Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Restoration Related Abstracts

16 The Restoration of the Old District in the Urbanization: The Case Study of Samsen Riverside Community, Dusit District, Bangkok

Authors: Tikhanporn Punluekdej, Saowapa Phaithayawat

Abstract:

The objectives of this research are: 1) to discover the mechanism in the restoration process of the old district, and 2) to study the people participation in the community with related units. This research utilizes qualitative research method together with the tools used in the study of historical and anthropological disciplines. The research revealed that the restoration process of the old district started with the needs of the local people in the community. These people are considered as a young generation in the community. The leading group of the community played a vital role in the restoration process by igniting the whole idea and followed by the help from those who have lived in the area of more than fifty years. The restoration process is the genuine desire of the local people without the intervention of the local politics. The core group would coordinate with the related units in which there were, for instance, the academic institutions in order to find out the most dominant historical features of the community including its settlement. The Crown Property Bureau, as the sole-owner of the land, joined the restoration in the physical development dimension. The restoration was possible due to the cooperation between local people and related units, under the designated plans, budget, and social activities.

Keywords: Restoration, people participation, urban area, old district

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15 Sustainable Urban Regenaration the New Vocabulary and the Timless Grammar of the Urban Tissue

Authors: Ruth Shapira

Abstract:

Introduction: The rapid urbanization of the last century confronts planners, regulatory bodies, developers and most of all the public with seemingly unsolved conflicts regarding values, capital, and wellbeing of the built and un-built urban space. There is an out of control change of scale of the urban form and of the rhythm of the urban life which has known no significant progress in the last 2-3 decades despite the on-growing urban population. It is the objective of this paper to analyze some of these fundamental issues through the case study of a relatively small town in the center of Israel (Kiryat-Ono, 36,000 inhabitants), unfold the deep structure of qualities versus disruptors, present some cure that we have developed to bridge over and humbly suggest a practice that may bring about a sustainable new urban environment based on timeless values of the past, an approach that can be generic for similar cases. Basic Methodologies:The object, the town of Kiryat Ono, shall be experimented upon in a series of four action processes: De-composition, Re-composition, the Centering process and, finally, Controlled Structural Disintegration. Each stage will be based on facts, analysis of previous multidisciplinary interventions on various layers – and the inevitable reaction of the OBJECT, leading to the conclusion based on innovative theoretical and practical methods that we have developed and that we believe are proper for the open ended network, setting the rules for the contemporary urban society to cluster by – thus – a new urban vocabulary based on the old structure of times passed. The Study: Kiryat Ono, was founded 70 years ago as an agricultural settlement and rapidly turned into an urban entity. In spite the massive intensification, the original DNA of the old small town was still deeply embedded, mostly in the quality of the public space and in the sense of clustered communities. In the past 20 years, the recent demand for housing has been addressed to on the national level with recent master plans and urban regeneration policies mostly encouraging individual economic initiatives. Unfortunately, due to the obsolete existing planning platform the present urban renewal is characterized by pressure of developers, a dramatic change in building scale and widespread disintegration of the existing urban and social tissue.Our office was commissioned to conceptualize two master plans for the two contradictory processes of Kiryat Ono’s future: intensification and conservation. Following a comprehensive investigation into the deep structures and qualities of the existing town, we developed a new vocabulary of conservation terms thus redefying the sense of PLACE. The main challenge was to create master plans that should offer a regulatory basis to the accelerated and sporadic development providing for the public good and preserving the characteristics of the place consisting of a tool box of design guidelines that will have the ability to reorganize space along the time axis in a sustainable way. In conclusion: The system of rules that we have developed can generate endless possible patterns making sure that at each implementation fragment an event is created, and a better place is revealed. It takes time and perseverance but it seems to be the way to provide a healthy and sustainable framework for the accelerated urbanization of our chaotic present.

