project conducted as part the nationally funded More Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Teachers Initiative (MATSITI) we aim to gain an insight into the reasons that impact Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander student’s decisions to exit their program. Through the conduct of focus groups and interviews with two graduating cohorts of self-identified Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students, rich data has been gathered to gain an understanding of the barriers and enhancers to the completion of pre-service qualification and transition to teaching. Having a greater understanding of these reasons then allows the development of collaborative processes and procedures to increase retention and completion rates of new Indigenous teachers. Analysis of factors impacting on exit decisions and transitions has provided evidence to support change of practice, redesign and enhancement of relevant courses and development of policy/procedures to address identified issues.

Keywords: Indigenous, Retention, graduation, pre-service teacher education

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16 Relative Effectiveness of Inquiry: Approach and Expository Instructional Methods in Fostering Students’ Retention in Chemistry

Authors: Joy Johnbest Egbo

Abstract:

The study was designed to investigate the relative effectiveness of inquiry role approach and expository instructional methods in fostering students’ retention in chemistry. Two research questions were answered and three null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. A quasi-experimental (the non-equivalent pretest, posttest control group) design was adopted for the study. The population for the study comprised all senior secondary school class two (SS II) students who were offering Chemistry in single sex schools in Enugu Education Zone. The instrument for data collection was a self-developed Chemistry Retention Test (CRT). Relevant data were collected from a sample of one hundred and forty–one (141) students drawn from two secondary schools (1 male and 1 female schools) using simple random sampling technique. A reliability co-efficient of 0.82 was obtained for the instrument using Kuder Richardson formular20 (K-R20). Mean and Standard deviation scores were used to answer the research questions while two–way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses. The findings showed that the students taught with Inquiry role approach retained the chemistry concept significantly higher than their counterparts taught with expository method. Female students retained slightly higher than their male counterparts. There is significant interaction between instructional packages and gender on Chemistry students’ retention. It was recommended, among others, that teachers should be encouraged to employ the use of Inquiry-role approach more in the teaching of chemistry and other subjects in general. By so doing, students’ retention of the subject could be increased.

Keywords: Chemistry, Retention, inquiry role approach, exposition method

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15 Application of Constructivist-Based (5E’s) Instructional Approach on Pupils’ Retention: A Case Study in Primary Mathematics in Enugu State

Authors: Ezeamagu M.U, Madu B.C

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This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of 5Es constructivist-based instructional model on students’ retention in primary Mathematics. 5Es stands for Engagement, Exploration, Explanation, Elaboration and Evaluation. The study adopted the pre test post test non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental research design. The sample size for the study was one hundred and thirty four pupils (134), seventy six male (76) and fifty eight female (58) from two primary schools in Nsukka education zone. Two intact classes in each of the sampled schools comprising all the primary four pupils were used. Each of the schools was given the opportunity of being assigned randomly to either experimental or control group. The Experimental group was taught using 5Es model while the control group was taught using the conventional method. Two research questions were formulated to guide the study and three hypotheses were tested at p ≤ 0. 05. A Fraction Achievement Test (FAT) of ten (10) questions were used to obtain data on pupils’ retention. Research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation while hypotheses were tested using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The result revealed that the 5Es model was more effective than the conventional method of teaching in enhancing pupils’ performance and retention in mathematics, secondly there is no significant difference in the mean retention scores of male and female students taught using 5Es instructional model. Based on the findings, it was recommended among other things, that the 5Es instructional model should be adopted in the teaching of mathematics in primary level of the educational system. Seminar, workshops and conferences should be mounted by professional bodies, federal and state ministries of education on the use of 5Es model. This will enable the mathematics educator, serving teachers, students and all to benefit from the approach.

