Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Resuscitation Related Abstracts

10 Splenic Artery Aneurysms: A Rare, Insidious Cause of Abdominal Pain

Authors: Christopher Oyediran, Nicola Ubayasiri, Christopher Gough


Splenic artery aneurysms are often clinically occult, occasionally identified incidentally with imaging. The pathogenesis of aneurysms is complex, but certain factors are thought to contribute to their development. Given the potential fatal complications of rupture, a high index of suspicion is required to make an early diagnosis. We present a case of a 36-year-old female with a history of endometriosis and multiple sclerosis who presented to the Emergency Department with sudden onset epigastric pain and collapse. On arrival, she was pale and clammy with profound tachycardia and hypotension. An ultrasound done in the resuscitation department revealed abdominal free fluid. She was resuscitated with blood and transferred for emergent laparotomy. Laparotomy revealed massive haemoperitoneum from the spleen. She underwent emergency splenectomy and inspection of the spleen revealed a splenic artery aneurysm. She received our massive transfusion protocol followed by a short stay on ITU, making a good post-operative recovery and was discharged home a week later.

Keywords: Resuscitation, aneurysm, human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), laparotomy

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9 The Use of Emergency Coronary Angiography in Patients Following Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest and Subsequent Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation

Authors: Scott Ashby, Emily Granger, Mark Connellan


Objectives: 1) To identify if emergency coronary angiography improves outcomes in studies examining OHCA from assumed cardiac aetiology? 2) If so, is it indicated in all patients resuscitated following OHCA, and if not, who is it indicated for? 3) How effective are investigations for screening for the appropriate patients? Background: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is one of the leading mechanisms of death, and the most common causative pathology is coronary artery disease. In-hospital treatment following resuscitation greatly affects outcomes, yet there is debate over the most effective protocol. Methods: A literature search was conducted over multiple databases to identify all relevant articles published from 2005. An inclusion criterion was applied to all publications retrieved, which were then sorted by type. Results: A total of 3 existing reviews and 29 clinical studies were analysed in this review. There were conflicting conclusions, however increased use of angiography has shown to improve outcomes in the majority of studies, which cover a variety of settings and cohorts. Recommendations: Currently, emergency coronary angiography appears to improve outcomes in all/most cases of OHCA of assumed cardiac aetiology, regardless of ECG findings. Until a better tool for screening is available to reduce unnecessary procedures, the benefits appear to outweigh the costs/risks.

Keywords: Emergency Medicine, Resuscitation, out of hospital cardiac arrest, coronary angiography

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8 Patient Outcomes Following Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

Authors: Scott Ashby, Emily Granger, Mark Connellan


Background: In-hospital management of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) is complex as the aetiologies are varied. Acute coronary angiography has been shown to improve outcomes for patients with coronary occlusion as the cause; however, these patients are difficult to identify. ECG results may help identify these patients, but the accuracy of this diagnostic test is under debate, and requires further investigation. Methods: Arrest and hospital management information was collated retrospectively for OHCA patients who presented to a single clinical site between 2009 and 2013. Angiography results were then collected and checked for significance with survival to discharge. The presence of a severe lesion (>70%) was then compared to categorised ECG findings, and the accuracy of the test was calculated. Results: 104 patients were included in this study, 44 survived to discharge, 52 died and 8 were transferred to other clinical sites. Angiography appears to significantly correlate with survival to discharge. ECG showed 54.8% sensitivity for detecting the presence of a severe lesion within the group that received angiography. A combined criterion including any ECG pathology showed 100% sensitivity and negative predictive value, however, a low specificity and positive predictive value. Conclusion: In the cohort investigated, ST elevation on ECG is not a sensitive enough screening test to be used to determine whether OHCA patients have coronary stenosis as the likely cause of their arrest, and more investigation into whether screening with a combined ECG criterion, or whether all patients should receive angiography routinely following OHCA is needed.

Keywords: Emergency Medicine, Resuscitation, out of hospital cardiac arrest, coronary angiography

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7 Magnitude and Outcome of Resuscitation Activities at Rwanda Military Hospital for the Period of April 2013-September 2013

Authors: Auni Idi Muhire


Background: Prior to April 2012, resuscitations were often ineffective resulting in poor patient outcomes. An initiative was implemented at Rwanda Military Hospital (RMH) to review root causes and plan strategies to improve patient outcomes. An interdisciplinary committee was developed to review this problem. Purpose: Analyze the frequency, obstacles, and outcome of patient resuscitation following cardiac and/or respiratory arrest. Methods: A form was developed to allow recording of all actions taken during resuscitation including response times, staff present, and equipment and medications used. Results:-The patient population requiring the most resuscitation effort are the intensive care patients, most frequently the neonatal the intensive care patients (42.8%) -Despite having trained staff representatives, not all resuscitations follow protocol -Lack of compliance with drug administration guidelines was noted, particularly in initiating use of drugs despite the drug being available (59%). Lesson Learned: Basic Life Support training for interdisciplinary staff resulted in more effective response to cardiac and/or respiratory arrest at RMH. Obstacles to effective resuscitation included number of staff, knowledge and skill level of staff, availability of appropriate equipment and medications, staff communication, and patient Do not Attempt Resuscitation (DNR) status.