Keywords: Complexity, Uncertainty, Restoration, Sustainable Housing, sustainable urban design, intensification, emergent urban patterns, compact urban neighborhoods, sustainable regeneration, need for change, implications of legislation on local planning

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14 A General Review of Çarpanak Church

Authors: Sahabettin Ozturk, Muhammet Kurucu, Soner Guler

Abstract:

Çarpanak church is one of the well-known churches in the eastern part of Turkey. It is located on Çarpanak island of Van city. Çarpanak Church was built in the 6th. century and then restored in 1462 year. After an earthquake in 1703 year, the church was again restored between 1712 and 1720 years. In spite of some parts of Çarpanak church have been destroyed by natural disasters, it has survived until today without total collapse. In this study, present condition of Çarpanak church is introduced and evaluated briefly.

Keywords: Earthquake, Restoration, Van city, Çarpanak church

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13 Concept of Tourist Village on Kampung Karaton of Karaton Kasunanan Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia

Authors: Naniek Widayati Priyomarsono

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Introduction: In beginning of Karaton formation, namely, era of Javanese kingdom town had the power region outside castle town (called as Mancanegara), settlement of karaton can function as “the space-between” and “space-defense”, besides it was one of components from governmental structure and karaton power at that time (internal servant/abdi dalem and sentana dalem). Upon the Independence of Indonesia in 1945 “Kingdom-City” converted its political status into part of democratic town managed by statutes based on the classification. The latter affects local culture hierarchy alteration due to the physical development and events. Dynamics of social economy activities in Kampung Karaton surrounded by buildings of Complex of Karaton Kasunanan ini, have impact on the urban system disturbed into the región. Also cultural region image fades away with the weak visual access from existant cultural artefacts. That development lacks of giving appreciation to the established region image providing identity of Karaton Kasunanan particularly and identity of Surakarta city in general. Method used is strategy of grounded theory research (research providing strong base of a theory). Research is focused on actors active and passive relevantly getting involved in change process of Karaton settlement. Data accumulated is “Investigation Focus” oriented on actors affecting that change either internal or external. Investigation results are coupled with field observation data, documentation, literature study, thus it takes accurate findings. Findings: Karaton village has potential products as attraction, possessing human resource support, strong motivation from society still living in that settlement, possessing facilities and means supports, tourism event-supporting facilities, cultural art institution, available fields or development area. Data analyzed: To get the expected result it takes restoration in social cultural development direction, and economy, with ways of: Doing social cultural development strategy, economy, and politics. To-do steps are program socialization of Karaton village as Tourism Village, economical development of local society, regeneration pattern, filtering, and selection of tourism development, integrated planning system development, development with persuasive approach, regulation, market mechanism, social cultural event sector development, political development for region activity sector. Summary: In case the restoration is done by getting society involved as subject of that settlement (active participation in the field), managed and packed interestingly and naturally with tourism-supporting facilities development, village of Karaton Kasunanan Surakarta is ready to receive visit of domestic and foreign tourists.

Keywords: Economy, Restoration, Indonesia, karaton village, finding

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12 Sustainable Renovation and Restoration of the Rural — Based on the View Point of Psychology

Authors: Luo Jin China, Jin Fang

Abstract:

Countryside has been generally recognized and regarded as a characteristic symbol which presents in human memory for a long time. As a result of the change of times, because of it’s failure to meet the growing needs of the growing life and mental decline, the vast rural area began to decline. But their history feature image which accumulated by the ancient tradition provides people with the origins of existence on the spiritual level, such as "identity" and "belonging", makes people closer to the others in the spiritual and psychological aspects of a common experience about the past, thus the sense of a lack of culture caused by the losing of memory symbols is weakened. So, in the modernization process, how to repair its vitality and transform and planning it in a sustainable way has become a hot topics in architectural and urban planning. This paper aims to break the constraints of disciplines, from the perspective of interdiscipline, using the research methods of systems science to analyze and discuss the theories and methods of rural form factors, which based on the viewpoint of memory in psychology. So, we can find a right way to transform the Rural to give full play to the role of the countryside in the actual use and the shape of history spirits.