Keywords: Education, Mathematics, primary, Retention, constructivist

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14 The Characterisation of TLC NAND Flash Memory, Leading to a Definable Endurance/Retention Trade-Off

Authors: Sorcha Bennett, Joe Sullivan

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Triple-Level Cell (TLC) NAND Flash memory at, and below, 20nm (nanometer) is still largely unexplored by researchers, and with the ever more commonplace existence of Flash in consumer and enterprise applications there is a need for such gaps in knowledge to be filled. At the time of writing, there was little published data or literature on TLC, and more specifically reliability testing, with a further emphasis on both endurance and retention. This paper will give an introduction to NAND Flash memory, followed by an overview of the relevant current research on the reliability of Flash memory, along with the planned future work which will provide results to help characterise the reliability of TLC memory.

Keywords: Reliability, Endurance, Patterns, Retention, raw flash, TLC NAND flash memory, trade-off

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13 Presenting the Mathematical Model to Determine Retention in the Watersheds

Authors: S. Shamohammadi, L. Razavi

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This paper based on the principle concepts of SCS-CN model, a new mathematical model for computation of retention potential (S) presented. In the mathematical model, not only precipitation-runoff concepts in SCS-CN model are precisely represented in a mathematical form, but also new concepts, called “maximum retention” and “total retention” is introduced, and concepts of potential retention capacity, maximum retention, and total retention have been separated from each other. In the proposed model, actual retention (F), maximum actual retention (Fmax), total retention (S), maximum retention (Smax), and potential retention (Sp), for the first time clearly defined, so that Sp is not variable, but a function of morphological characteristics of the watershed. Indeed, based on the mathematical relation of the conceptual curve of SCS-CN model, the proposed model provides a new method for the computation of actual retention in watershed and it simply determined runoff based on. In the corresponding relations, in addition to Precipitation (P), Initial retention (Ia), cumulative values of actual retention capacity (F), total retention (S), runoff (Q), antecedent moisture (M), potential retention (Sp), total retention (S), we introduced Fmax and Fmin referring to maximum and minimum actual retention, respectively. As well as, ksh is a coefficient which depends on morphological characteristics of the watershed. Advantages of the modified version versus the original model include a better precision, higher performance, easier calibration and speed computing.

Keywords: Mathematical, watershed, model, Retention, SCS

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12 Effect of Drop Impact Behavior on Spray Retention

Authors: Mohamed Belhamra, Hassina Hafida Boukhalfa, Mathieu Massinon, Fréderic Lebeau

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Drop behaviour during impact affects retention. The increase of adhesion is usually seen as the objective when applying crop protection products, while bouncing and shattering are seen as detrimental to spray retention. However, observation of drop impacts using high speed shadow graphy shows that fragmentation can occur in Wenzel wetting regime. In this case, a part of the drop sticks on the surface, what contributes to retention. Using simultaneous measurements of drop impacts with high speed imaging and of retention with fluorometry for 3 spray mixtures on excised barley leaves allowed us to observe that about 50% of the drops fragmented in Wenzel state remain on the leaf. Depending on spray mixture, these impact outcomes accounted for 25 to 50% of retention, the higher contribution being correlated with bigger VMD (Volume Median Diameter). This contribution is non-negligible and should be considered when a modelling of spray retention process is performed.

Keywords: Retention, fluorometry, drop impact, high speed imaging

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11 Overall Student Satisfaction at Tabor School of Education: An Examination of Key Factors Based on the AUSSE SEQ

Authors: Francisco Ben, Tracey Price, Chad Morrison, Victoria Warren, Willy Gollan, Robyn Dunbar, Frank Davies, Mark Sorrell

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This paper focuses particularly on the educational aspects that contribute to the overall educational satisfaction rated by Tabor School of Education students who participated in the Australasian Survey of Student Engagement (AUSSE) conducted by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) in 2010, 2012 and 2013. In all three years of participation, Tabor ranked first especially in the area of overall student satisfaction. By using a single level path analysis in relation to the AUSSE datasets collected using the Student Engagement Questionnaire (SEQ) for Tabor School of Education, seven aspects that contribute to overall student satisfaction have been identified. There appears to be a direct causal link between aspects of the Supportive Learning Environment, Work Integrated Learning, Career Readiness, Academic Challenge, and overall educational satisfaction levels. A further three aspects, being Student and Staff Interactions, Active Learning, and Enriching Educational Experiences, indirectly influence overall educational satisfaction levels.