Keywords: Resuscitation, Critical Care, Intensive Care, case analysis of knowledge versus practice

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6 Learning the C-A-Bs: Resuscitation Training at Rwanda Military Hospital

Authors: Kathryn Norgang, Sarah Howrath, Auni Idi Muhire, Pacifique Umubyeyi


Description : A group of nurses address the shortage of trained staff to respond to critical patients at Rwanda Military Hospital (RMH) by developing a training program and a resuscitation response team. Members of the group who received the training when it first launched are now trainer of trainers; all components of the training program are organized and delivered by RMH staff-the clinical mentor only provides adjunct support. This two day training is held quarterly at RMH; basic life support and exposure to interventions for advanced care are included in the test and skills sign off. Seventy staff members have received the training this year alone. An increased number of admission/transfer to ICU due to successful resuscitation attempts is noted. Lessons learned: -Number of staff trained 2012-2014 (to be verified). -Staff who train together practice with greater collaboration during actual resuscitation events. -Staff more likely to initiate BLS if peer support is present-more staff trained equals more support. -More access to Advanced Cardiac Life Support training is necessary now that the cadre of BLS trained staff is growing. Conclusions: Increased access to training, peer support, and collaborative practice are effective strategies to strengthening resuscitation capacity within a hospital.

Keywords: Resuscitation, Capacity building, basic life support, resuscitation response teams, nurse trainer of trainers

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5 The Influence of Applying Mechanical Chest Compression Systems on the Effectiveness of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

Authors: Slawomir Pilip, Michal Wasilewski, Daniel Celinski, Leszek Szpakowski, Grzegorz Michalak


The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation taken by Medical Emergency Teams (MET) at the place of an accident including the usage of mechanical chest compression systems. In the period of January-May 2017, there were 137 cases of a sudden cardiac arrest in a chosen region of Eastern Poland with 360.000 inhabitants. Medical records and questionnaires filled by METs were analysed to prove the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitations that were considered to be effective when an early indication of spontaneous circulation was provided and the patient was taken to hospital. A chest compression system used by METs was applied in 60 cases (Lucas3 - 34 patients; Auto Pulse - 24 patients). The effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation among patients who were employed a chest compression system was much higher (43,3%) than the manual cardiac massage (36,4%). Thus, the usage of Lucas3 chest compression system resulted in 47% while Auto Pulse was 33,3%. The average ambulance arrival time could have had a significant impact on the subsequent effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in these cases. Ambulances equipped with Lucas3 reached the destination within 8 minutes, and those with Auto Pulse needed 12,1 minutes. Moreover, taking effective basic life support (BLS) by bystanders before the ambulance arrival was much more frequent for ambulances with Lucas3 than Auto Pulse. Therefore, the percentage of BLS among the group of patients who were employed Lucas3 by METs was 26,5%, and 20,8% for Auto Pulse. The total percentage of taking BLS by bystanders before the ambulance arrival resulted in 25% of patients who were later applied a chest compression system by METs. Not only was shockable cardiac rhythm obtained in 47% of these cases, but an early indication of spontaneous circulation was also provided in all these patients. Both Lucas3 and Auto Pulse were evaluated to be significantly useful in improving the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation by 97% of Medical Emergency Teams. Therefore, implementation of chest compression systems essentially makes the cardiopulmonary resuscitation even more effective. The ambulance arrival time, taking successful BLS by bystanders before the ambulance arrival and the presence of shockable cardiac rhythm determine an early indication of spontaneous circulation among patients after a sudden cardiac arrest.