Keywords: Psychology, Rural, Restoration, Memory, sustainable renovation

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11 A Journey to the Past: Hoşap Castle in Van

Authors: Muhammet Kurucu

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Hoşap Castle, located in Gürpınar, Van, is one of the most important symbols of the city because it hosted sacred memories of its time. Besides the location and construction features of Güzelsu, in resort city of Van, Hoşap Castle is a great place with an architecture consisting of an outer fortress and the inner fortress. It is one of the Ottoman castles and was built in the 17th century by Sarı Süleyman who was known as bey of Mahmudi. Although some parts of Hoşap Castle have been destroyed by natural disasters, it has survived until today without total collapse and most places with excavations are revealed. In this study, present condition of the Hoşap Castle is observed and introduced briefly.

Keywords: natural disasters, Restoration, Güzelsu, Hoşap Castle, Van

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10 Restoring Trees Damaged by Cyclone Hudhud at Visakhapatnam, India

Authors: Mohan Kotamrazu

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Cyclone Hudhud which battered the city of Visakhapatnam on 12th October, 2014, damaged many buildings, public amenities and infrastructure facilities along the Visakha- Bheemili coastal corridor. More than half the green cover of the city was wiped out. Majority of the trees along the coastal corridor suffered from complete or partial damage. In order to understand the different ways that trees incurred damage during the cyclone, a damage assessment study was carried out by the author. The areas covered by this study included two university campuses, several parks and residential colonies which bore the brunt of the cyclone. Post disaster attempts have been made to restore many of the trees that have suffered from partial or complete damage from the effects of extreme winds. This paper examines the various ways that trees incurred damage from the cyclone Hudhud and presents some examples of the restoration efforts carried out by educational institutions, public parks and religious institutions of the city of Visakhapatnam in the aftermath of the devastating cyclone.

Keywords: Restoration, defoliaton, salt spray damage, uprooting and wind throw

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9 Restoration Process of Kastamonu - Tufekciler Village Houses for Potential Eco-Tourism Purposes

Authors: Turkan Sultan Yasar Ismail, Mehmet Cetin, M. Danial Ismail, Hakan Sevik

Abstract:

Nowadays, there is a need for the real world to be translated to the virtual environment by three-dimensional visualisation for restoration and promotional modelling of historic sites in protected areas. Visualisation models have also become the very important basis for the creation of three-dimensional Geographic Information System. The protection of historical and cultural heritage and documenting in Turkey as well as all over the world is an important issue. This heritage is a bridge between the past and the future of humanity. Many historical and cultural heritages suffer neglect and for reasons arising from natural causes. This is to determine the current status of the work and documenting information from the selected buildings. This process is important for their conservation and renovation work that might be done in the future. Kastamonu city is one of the historical cities in Turkey with a number of heritage buildings. However, Tufekciler Village is not visited and famous even though it includes several historical buildings and peaceful landscape. Digital terrestrial photogrammetry is one of the most important methods used in the documentation of cultural and historical heritage. Firstly, measurements were made primarily around creating polygon mesh and 3D model drawings of the structures to be modelled on images with the move to digital media such as picture size and by subsequent visualisation process. Secondly, a restoration project is offered to the village with the concept of eco-tourism with all scales such as, interior space to landscape design.