Keywords: attrition, Retention, student satisfaction, pre-service teacher education, educational experience

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10 Identifying Learning Support Patterns for Enhancing Quality Outputs in Massive Open Online Courses

Authors: Cristina Galván-Fernández, Elena Barberà, Jingjing Zhang

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In recent years, MOOCs have been in the spotlight for its high drop-out rates, which potentially impact on the quality of the learning experience. This study attempts to explore how learning support can be used to keep student retention, and in turn to improve the quality of learning in MOOCs. In this study, the patterns of learning support were identified from a total of 4202592 units of video sessions, clickstream data of 25600 students, and 382 threads generated in 10 forums (optional and mandatory) in five different types of MOOCs (e.g. conventional MOOCs, professional MOOCs, and informal MOOCs). The results of this study have shown a clear correlation between the types of MOOCs, the design framework of the MOOCs, and the learning support. The patterns of tutor-peer interaction are identified, and are found to be highly correlated with student retention in all five types of MOOCs. In addition, different patterns of ‘good’ students were identified, which could potentially inform the instruction design of MOOCs.

Keywords: Higher Education, Retention, mooc, learning support

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9 Effects of Computer Aided Instructional Package on Performance and Retention of Genetic Concepts amongst Secondary School Students in Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Muhammad R. Bello, Mamman A. Wasagu, Yahya M. Kamar

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The study investigated the effects of computer-aided instructional package (CAIP) on performance and retention of genetic concepts among secondary school students in Niger State. Quasi-experimental research design i.e. pre-test-post-test experimental and control groups were adopted for the study. The population of the study was all senior secondary school three (SS3) students’ offering biology. A sample of 223 students was randomly drawn from six purposively selected secondary schools. The researchers’ developed computer aided instructional package (CAIP) on genetic concepts was used as treatment instrument for the experimental group while the control group was exposed to the conventional lecture method (CLM). The instrument for data collection was a Genetic Performance Test (GEPET) that had 50 multiple-choice questions which were validated by science educators. A Reliability coefficient of 0.92 was obtained for GEPET using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). The data collected were analyzed using IBM SPSS Version 20 package for computation of Means, Standard deviation, t-test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The ANOVA analysis (Fcal (220) = 27.147, P < 0.05) shows that students who received instruction with CAIP outperformed the students who received instruction with CLM and also had higher retention. The findings also revealed no significant difference in performance and retention between male and female students (tcal (103) = -1.429, P > 0.05). It was recommended amongst others that teachers should use computer-aided instructional package in teaching genetic concepts in order to improve students’ performance and retention in biology subject. Keywords: Computer-aided Instructional Package, Performance, Retention and Genetic Concepts.

Keywords: Performance, Retention, computer aided instructional package, genetic concepts, senior secondary school students

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8 Assessment of Student Attitudes to Higher Education Service Measures: The Development of a Framework for Private Higher Education Institutions in Malaysia

Authors: Farrah Anne Robert, Robert McClelland, Seng Kiat Kok

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Higher education service quality is widely regarded as key factors in the long term success of a higher education institution in attracting and retaining students. This research attempted to establish the impact of service quality on recruiting and retaining students in private higher education institutions (PHEI’s). 501 local and international students responded to a 49 item educational service measure questionnaire from PHEIs in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, two states in Malaysia which together account for 60% of private colleges in Malaysia. Results from this research revealed that, inter-alia, facilities, employability, management and administration services, academic staff competence, curriculum and student overall experiences were key driving factors in attracting and retaining students. Lack of “campus-like building” facilities and lecturer’s effectiveness in delivering lectures were keys concerns in the provision of service quality by PHEI’s in Malaysia. Over the last decade, the Government of Malaysia has set a target of recruiting 200,000 international students to study in Malaysia by PHEI’s and PHEI’s have failed to achieve this target. This research suggests that service quality issues identified above are impacting efforts to recruit and retain both local and international students by PHEIs. The researcher recommends that further and detailed research be carried on these factors and its impact on recruitment and retention. PHEI administrators can benefit from this research by conducting an evaluation of service measures delivered in their institutions and take corrective measures. Prospective students can benefit from this study by including in their choice factors the “service quality delivery” of PHEI’s when deciding to enroll in a particular PHEI.

