Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Resveratrol Related Abstracts

17 Involvement of Multi-Drug Resistance Protein (Mrp) 3 in Resveratrol Protection against Methotrexate-Induced Testicular Damage

Authors: Mohamed A. Morsy, Azza A. K. El-Sheikh, Abdulla Y. Al-Taher

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of resveratrol (RES) on methotrexate (MTX)-induced testicular damage. RES (10 mg/kg/day) was given for 8 days orally and MTX (20 mg/kg i.p.) was given at day 4 of experiment, with or without RES in rats. MTX decreased serum testosterone, induced histopathological testicular damage, increased testicular tumor necrosis factor-α level and expression of nuclear factor-κB and cyclooxygenase-2. In MTX/RES group, significant reversal of these parameters was noticed, compared to MTX group. Testicular expression of multidrug resistance protein (Mrp) 3 was three- and five-folds higher in RES- and MTX/RES-treated groups, respectively. In vitro, using prostate cancer cells, each of MTX and RES alone induced cytotoxicity with IC50 0.18 ± 0.08 and 20.5 ± 3.6 µM, respectively. RES also significantly enhanced cytotoxicity of MTX. In conclusion, RES appears to have dual beneficial effect, as it promotes MTX tumor cytotoxicity, while protecting the testes, probably via up-regulation of testicular Mrp3 as a novel mechanism.

Keywords: Resveratrol, cyclooxygenase-2, methotrexate, multidrug resistance protein 3, tumor necrosis factor-α, nuclear factor-κB

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16 Effects of Oral Resveratrol Supplementation on Inflammation and Quality of Life in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

Authors: M. Samsami, A. Hekmatdoost, N. Ebrahimi Daryani, P. Rezanejad Asl

Abstract:

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease in which immune and inflammatory factors are thought to be effective in this disease. Resveratrol is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound. This study determined the effects of resveratrol compound on inflammatory factors in patients with ulcerative colitis. This study was a double-blind randomized clinical trial conducted on 50 patients with UC. Subjects received one capsule daily for 6 wk of either resveratrol (500 mg) or a placebo. Inflammatory factors, anthropometric measures, and IBDQ-9 (Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire-9) scores were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. STATA12 software was used for data analysis. No significant differences were found in the background variables between the two groups at baseline. The results indicated that resveratrol supplementation for 6 week significantly decreased plasma levels of TNF-a and hs-CRP and the activity of NF-κB over the placebo group (p<0.001). Significant differences remained after adjustment for vitamin C (p<0.0001). The IBDQ-9 scores increased significantly in the resveratrol group over the placebo group (p<0.001). The findings of this study showed that resveratrol supplementation can be useful in patients with ulcerative colitis.

Keywords: Inflammation, Resveratrol, ulcerative colitis, IBD

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15 Anticancer Effect of Resveratrol-Loaded Gelatin Nanoparticles in NCI-H460 Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Cell Lines

Authors: N. Rajendra Prasad

Abstract:

Resveratrol (RSV), a grape phytochemical, has drawn greater attention because of its beneficial ef-fects against cancer. However, RSV has some draw-backs such as unstabilization, poor water solubility and short biological half time, which limit the utili-zation of RSV in medicine, food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, we have encapsulated RSV in gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) and studied its anti-cancer efficacy in NCI-H460 lung cancer cells. SEM and DLS studies have revealed that the prepared RSV-GNPs possess spherical shape with a mean diameter of 294 nm. The successful encapsulation of RSV in GNPs has been achieved by the cross-linker glutaraldehyde probably through Schiff base reaction and hydrogen bond interaction. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed that the max-imum of 93.6% of RSV has been entrapped in GNPs. In vitro drug release kinetics indicated that there was an initial burst release followed by a slow and sustained release of RSV from GNPs. The prepared RSV-GNPs exhibited very rapid and more efficient cellular uptake than free RSV. Further, RSV-GNPs treatment showed greater antiproliferative efficacy than free RSV treatment in NCI-H460 cells. It has been found that greater ROS generation, DNA damage and apoptotic incidence in RSV-GNPs treated cells than free RSV treatment. Erythrocyte aggregation assay showed that the prepared RSV-GNPs formulation elicit no toxic response. HPLC analysis revealed that RSV-GNPs was more bioavailable and had a longer half-life than free RSV. Hence, GNPs carrier system might be a promising mode for controlled delivery and for improved therapeutic index of poorly water soluble RSV.