Keywords: Sustainability, Restoration, Eco-Tourism, cultural village

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8 Rejuvenating a Space into World Class Environment through Conservation of Heritage Architecture

Authors: Abhimanyu Sharma

Abstract:

India is known for its cultural heritage. As the country is rich in diversity along its length and breadth, the state of Jammu & Kashmir is world famous for the beautiful tourist destinations in the Kashmir region of the state. However, equally destined destinations are also located in Jammu region of the said state. For most of the time in last 50-60 years, the prime focus of development was centered around Kashmir region. But now due to an ever increase in globalization, the focus is decentralizing throughout the country. Pertinently, the potential of Jammu Region needs to be incorporated into the world tourist map in particular. One such spot in the Jammu region of the state is a place called ‘Mubarak Mandi’ – the palace with the royal residence of the Maharaja of Jammu & Kashmir from the Dogra Dynasty, is located in the heart of Jammu city (the winter capital of the state). Since the place is destined with a heritage importance but yet lack the supporting infrastructure to attract the national tourist in general and worldwide tourist at large. For such places, conservation and restoration of the existing structures are the potential tools to overcome the present limiting nature of the place. The rejuvenation of this place through potential and dynamic conservation techniques is targeted through this paper. This paper deals with developing and restoring the areas within the whole campus with appropriate building materials, conservation techniques, etc. to promote a great number of visitors by developing it into a prioritised tourist attraction point. Major thrust shall be on studying the criteria’s for developing the place considering the psychological effect needed to create a socially interactive environment. Additionally, thrust shall be on the spatial elements that will aid in creating a common platform for all kinds of tourists. Accordingly, different conservation guidelines (or model) shall be targeted through this paper so that this Jammu region shall also be an equally contributor to the tourist graph of the country as the Kashmir part is.

Keywords: Conservation, Restoration, heritage architecture, rejuvenating

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7 Lessons from Farmers Performing Agroforestry for Reclamation of Gold Mine Spoils in Colombia

Authors: Bibiana Betancur-Corredor, Juan Carlos Loaiza, Manfred Denich, Christian Borgemeister

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Alluvial gold mining generates a vast amount of deposits that cover the natural soil and negatively impacts riverbeds and valleys, causing loss of livelihood opportunities for farmers of these regions. In Colombia, more than 79,000 ha are affected by alluvial gold mining, therefore developing strategies to return this land to productivity is of crucial importance for the country. A novel restoration strategy has been created by a mining company, where the land is restored through the establishment of agroforestry systems, in which agricultural crops and livestock are combined to complement reforestation in the area. The purpose of this study is to capture the knowledge of farmers who perform agroforestry in areas with deposits created by alluvial gold mining activities. Semi structured interviews were conducted with farmers with regard to the following: indicators of soil fertility, management practices, soil heterogeneity, pest outbreaks and weeds. In order to compare the perceptions of soil fertility of farmers with physicochemical properties of soils, the farmers were asked to identify spots within their farms that have exhibited good and poor yields. Soil samples were collected in order to correlate farmer’s perceptions with soil physicochemical properties. The findings suggest that the main challenge that farmers face is the identification of fertile soil for crop establishment. They identify the fertile soil through visually analyzing soil color and compaction as well as the use of spontaneous growth of specific plants as indicator of soil fertility. For less fertile areas, nitrogen fixing plants are used as green manure to restore soil fertility for crop establishment. The findings of this study imply that if gold mining is followed by reclamation practices that involve the successful establishment of productive farmlands, agricultural productivity of these lands might improve, increasing food security of the affected communities.

Keywords: Knowledge, Mining, Agroforestry, Restoration

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6 Downtime Estimation of Building Structures Using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: M. De Iuliis, O. Kammouh, G. P. Cimellaro, S. Tesfamariam