Keywords: Higher Education, Service Quality, Retention, recruitment

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7 Resourcing Remote Rural Social Enterprises to Foster Resilience and Regional Development

Authors: Heather Fulford, Melanie Liddell

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The recruitment and retention of high quality employees can prove to be challenging for social enterprises, particularly in some of the core business support functions such as marketing, communications, IT and finance. This holds true for social enterprises in urban contexts, where roles with more attractive remuneration in these business functions can often be found quite readily in the private sector. For social enterprises situated in rural locations, the challenges of staff recruitment and retention are even more acute. Such challenges can lead to a skills deficit in rural social enterprises, which can, at best, hinder their growth potential, and worse, jeopardise their chances of survival. This in turn, can have a negative impact on the sustainability and resilience of the surrounding rural community in which the social enterprise is located. The purpose of this paper is to report on aspects of a collaborative initiative established to stimulate innovation and business growth in remote rural businesses in Scotland. Launched in 2010, this initiative was designed to attract young students and graduates from the region to stay in the region upon completion of their studies, and to attract others from outside the region to re-locate there post-university. To facilitate this, SMEs in the region were offered wage subsidies to encourage them to recruit a student or graduate on a work placement for up to one year to participate in an innovation or business growth-oriented project. A number of the employers offering work placements were social enterprises. Through analysis of the placement project and role specifications devised by the participating social enterprises, an overview is provided of their business development needs and the skills they require to stimulate innovation and growth. Scrutiny of the reflective accounts compiled by the students and graduates at the close of their work placements highlights the benefits they derived from being able to put their academic knowledge and skills into action within a social enterprise. Examination of interviews conducted with a sample of placement employers reveals the contribution the students and graduates made during the business development projects with the social enterprises. The challenges of hosting such placements are also discussed. The paper concludes with indications of the lessons learned and an outline of the wider implications for other remote rural locations in which social enterprises play an important role in the local economy and life of the community.

Keywords: Resource Management, Regional Development, Resilience, Rural development, Regeneration, Retention, recruitment, remuneration

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6 Predictors for Success in Methadone Maintenance Treatment Clinic: 24 Years of Experience