Keywords: Lung cancer, controlled release, Resveratrol, coacervation, anticancer gelatin nanoparticles

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14 Reversal of Testicular Damage and Subfertility by Resveratrol

Authors: Samy S. Eleawa, Mahmoud A. Alkhateeb, Fahaid H. Alhashem, Ismaeel bin-Jaliah, Hussein F. Sakr, Hesham M. Elrefaey, Abbas O. Elkarib, Mohammad A. Haidara, Abdullah S. Shatoor, Mohammad A. Khalil

Abstract:

This effect of Resveratrol (RES) against CdCl2- induced toxicity in the rat testes was investigated. Seven experimental groups of adult male rats were formulated as follows: A) Controls + NS, B) Control+ vehicle (saline solution of hydroxypropyl cyclodextrin), C) RES treated, D) CdCl2 +NS, E) CdCl2+ vehicle, F) RES followed by CdCl2 and M) CdCl2 followed by RES. At the end of the protocol, serum levels of FSH, LH, and testosterone were measured in all groups. Testicular levels of TBARS and Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD) activity were also measured. Epidydidimal semen analysis was performed and testicular expression of Bcl-2, p53 and Bax were assessed by RT-PCR. Also, histopathological changes of testes were examined microscopically and described. Pre and Post administration of RES in cadmium chloride-intoxicated rats improved semen parameters including count, motility, daily sperm production and morphology, increased serum concentrations of gonadotropins and testosterone, decreased testicular lipid peroxidation and increased SOD activity. Not only RES attenuated cadmium chloride induced testicular histopathology but was also able to protect against the onset of cadmium chloride testicular toxicity. Cadmium chloride downregulated the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2 and upregulated the expression of both pro-apoptotic genes p53 and Bax. Resveratrol protected from and partially reversed cadmium chloride testicular via upregulation of Bcl2 and down regulation of p53 and Bax gene expression. Antioxidant activity of RES protects against cadmium chloride testicular toxicity and partially reverses its effect via upregulation of BCl2 and downregulation of p53 and Bax expression. These findings have far reaching implications on subfertility and impotency frequently seen in hypertensive as well as metabolic syndrome patients.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, infertility, Resveratrol, cadmium, testis, sperm

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13 Investigating Anti-Tumourigenic and Anti-Angiogenic Effects of Resveratrol in Breast Carcinogenesis Using in-Silico Algorithms

Authors: Saeed Khan, Asma Zaib, Ayaz Ahmed Noonari, Sehrish Bint-e-Mohsin

Abstract:

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide and is estimated that more than 450,000 deaths are reported each year. It accounts for about 14% of all female cancer deaths. Angiogenesis plays an essential role in Breast cancer development, invasion, and metastasis. Breast cancer predominantly begins in luminal epithelial cells lining the normal breast ducts. Breast carcinoma likely requires coordinated efforts of both increased proliferation and increased motility to progress to metastatic stages.Resveratrol: a natural stilbenoid, has anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects that inhibits proliferation of variety of human cancer cell lines, including breast, prostate, stomach, colon, pancreatic, and thyroid cancers.The objective of this study is:To investigate anti-neoangiogenesis effects of Resveratrol in breast cancer and to analyze inhibitory effects of resveratrol on aromatase, Erα, HER2/neu, and VEGFR.Docking is the computational determination of binding affinity between molecule (protein structure and ligand).We performed molecular docking using Swiss-Dock and to determine docking effects of (1) Resveratrol with Aromatase, (2) Resveratrol with ERα (3) Resveratrol with HER2/neu and (4) Resveratrol with VEGFR2.Docking results of resveratrol determined inhibitory effects on aromatase with binding energy of -7.28 kcal/mol which shows anticancerous effects on estrogen dependent breast tumors. Resveratrol also show inhibitory effects on ERα and HER2/new with binging energy -8.02, and -6.74 respectively; which revealed anti-cytoproliferative effects upon breast cancer. On the other hand resveratrol v/s VEGFR showed potential inhibitory effects on neo-angiogenesis with binding energy -7.68 kcal/mol, angiogenesis is the important phenomenon that promote tumor development and metastasis. Resveratrol is an anti-breast cancer agent conformed by in silico studies, it has been identified that resveratrol can inhibit breast cancer cells proliferation by acting as competitive inhibitor of aromatase, ERα and HER2 neo, while neo-angiogemesis is restricted by binding to VEGFR which authenticates the anti-carcinogenic effects of resveratrol against breast cancer.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, angiogenesis, Resveratrol, anti-cytoproliferative