Keywords: Resuscitation, Effectiveness, Cardiac Arrest, mechanical chest compression systems

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4 The Key Role of a Bystander Improving the Effectiveness of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Performed in Extra-Urban Areas

Authors: Leszek Szpakowski, Daniel Celiński, Sławomir Pilip, Grzegorz Michalak


The aim of the study was to analyse the usefulness of the 'E-rescuer' pilot project planned to be implemented in a chosen area of Eastern Poland in the cases of suspected sudden cardiac arrests in the extra-urban areas. Inventing an application allowing to dispatch simultaneously both Medical Emergency Teams and the E-rescuer to the place of the accident is the crucial assumption of the mentioned pilot project. The E-rescuer is defined to be the trained person able to take effective basic life support and to use automated external defibrillator. Having logged in using a smartphone, the E-rescuer's readiness is reported online to provide cardiopulmonary resuscitation exactly at the given location. Due to the accurately defined location of the E-rescuer, his arrival time is possible to be precisely fixed, and the substantive support through the displayed algorithms is capable of being provided as well. Having analysed the medical records in the years 2015-2016, cardiopulmonary resuscitation was considered to be effective when an early indication of circulation was provided, and the patient was taken to hospital. In the mentioned term, there were 2.291 cases of a sudden cardiac arrest. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was taken in 621 patients in total including 205 people in the urban area and 416 in the extra-urban areas. The effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the extra-urban areas was much lower (33,8%) than in the urban (50,7%). The average ambulance arrival time was respectively longer in the extra-urban areas, and it was 12,3 minutes while in the urban area 3,3 minutes. There was no significant difference in the average age of studied patients - 62,5 and 64,8 years old. However, the average ambulance arrival time was 7,6 minutes for effective resuscitations and 10,5 minutes for ineffective ones. Hence, the ambulance arrival time is a crucial factor influencing on the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, especially in the extra-urban areas where it is much longer than in the urban. The key role of trained E-rescuers being nearby taking basic life support before the ambulance arrival can effectively support Emergency Medical Services System in Poland.

Keywords: Resuscitation, Effectiveness, basic life support, bystander

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3 Basic Life Support Training in Rural Uganda: A Mixed Methods Study of Training and Attitudes towards Resuscitation

Authors: William Gallagher, Harriet Bothwell, Lowri Evans, Kevin Jones


Background: Worldwide, a third of adult deaths are caused by cardiovascular disease, a high proportion occurring in the developing world. Contributing to these poor outcomes are suboptimal assessments, treatments and monitoring of the acutely unwell patient. Successful training in trauma and neonates is recognised in the developing world but there is little literature supporting adult resuscitation. As far as the authors are aware no literature has been published on resuscitation training in Uganda since 2000 when a resuscitation training officer ran sessions in neonatal and paediatric resuscitation. The aim of this project was to offer training in Basic Life Support ( BLS) to staff and healthcare students based at Villa Maria Hospital in the Kalungu District, Central Uganda. This project was undertaken as a student selected component (SSC) offered by Swindon Academy, based at the Great Western Hospital, to medical students in their fourth year of the undergraduate programme. Methods: Semi-structured, informal interviews and focus groups were conducted with different clinicians in the hospital. These interviews were designed to focus on the level of training and understanding of BLS. A training session was devised which focused on BLS (excluding the use of an automatic external defribrillator) involving pre and post-training questionnaires and clinical assessments. Three training sessions were run for different cohorts: a pilot session for 5 Ugandan medical students, a second session for a group of 8 nursing and midwifery students and finally, a third was devised for physicians. The data collected was analysed in excel. Paired T-Tests determined statistical significance between pre and post-test scores and confidence before and after the sessions. Average clinical skill assessment scores were converted to percentages based on the area of BLS being assessed. Results: 27 participants were included in the analysis. 14 received ‘small group training’ whilst 13 received’ large group training’ 88% of all participants had received some form of resuscitation training. Of these, 46% had received theory training, 27% practical training and only 15% received both. 12% had received no training. On average, all participants demonstrated a significant increase of 5.3 in self-assessed confidence (p <0.05). On average, all participants thought the session was very useful. Analysis of qualitative date from clinician interviews in ongoing but identified themes identified include rescue breaths being considered the most important aspect resuscitation and doubts of a ‘good’ outcome from resuscitation. Conclusions: The results of this small study reflect the need for regular formal training in BLS in low resource settings. The active engagement and positive opinions concerning the utility of the training are promising as well as the evidence of improvement in knowledge.

Keywords: Education, Resuscitation, training, Sub-Saharan Africa, Uganda, basic life support

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2 Quality Assessment of the Given First Aid on the Spot Events in the Opinion of Members of the Teams of the Medical Rescue in Warsaw in Poland