Authors: Miriam Adelson, Einat E. Peles, Shaul Schreiber

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Background: Since established more than 50 years ago, methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is the most effective treatment for opioid addiction, a chronic relapsing brain disorder that became an epidemic in western societies. Treatment includes daily individual optimal medication methadone dose (a long acting mu opioid receptor full agonist), accompanied with psychosocial therapy. It is well established that the longer retention in treatment the better outcome and survival occur. It reduces the likelihood to infectious diseases and overdose death that associated with drug injecting, enhanced social rehabilitation and eliminate criminal activity, and lead to healthy productive life. Aim: To evaluate predictors for long term retention in treatment we analyzed our prospective follow up of a major MMT clinic affiliated to a big tertiary medical center. Population Methods: Between June 25, 1993, and June 24, 2016, all 889 patients ( ≥ 18y) who ever admitted to the clinic were prospectively followed-up until May 2017. Duration in treatment from the first admission until the patient quit treatment or until the end of follow-up (24 years) was taken for calculating cumulative retention in treatment using survival analyses (Kaplan Meier) with log-rank and Cox regression for multivariate analyses. Results: Of the 889 patients, 25.2% were females who admitted to treatment at younger age (35.0 ± 7.9 vs. 40.6 ± 9.8, p < .0005), but started opioid usage at same age (22.3 ± 6.9). In addition to opioid use, on admission to MMT 58.5% had positive urine for benzodiazepines, 25% to cocaine, 12.4% to cannabis and 6.9% to amphetamines. Hepatitis C antibody tested positive in 55%, and HIV in 7.8% of the patients and 40%. Of all patients, 75.7% stayed at least one year in treatment, and of them, 67.7% stopped opioid usage (based on urine tests), and a net reduction observed in all other substance abuse (proportion of those who stopped minus proportion of those who have started). Long term retention up to 24 years was 8.0 years (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 7.4-8.6). Predictors for longer retention in treatment (Cox regression) were being older on admission ( ≥ 30y) Odds Ratio (OR) =1.4 (CI 1.1-1.8), not abusing opioids after one year OR=1.8 (CI 1.5-2.1), not abusing benzodiazepine after one year OR=1.7 (CI 1.4-2.1) and treating with methadone dose ≥ 100mg/day OR =1.8 (CI 1.5-2.3). Conclusions: Treating and following patients over 24 years indicate success of two main outcomes, high rate of retention after one year (75.7%) and high proportion of opiate abuse cessation (67.7%). As expected, longer cumulative retention was associated with patients treated with high adequate methadone dose that successfully result in opioid cessation. Based on these findings, in order to reduce morbidity and mortality, we find the establishment of more MMT clinics within a general hospital, a most urgent necessity.

Keywords: Opioids, epidemic, Retention, methadone maintenance treatment

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5 Improving Student Retention with Summer Bridge Programs

Authors: Elizabeth Watson, Sara Vogt

Abstract:

The transition from high school to college can be an exciting and confusing time for many students, especially college students with disabilities. In 1983, the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater created a Summer Transition Program (STP) for such students as part of a US Department of Education Demonstration Grant. This program offers incoming students the opportunity to take 2 college courses and live on campus for 4 weeks to help introduce and familiarize them with typical college expectations and support services. Over the past 30 years, 48% of the students have graduated, exceeding the national college graduation rate for students with disabilities. This mixed methods longitudinal study will discuss how this program has increased retention and graduation rates, and success in the co-curricular and living environments for students with disabilities.

Keywords: Disability, Transition, Post-Secondary Education, Retention

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4 Comparative Study of Computer Assisted Instruction and Conventional Method in Attaining and Retaining Mathematical Concepts

Authors: Nirupma Bhatti

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This empirical study was aimed to compare the effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) and Conventional Method (CM) in attaining and retaining mathematical concepts. Instructional and measuring tools were developed for five units of Matrix Algebra, two of Calculus and five of Numerical Analysis. Reliability and validity of these tools were also examined in pilot study. Ninety undergraduates participated in this study. Pre-test – post-test equivalent – groups research design was used. SPSS v.16 was used for data analysis. Findings supported CAI as better mode of instruction for attainment and retention of basic mathematical concepts. Administrators should motivate faculty members to develop Computer Assisted Instructional Material (CAIM) in mathematics for higher education.

Keywords: Retention, CAI, conventional method, attainment, CAIM

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3 Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Motivation Letters to Model Turnover in Non-Governmental Organization

Authors: A. Porshnev, A. Zaporozhtchuk

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Motivation regarded as a key factor of labor turnover, is especially important for volunteers working on an altruistic basis in NGO. Despite the motivational letter, candidate selection depends on the impression of the selection committee, which can be subject to human bias. We expect that structured and unstructured information provided in motivation letters could be used to improve candidate selection procedures. In our paper, we perform qualitative and quantitative analysis of 2280 motivation letters, create logistic regression, and build a decision tree to improve selection procedures. Our analysis showed that motivation factors are significant and enable human resources department to forecast labor turnover and provide extra information to demographic, professional and timing questions. In spite of the average level of accuracy the model demonstrates the selection procedures of company of under consideration can be improved. We also discuss interrelation between answers to open and closed motivation questions, recommend changes in motivational letter templates to ensure more relevant information about applicants and further steps to create more accurate model.