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12 Effect of Different Model Drugs on the Properties of Model Membranes from Fishes

Authors: M. Kumpugdee-Vollrath, M. Helmis, T. G. D. Phu

Abstract:

A suitable model membrane to study the pharmacological effect of pharmaceutical products is human stratum corneum because this layer of human skin is the outermost layer and it is an important barrier to be passed through. Other model membranes which were also used are for example skins from pig, mouse, reptile or fish. We are interested in fish skins in this project. The advantages of the fish skins are, that they can be obtained from the supermarket or fish shop. However, the fish skins should be freshly prepared and used directly without storage. In order to understand the effect of different model drugs e.g. lidocaine HCl, resveratrol, paracetamol, ibuprofen, acetyl salicylic acid on the properties of the model membrane from various types of fishes e.g. trout, salmon, cod, plaice permeation tests were performed and differential scanning calorimetry was applied.

Keywords: Resveratrol, paracetamol, DSC, ibuprofen, fish skin, model membrane, permeation, lidocaine HCl, acetyl salicylic acid

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11 Effect of Resveratrol and Ascorbic Acid on the Stability of Alfa-Tocopherol in Whey Protein Isolate Stabilized O/W Emulsions

Authors: Hao Cheng, Lei Wang, Li Liang, Yingzhou Ni, Amr M. Bakry

Abstract:

Food proteins have been widely used as carrier materials because of their multiple functional properties. In this study, alfa-tocopherol was encapsulated in the oil phase of an oil-in-water emulsion stabilized with whey protein isolate (WPI). The influence of WPI concentration and resveratrol or ascorbic acid on the decomposition of alfa-tocopherol in the emulsion during storage is discussed. Decomposition decreased as WPI concentrations increased. Decomposition was delayed at ascorbic acid/WPI molar ratios lower than 5 but was promoted at higher ratios. Resveratrol partitioned into the oil-water interface by binding to WPI and its cis-isomer is believed to have contributed most of the protective effect of this polyphenol. These results suggest the possibility of using the emulsifying and ligand-binging properties of WPI to produce carriers for simultaneous encapsulation of alfa-tocopherol and resveratrol in a single emulsion system.

Keywords: Stability, Resveratrol, alfa-tocopherol, whey protein isolate

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10 Involvement of BCRP/ABCG2 in Protective Mechanisms of Resveratrol against Methotrexate-Induced Renal Damage in Rats

Authors: Mohamed A. Morsy, Abdulla Y. Al-Taher, Azza A. El-Sheikh

Abstract:

Resveratrol (RES) is a well-known polyphenol antioxidant. We have previously shown that testicular protective effect of RES against the anticancer drug methotrexate (MTX)-induced toxicity involves transporter-mediated mechanisms. Here, we investigated the effect of RES on MTX-induced nephrotoxicity. Rats were administered RES (10 mg/kg/day) for 8 days, with or without a single MTX dose (20 mg/kg i.p.) at day 4 of the experiment. MTX induced nephrotoxicity evident by significantly increase in serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine compared to control, as well as distortion of kidney microscopic structure. MTX also significantly increased renal nitric oxide level, with induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. MTX also significantly up-regulated fas ligand and caspase 3. Administering RES prior to MTX significantly improved kidney function and microscopic picture, as well as significantly decreased nitrosative and apoptotic markers compared to MTX alone. RES, but not MTX, caused significant increase in expression of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), an apical efflux renal transporter that participates in urinary elimination of both MTX and RES. Interestingly, concomitant MTX and RES caused further up-regulation of renal Bcrp compared to RES alone. Using Human BCRP ATPase assay, both RES and MTX exhibited dose-dependent increase in ATPase activity, with Km values of 0.52 ± 0.03 and 30.9 ± 4.2 µM, respectively. Furthermore, combined RES and MTX caused ATPase activity which was significantly less than maximum ATPase activity attained by the positive control; sulfasalazine (12.5 µM). In conclusion, RES exerted nephro-protection against MTX-induced toxicity through anti-nitrosative and anti-apoptotic effects, as well as via up-regulation of renal Bcrp.