Authors: Aneta Binkowska, Artur Kamecki


The ability to provide first aid should be one of the basic skills of each of us. First aid by the Law on National Medical Emergency dated 8 September 2006 as amended, is a set of actions undertaken to save a person at the scene of an accident. In Poland, on the basis of Article 162 of the Criminal Code, we are obliged to provide first aid to the victim. In addition, according to a large part of society, unselfishness towards others in need of help is our moral obligation. The aim of the study was to learn the opinion of the members of Medical Rescue Teams (MRT) of the ‘Meditrans’ Provincial Ambulance and Sanitary Transport Service (PA and STS ‘Meditrans’) in Warsaw on how people react in real situations threatening life or health of the injured person. The study was conducted in the third quarter of 2015 on 335 members of medical rescue teams, including 77 W and 258 M, who provided medical services in the ‘Meditrans’ Provincial Ambulance and Sanitary Transport Service MRT in Warsaw. The research tool was an anonymous questionnaire survey of own design, which consisted of 12 questions: closed, half open and one open question. Respondents were divided into 3 age groups and by individual medical professions (doctor, paramedic, nurse). The straight majority of respondents encountered granting the first aid the event on the spot. However, the frequency of appearing in such proceedings isn’t too high. The first aid has most often been given in the street and in houses. The final audited fairly important element is the reason not to provide first aid by bystanders in the opinion of members of the medical teams. Respondents to this question, which was an open question were asked to name the reason for not taking any action while waiting for an ambulance. Over 50% of respondents could not answer. The most common answers were: fear, lack of knowledge and skills, reluctance, indifference, lack of training, lack of experience and fear that harm. Conclusion: The majority of respondents have encountered instances of first aid provision, but respondents assessed the frequency of such situations as low. Placing the victim in the recovery position is the simplest and most common form of first aid. Therefore, training should be introduced not only on CPR but also in the scope of helping persons in sudden health emergency, who do not have a sudden cardiac arrest. A statement can be formulated, as a main conclusion of the analysis, that only continuous education and in particular practical training will help people to overcome the barrier of their limitations in order to help others. Among the largest group of witnesses providing first aid are the elderly and youth, who are subjected to various forms of education related to first aid provision.

Keywords: Resuscitation, first Aid, BLS, medical rescue

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1 The Procedural Sedation Checklist Manifesto, Emergency Department, Jersey General Hospital

Authors: Jerome Dalphinis, Vishal Patel


The Bailiwick of Jersey is an island British crown dependency situated off the coast of France. Jersey General Hospital’s emergency department sees approximately 40,000 patients a year. It’s outside the NHS, with secondary care being free at the point of care. Sedation is a continuum which extends from a normal conscious level to being fully unresponsive. Procedural sedation produces a minimally depressed level of consciousness in which the patient retains the ability to maintain an airway, and they respond appropriately to physical stimulation. The goals of it are to improve patient comfort and tolerance of the procedure and alleviate associated anxiety. Indications can be stratified by acuity, emergency (cardioversion for life-threatening dysrhythmia), and urgency (joint reduction). In the emergency department, this is most often achieved using a combination of opioids and benzodiazepines. Some departments also use ketamine to produce dissociative sedation, a cataleptic state of profound analgesia and amnesia. The response to pharmacological agents is highly individual, and the drugs used occasionally have unpredictable pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, which can always result in progression between levels of sedation irrespective of the intention. Therefore, practitioners must be able to ‘rescue’ patients from deeper sedation. These practitioners need to be senior clinicians with advanced airway skills (AAS) training. It can lead to adverse effects such as dangerous hypoxia and unintended loss of consciousness if incorrectly undertaken; studies by the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (NCEPOD) have reported avoidable deaths. The Royal College of Emergency Medicine, UK (RCEM) released an updated ‘Safe Sedation of Adults in the Emergency Department’ guidance in 2017 detailing a series of standards for staff competencies, and the required environment and equipment, which are required for each target sedation depth. The emergency department in Jersey undertook audit research in 2018 to assess their current practice. It showed gaps in clinical competency, the need for uniform care, and improved documentation. This spurred the development of a checklist incorporating the above RCEM standards, including contraindication for procedural sedation and difficult airway assessment. This was approved following discussion with the relevant heads of departments and the patient safety directorates. Following this, a second audit research was carried out in 2019 with 17 completed checklists (11 relocation of joints, 6 cardioversions). Data was obtained from looking at the controlled resuscitation drugs book containing documented use of ketamine, alfentanil, and fentanyl. TrakCare, which is the patient electronic record system, was then referenced to obtain further information. The results showed dramatic improvement compared to 2018, and they have been subdivided into six categories; pre-procedure assessment recording of significant medical history and ASA grade (2 fold increase), informed consent (100% documentation), pre-oxygenation (88%), staff (90% were AAS practitioners) and monitoring (92% use of non-invasive blood pressure, pulse oximetry, capnography, and cardiac rhythm monitoring) during procedure, and discharge instructions including the documented return of normal vitals and consciousness (82%). This procedural sedation checklist is a safe intervention that identifies pertinent information about the patient and provides a standardised checklist for the delivery of gold standard of care.

Keywords: Resuscitation, checklist, advanced airway skills, procedural sedation

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