Keywords: model, Decision trees, Logistic Regression, Retention, turnover, non-governmental organization, motivational letter

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2 Effect of Cooperative Learning Strategy on Mathematics Achievement and Retention of Senior Secondary School Students of Different Ability Levels in Taraba State, Nigeria

Authors: Onesimus Bulus Shiaki

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The study investigated the effect of cooperative learning strategy on mathematics achievement and retention among senior secondary school students of different abilities in Taraba State Nigeria. Cooperative learning strategy could hopefully contribute to students’ achievement which will spur the teachers to develop strategies for better learning. The quasi-experimental of pretest, posttest and control group design was adopted in this study. A sample of one hundred and sixty-four (164) Senior Secondary Two (SS2) students were selected from a population of twelve thousand, eight hundred and seventy-three (12,873) SS2 Students in Taraba State. Two schools with equivalent mean scores in the pre-test were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group students were stratified according to ability levels of low, medium and high. The experimental group was guided by the research assistants using the cooperative learning instructional package. After six weeks post-test was administered to the two groups while the retention test was administered two weeks after the post-test. The researcher developed a 50-item Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT) which was validated by experts obtaining the reliability coefficient of 0.87. Mean scores and standard deviations were used to answer the research questions while the Analysis of Co-variance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses. Major findings from the statistical analysis showed that cooperative learning strategy has a significant effect on the mean achievement of students as well as retention among students of high, medium and low ability in mathematics. However, cooperative learning strategy has no effect on the interaction of ability level and retention. Based on the results obtained, it was therefore recommended that the adoption of the use of cooperative learning strategy in the teaching and learning of mathematics in senior secondary schools be initiated, maintained and sustained for the benefit of senior secondary school students in Taraba State. Periodic Government sponsored in-service training in form of long vacation training programme, workshops, conferences and seminars on the nature, scope, and use of cooperative learning strategy should be organized for senior secondary school mathematics teachers in Taraba state.

Keywords: Cooperative Learning, Retention, mathematics achievement, ability level

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1 Role of Imaging in Alzheimer's Disease Trials: Impact on Trial Planning, Patient Recruitment and Retention

Authors: Kohkan Shamsi

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Background: MRI and PET are now extensively utilized in Alzheimer's disease (AD) trials for patient eligibility, efficacy assessment, and safety evaluations but including imaging in AD trials impacts site selection process, patient recruitment, and patient retention. Methods: PET/MRI are performed at baseline and at multiple follow-up timepoints. This requires prospective site imaging qualification, evaluation of phantom data, training and continuous monitoring of machines for acquisition of standardized and consistent data. This also requires prospective patient/caregiver training as patients must go to multiple facilities for imaging examinations. We will share our experience form one of the largest AD programs. Lesson learned: Many neurological diseases have a similar presentation as AD or could confound the assessment of drug therapy. The inclusion of wrong patients has ethical and legal issues, and data could be excluded from the analysis. Centralized eligibility evaluation read process will be discussed. Amyloid related imaging abnormalities (ARIA) were observed in amyloid-β trials. FDA recommended regular monitoring of ARIA. Our experience in ARIA evaluations in large phase III study at > 350 sites will be presented. Efficacy evaluation: MRI is utilized to evaluate various volumes of the brain. FDG PET or amyloid PET agents has been used in AD trials. We will share our experience about site and central independent reads. Imaging logistic issues that need to be handled in the planning phase will also be discussed as it can impact patient compliance thereby increasing missing data and affecting study results. Conclusion: imaging must be prospectively planned to include standardizing imaging methodologies, site selection process and selecting assessment criteria. Training should be transparently conducted and documented. Prospective patient/caregiver awareness of imaging requirement is essential for patient compliance and reduction in missing imaging data.

Keywords: MRI, Patient Recruitment, alzheimer's disease, Retention, PET, ARIA

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