Keywords: Resveratrol, nephrotoxicity, methotrexate, breast cancer resistance protein

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9 Resveratrol Ameliorates Benzo(a)Pyrene Induced Testicular Dysfunction and Apoptosis: Involvement of p38 MAPK/ATF2/iNOS Signaling

Authors: Kuladip Jana, Bhaswati Banerjee, Parimal C. Sen

Abstract:

Benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] is an environmental toxicant present mostly in cigarette smoke and car exhaust, is an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand that exerts its toxic effects on both male and female reproductive systems along with carcinogenesis in skin, prostate, ovary, lung and mammary glands. Our study was focused on elucidating the molecular mechanism of B(a)P induced male reproductive toxicity and its prevention with phytochemical like resveratrol. In this study, the effect of B(a)P at different doses (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 5 mg /kg body weight) was studied on male reproductive system of Wistar rat. A significant decrease in cauda epididymal sperm count and motility along with the presence of sperm head abnormalities and altered epididymal and testicular histology were documented following B(a)P treatment. B(a)P treatment resulted apoptotic sperm cells as observed by TUNEL and Annexin V-PI assay with increased Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), altered sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) with a simultaneous decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and GSH status. TUNEL positive apoptotic cells also observed in testis as well as isolated germ and Leydig cells following B(a)P exposure. Western Blot analysis revealed the activation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), cytosolic translocation of cytochrome-c, upregulation of Bax and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) with cleavage of poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) and down regulation of BCl2 in testis upon B(a)P treatment. The protein and mRNA levels of testicular key steroidogenesis regulatory proteins like steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 IIA1 (CYPIIA1), 3β hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (3β HSD), 17β hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (17β HSD) showed a significant decrease in a dose dependent manner while an increase in the expression of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR), active caspase- 9 and caspase- 3 following B(a)P exposure. We conclude that exposure of benzo(a)pyrene caused testicular gamatogenic and steroidogenic disorders by induction of oxidative stress, inhibition of StAR and other steroidogenic enzymes along with activation of p38MAPK and initiated caspase-3 mediated germ and Leydig cell apoptosis. Next we investigated the role of resveratrol on B(a)P induced male reproductive toxicity. Our study highlighted that resveratrol co-treatment with B(a)P maintained testicular redox potential, increased serum testosterone level and prevented steroidogenic dysfunction with enhanced expression of major testicular steroidogenic proteins (CYPIIA1, StAR, 3β HSD,17β HSD) relative to treatment with B(a)P only. Resveratrol suppressed B(a)P-induced testicular activation of p38 MAPK, ATF2, iNOS and ROS production; cytosolic translocation of Cytochome c and Caspase 3 activation thereby prevented oxidative stress of testis and inhibited apoptosis. Resveratrol co-treatment also decreased B(a)P-induced AhR protein level, its nuclear translocation and subsequent CYP1A1 promoter activation, thereby decreased protein and mRNA levels of testicular cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) and prevented BPDE-DNA adduct formation. Our findings cumulatively suggest that resveratrol prevents activation of B(a)P by modulating the transcriptional regulation of CYP1A1 and acting as an antioxidant thus prevents B(a)P-induced oxidative stress and testicular apoptosis.

Keywords: apoptosis, Resveratrol, testis, benzo(a)pyrene, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), p38 MAPK/ATF2/iNOS

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8 Resveratrol Incorporated Liposomes Prepared from Pegylated Phospholipids and Cholesterol

Authors: Mont Kumpugdee-Vollrath, Khaled Abdallah

Abstract:

Liposomes and pegylated liposomes were widely used as drug delivery system in pharmaceutical field since a long time. However, in the former time, polyethylene glycol (PEG) was connected into phospholipid after the liposomes were already prepared. In this paper, we intend to study the possibility of applying phospholipids which already connected with PEG and then they were used to prepare liposomes. The model drug resveratrol was used because it can be applied against different diseases. Cholesterol was applied to stabilize the membrane of liposomes. The thin film technique in a laboratory scale was a preparation method. The liposomes were then characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and light microscopic techniques. The stable liposomes can be produced and the particle sizes after filtration were in nanometers. The 2- and 3-chains-PEG-phospholipid (PL) caused in smaller particle size than the 4-chains-PEG-PL. Liposomes from PL 90G and cholesterol were stable during storage at 8 °C of 56 days because the particle sizes measured by PCS were almost not changed. There was almost no leakage of resveratrol from liposomes PL 90G with cholesterol after diffusion test in dialysis tube for 28 days. All liposomes showed the sustained release during measuring time of 270 min. The maximum release amount of 16-20% was detected with liposomes from 2- and 3-chains-PEG-PL. The other liposomes gave max. release amount of resveratrol only of 10%. The release kinetic can be explained by Korsmeyer-Peppas equation. 

Keywords: Resveratrol, cholesterol, liposome, NTA, pegylation

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7 Molecular Signaling Involved in the 'Benzo(a)Pyrene' Induced Germ Cell DNA Damage and Apoptosis: Possible Protection by Natural Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Antagonist and Anti-Tumor Agent

Authors: Kuladip Jana

Abstract:

Benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] is an environmental toxicant present mostly in cigarette smoke and car exhaust, is an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand that exerts its toxic effects on both male and female reproductive systems. In this study, the effect of B(a)P at different doses (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 5 mg /kg body weight) was studied on male reproductive system of rat. A significant decrease in cauda epididymal sperm count and motility along with the presence of sperm head abnormalities and altered epididymal and testicular histology were documented following B(a)P treatment. B(a)P treatment resulted apoptotic sperm cells as observed by TUNEL and Annexin V-PI assay with increased ROS, altered sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) with a simultaneous decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and GSH status. TUNEL positive apoptotic cells also observed in testis as well as isolated germ and Leydig cells following B(a)P exposure. Western Blot analysis revealed the activation of p38MAPK, cytosolic translocation of cytochrome-c, up-regulation of Bax and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) with cleavage of PARP and down-regulation of BCl2 in testis upon B(a)P treatment. The protein and mRNA levels of testicular key steroidogenesis regulatory proteins like StAR, cytochrome P450 IIA1 (CYPIIA1), 3β HSD, 17β HSD showed a significant decrease in a dose dependent manner while an increase in the expression of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR), active caspase- 9 and caspase- 3 following B(a)P exposure. We conclude that exposure of benzo(a)pyrene caused testicular gamatogenic and steroidogenic disorders by induction of oxidative stress, inhibition of StAR and other steroidogenic enzymes along with activation of p38MAPK and initiated caspase-3 mediated germ and Leydig cell apoptosis.The possible protective role of naturally occurring phytochemicals against B(a)P induced testicular toxicity needs immediate consideration. Curcumin and resveratrol separately were found to protect against B(a)P induced germ cell apoptosis, and their combinatorial effect was more significant. Our present study in isolated testicular germ cell population from adult male Wistar rats, highlighted their synergistic protective effect against B(a)P induced germ cell apoptosis. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins like cleaved caspase 3,8,9, cleaved PARP, Apaf1, FasL, tBid. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment decreased Bax/Bcl2 ratio, mitochondria to cytosolic translocation of cytochrome c and activated the survival protein Akt. Curcumin-resveratrol decreased the expression of p53 dependent apoptotic genes like Fas, FasL, Bax, Bcl2, Apaf1.Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment thus prevented B(a)P induced germ cell apoptosis. B(a)P induced testicular ROS generation and oxidative stress were significantly ameliorated with curcumin and resveratrol. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment prevented B(a)P induced nuclear translocation of AhR and CYP1A1 production. The combinatorial treatment significantly inhibited B(a)P induced ERK 1/2, p38 MAPK and JNK 1/2 activation. B(a)P treatment increased the expression of p53 and its phosphorylation (p53 ser 15). Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment significantly decreased p53 level and its phosphorylation (p53 ser 15). The study concludes that curcumin-resveratrol synergistically modulated MAPKs and p53, prevented oxidative stress, regulated the expression of pro and anti-apoptotic proteins as well as the proteins involved in B(a)P metabolism thus protected germ cells from B(a)P induced apoptosis.

Keywords: apoptosis, Oxidative Stress, Curcumin, Resveratrol, germ cell, benzo(a)pyrene

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6 A Density Function Theory Based Comparative Study of Trans and Cis - Resveratrol

Authors: Feng Wang, Subhojyoti Chatterjee, Peter J. Mahon

Abstract:

Resveratrol (RvL), a phenolic compound, is a key ingredient in wine and tomatoes that has been studied over the years because of its important bioactivities such as anti-oxidant, anti-aging and antimicrobial properties. Out of the two isomeric forms of resveratrol i.e. trans and cis, the health benefit is primarily associated with the trans form. Thus, studying the structural properties of the isomers will not only provide an insight into understanding the RvL isomers, but will also help in designing parameters for differentiation in order to achieve 99.9% purity of trans-RvL. In the present study, density function theory (DFT) study is conducted, using the B3LYP/6-311++G** model to explore the through bond and through space intramolecular interactions. Properties such as vibrational spectroscopy (IR and Raman), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, excess orbital energy spectrum (EOES), energy based decomposition analyses (EDA) and Fukui function are calculated. It is discovered that the structure of trans-RvL, although it is C1 non-planar, the backbone non-H atoms are nearly in the same plane; whereas the cis-RvL consists of two major planes of R1 and R2 that are not in the same plane. The absence of planarity gives rise to a H-bond of 2.67Å in cis-RvL. Rotation of the C(5)-C(8) single bond in trans-RvL produces higher energy barriers since it may break the (planar) entire conjugated structure; while such rotation in cis-RvL produces multiple minima and maxima depending on the positions of the rings. The calculated FT-IR spectrum shows very different spectral features for trans and cis-RvL in the region 900 – 1500 cm-1, where the spectral peaks at 1138-1158 cm-1 are split in cis-RvL compared to a single peak at 1165 cm-1 in trans-RvL. In the Raman spectra, there is significant enhancement of cis-RvL in the region above 3000cm-1. Further, the carbon chemical environment (13C NMR) of the RvL molecule exhibit a larger chemical shift for cis-RvL compared to trans-RvL (Δδ = 8.18 ppm) for the carbon atom C(11), indicating that the chemical environment of the C group in cis-RvL is more diverse than its other isomer. The energy gap between highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest occupied molecular orbital (LUMO) is 3.95 eV for trans and 4.35 eV for cis-RvL. A more detailed inspection using the recently developed EOES revealed that most of the large energy differences i.e. Δεcis-trans > ±0.30 eV, in their orbitals are contributed from the outer valence shell. They are MO60 (HOMO), MO52-55 and MO46. The active sites that has been captured by Fukui function (f + > 0.08) are associated with the stilbene C=C bond of RvL and cis-RvL is more active at these sites than in trans-RvL, as cis orientation breaks the large conjugation of trans-RvL so that the hydroxyl oxygen’s are more active in cis-RvL. Finally, EDA highlights the interaction energy (ΔEInt) of the phenolic compound, where trans is preferred over the cis-RvL (ΔΔEi = -4.35 kcal.mol-1) isomer. Thus, these quantum mechanics results could help in unwinding the diversified beneficial activities associated with resveratrol.

Keywords: NMR, Resveratrol, FT-IR, Raman, Fukui function, excess orbital energy spectrum, energy decomposition analysis

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5 Neuro-Preservation Potential of Resveratrol Against High Fat High Fructose-Induced Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Sally A. El Awdan, Dalia O. Saleh, Rania F. Ahmed, Gehad A. Abdel Jaleel, Omar A. H. Ahmed-Farid

Abstract:

The metabolic syndrome is an important public health concern often related to obesity, improper diet, and sedentary lifestyles and can predispose individuals to the development of many dangerous health conditions, disability and early death. This research aimed to investigate the efficacy of resveratrol (RSV) to reverse the neuro-complications associated with metabolic syndrome experimentally-induced in rats using an eight weeks high fat, high fructose diet (HFHF) model. The corresponding drug treatments were administered orally during the last 10 days of the diet. Behavioural tests namely the open field test (OFT) and the forced swimming test (FST) were conducted. Brain levels of monoamines viz. serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine as well as their metabolites were assessed. 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHDG) as an indicative of DNA-fragmentation, nitric oxide (NOx) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α) were estimated. Finally, brain antioxidant parameters namely malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH, GSSG) were evaluated. HFHF-induced metabolic syndrome resulted in decreased activity in the OFT and increased immobility duration in the FST. Furthermore, HFHF-induced metabolic syndrome lead to a significant increase in brain monoamines turn over as well as elevation in 8-OHDG, NOx, TNF- α, MDA and GSSG; and reduction in GSH. Ten days daily treatment with RSV (20 and 40 mg/kg p.o) dose dependently increased activity in the OFT and decreased immobility duration in the FST. Moreover, RSV normalized brain monoamines contents, reduced 8-OHDG, NOx, TNF- α, MDA and GSSG; and elevated GSH. In conclusion, we can say that RSV showed neuro-protective properties against HFHF-induced metabolic syndrome represented by monoamines preservation, prevention of neurodegeneration, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials and could be recommended as a beneficial daily dietary supplement to treat the neuronal side effects associated with HFHF-induced metabolic syndrome.

Keywords: Antioxidants, Resveratrol, open field, DNA-fragmentation, forced swimming test, HFHF-induced metabolic syndrome, monoamines, nitric oxide (NOx), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α)

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4 Comparative Effects of Resveratrol and Energy Restriction on Liver Fat Accumulation and Hepatic Fatty Acid Oxidation

Authors: Leixuri Aguirre, Iñaki Milton-Laskibar, Maria P. Portillo

Abstract:

Introduction: Energy restriction is an effective approach in preventing liver steatosis. However, due to social and economic reasons among others, compliance with this treatment protocol is often very poor, especially in the long term. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound that belongs to stilbene group, has been widely reported to imitate the effects of energy restriction. Objective: To analyze the effects of resveratrol under normoenergetic feeding conditions and under a mild energy restriction on liver fat accumulation and hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Methods: 36 male six-week-old rats were fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet for 6 weeks in order to induce steatosis. Then, rats were divided into four groups and fed a standard diet for 6 additional weeks: control group (C), resveratrol group (RSV, resveratrol 30 mg/kg/d), restricted group (R, 15 % energy restriction) and combined group (RR, 15 % energy restriction and resveratrol 30 mg/kg/d). Liver triacylglycerols (TG) and total cholesterol contents were measured by using commercial kits. Carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1a (CPT 1a) and citrate synthase (CS) activities were measured spectrophotometrically. TFAM (mitochondrial transcription factor A) and peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor alpha (PPARα) protein contents, as well as the ratio acetylated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α)/Total PGC1α were analyzed by Western blot. Statistical analysis was performed by using one way ANOVA and Newman-Keuls as post-hoc test. Results: No differences were observed among the four groups regarding liver weight and cholesterol content, but the three treated groups showed reduced TG when compared to the control group, being the restricted groups the ones showing the lowest values (with no differences between them). Higher CPT 1a and CS activities were observed in the groups supplemented with resveratrol (RSV and RR), with no difference between them. The acetylated PGC1α /total PGC1α ratio was lower in the treated groups (RSV, R and RR) than in the control group, with no differences among them. As far as TFAM protein expression is concerned, only the RR group reached a higher value. Finally, no changes were observed in PPARα protein expression. Conclusions: Resveratrol administration is an effective intervention for liver triacylglycerol content reduction, but a mild energy restriction is even more effective. The mechanisms of action of these two strategies are different. Thus resveratrol, but not energy restriction, seems to act by increasing fatty acid oxidation, although mitochondriogenesis seems not to be induced. When both treatments (resveratrol administration and a mild energy restriction) were combined, no additive or synergic effects were appreciated. Acknowledgements: MINECO-FEDER (AGL2015-65719-R), Basque Government (IT-572-13), University of the Basque Country (ELDUNANOTEK UFI11/32), Institut of Health Carlos III (CIBERobn). Iñaki Milton is a fellowship from the Basque Government.

Keywords: Liver, Oxidation, fat, Resveratrol, energy restriction

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3 Polyphenols from Winery Wastes as Potential Source of Antioxidants

Authors: Lucia Gharwalova, Irena Kolouchova, Jan Masak

Abstract:

A large amount of waste products is generated throughout the whole winemaking process as well as during work in the vineyard. This waste is as a source of phenolic compounds, such as resveratrol and polydatin, which possess a strong antioxidant capacity. Changes in the amounts of phenols were compared depending on the growing conditions and wine variety. Wastes (grape stems, marc and shoots) from two wineries in the Czech Republic were analyzed. Phenols from these samples were extracted by 40% ethanol. The amount of polyphenols in these extracts was determined by HPLC and their antioxidant capacity by DPPH. We compared changes in the amounts of phenols depending on the type of waste and the wine variety. The most significant source of stilbenoids was waste from pruning (shoots). These results show that winery waste could be further reused thanks to their antioxidant content.

Keywords: Antioxidants, polyphenols, Resveratrol, winery waste

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2 Preharvest and Postharvest Factors Influencing Resveratrol, Myricetin and Quercetin Content of Wine

Authors: Mariam Khomasuridze, Nino Chkhartishvili, Irma Chanturia

Abstract:

The influence of preharvest and postharvest factors on resveratrol, myricetin and quercetin content of wine was studied during the experiment. The content of cis and trans resveratrol, myricetin and quercetin were analyzed by HPLC. In frame of experiment, the various factors affecting on wine composition were researched: variety, climate, viticulture practices, grape maturity, harvesting methods and wine making techniques. The results have shown that varietal potential and amount of yield play the most important role in formation of antioxidant compounds. Based on achieved results, the usage of medium roast oak chips protects resveratrol, myricetin, and quercetin from coagulation and precipitation. Compared to the control samples, the wines, produced by addition of oak chips were approximately four times richer with these antioxidant compounds. The retention of resveratrol was lowered with 45 % in wines, producing in Qvevri by Georgian traditional technology without controlling temperature during fermentation. The opposite effects in case of myricetin, quercetin and total phenolics content were determined. Their concentrations were higher with 56-78%, then in the fermented tank at 22 -25 °C. As the result of the experiment, the optimal technology scheme of wine was worked out, reached by biologically active compounds: resveratrol, myricetin, and quercetin.

Keywords: Wine, Resveratrol, quercetin, miricetin

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1 Activity of Resveratrol on the Influence of Aflatoxin B1 on the Testes of Sprague Dawley Rats

Authors: Ali D. Omur, Betul Apaydin Yildirim, Yavuz S. Saglam, Selim Comakli, Mustafa Ozkaraca

Abstract:

Twenty-eight male Sprague Dawley rats (aged 3 months) were used in the study. The animals were given feed and water as ad libitum. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups as 7 rats in each group. Aflatoxin B1 (7.5 μg/200 g), resveratrol (60 mg/kg) was administered to rats in groups other than the control group. At the end of the 16th day, blood, semen and tissue specimens were taken by decapitation under ether anesthesia. The effects of aflatoxin B1 and resveratrol on spermatological, pathological and biochemical parameters were determined in rats. When we evaluate the spermatological parameters, it is understood that resveratrol has a statistically significant difference in terms of sperm motility and viability (membrane integrity) compared to the control group and aflatoxin B1 administration groups, indicating a protective effect on spermatological parameters (groups: control, resveratrol, aflatoxin B1 and Afb1 + res; respectively, values of motility: 71,42 ± 0,52b, 72,85 ± 1, 48c , 60,71 ± 1,30a, 57,14 ± 2, 40a; values of viability: 63,85 ± 1,33b, 70,42 ± 2,61c, 55,00 ± 1,54a, 56,57 ± 0,89a. In terms of pathological parameters -histopathological examination- in the control and resveratrol groups, seminiferous tubules were observed to be in normal structure. In the group treated with aflatoxin, the regular structure of the spermatogenic cells deteriorated, and the seminiferous tubules became necrotic and degenerative. In the group treated with Afb1 + res, the decreasing of necrotic and degenerative changes were determined compared with in the group treated with aflatoxin. As immunohistochemical examination, cleaved caspase 3 expression was found to be very low in the control and resveratrol groups. Cleaved caspase 3 expression was severely exacerbated in seminiferous tubules in aflatoxin group but cleaved caspase 3 expression level decreased in Afb1 + res. In the biochemical direction, resveratrol has been shown to inhibit the adverse effects of aflatoxin on antioxidant levels (GSH-mmol/L, CAT-kU/L, GPx-U/mL, SOD-EU/mL) and to show a protective effect. For this purpose, the use of resveratrol with antioxidant activity was investigated in preventing or ameliorating damage to aflatoxin B1. It has been concluded that resveratrol effectively prevents the aflatoxin-induced testicular damage and lipid peroxidation. It has also been shown that resveratrol has protective effects on sperm motility and viability.

Keywords: Resveratrol, rat, Aflatoxin B1, sperm

Procedia PDF Downloads 223