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Community Resilience has gained a significant attention due to the recent unexpected natural and man-made disasters. Resilience is the process of maintaining livable conditions in the event of interruptions in normally available services. Estimating the resilience of systems, ranging from individuals to communities, is a formidable task due to the complexity involved in the process. The most challenging parameter involved in the resilience assessment is the 'downtime'. Downtime is the time needed for a system to recover its services following a disaster event. Estimating the exact downtime of a system requires a lot of inputs and resources that are not always obtainable. The uncertainties in the downtime estimation are usually handled using probabilistic methods, which necessitates acquiring large historical data. The estimation process also involves ignorance, imprecision, vagueness, and subjective judgment. In this paper, a fuzzy-based approach to estimate the downtime of building structures following earthquake events is proposed. Fuzzy logic can integrate descriptive (linguistic) knowledge and numerical data into the fuzzy system. This ability allows the use of walk down surveys, which collect data in a linguistic or a numerical form. The use of fuzzy logic permits a fast and economical estimation of parameters that involve uncertainties. The first step of the method is to determine the building’s vulnerability. A rapid visual screening is designed to acquire information about the analyzed building (e.g. year of construction, structural system, site seismicity, etc.). Then, a fuzzy logic is implemented using a hierarchical scheme to determine the building damageability, which is the main ingredient to estimate the downtime. Generally, the downtime can be divided into three main components: downtime due to the actual damage (DT1); downtime caused by rational and irrational delays (DT2); and downtime due to utilities disruption (DT3). In this work, DT1 is computed by relating the building damageability results obtained from the visual screening to some already-defined components repair times available in the literature. DT2 and DT3 are estimated using the REDITM Guidelines. The Downtime of the building is finally obtained by combining the three components. The proposed method also allows identifying the downtime corresponding to each of the three recovery states: re-occupancy; functional recovery; and full recovery. Future work is aimed at improving the current methodology to pass from the downtime to the resilience of buildings. This will provide a simple tool that can be used by the authorities for decision making.

Keywords: Built Environment, Fuzzy Logic, Resilience, Restoration, Recovery, Community Resilience, Damage, downtime

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5 A Data Driven Methodological Approach to Economic Pre-Evaluation of Reuse Projects of Ancient Urban Centers

Authors: Pietro D'Ambrosio, Roberta D'Ambrosio

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The upgrading of the architectural and urban heritage of the urban historic centers almost always involves the planning for the reuse and refunctionalization of the structures. Such interventions have complexities linked to the need to take into account the urban and social context in which the structure and its intrinsic characteristics such as historical and artistic value are inserted. To these, of course, we have to add the need to make a preliminary estimate of recovery costs and more generally to assess the economic and financial sustainability of the whole project of re-socialization. Particular difficulties are encountered during the pre-assessment of costs since it is often impossible to perform analytical surveys and structural tests for both structural conditions and obvious cost and time constraints. The methodology proposed in this work, based on a multidisciplinary and data-driven approach, is aimed at obtaining, at very low cost, reasonably priced economic evaluations of the interventions to be carried out. In addition, the specific features of the approach used, derived from the predictive analysis techniques typically applied in complex IT domains (big data analytics), allow to obtain as a result indirectly the evaluation process of a shared database that can be used on a generalized basis to estimate such other projects. This makes the methodology particularly indicated in those cases where it is expected to intervene massively across entire areas of historical city centers. The methodology has been partially tested during a study aimed at assessing the feasibility of a project for the reuse of the monumental complex of San Massimo, located in the historic center of Salerno, and is being further investigated.

Keywords: Methodology, Evaluation, Restoration, reuse

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4 The Effect of Visual Access to Greenspace and Urban Space on a False Memory Learning Task

Authors: Bryony Pound

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This study investigated how views of green or urban space affect learning performance. It provides evidence of the value of visual access to greenspace in work and learning environments, and builds on the extensive research into the cognitive and learning-related benefits of access to green and natural spaces, particularly in learning environments. It demonstrates that benefits of visual access to natural spaces whilst learning can produce statistically significant faster responses than those facing urban views after only 5 minutes. The primary hypothesis of this research was that a greenspace view would improve short-term learning. Participants were randomly assigned to either a view of parkland or of urban buildings from the same room. They completed a psychological test of two stages. The first stage consisted of a presentation of words from eight different categories (four manmade and four natural). Following this a 2.5 minute break was given; participants were not prompted to look out of the window, but all were observed doing so. The second stage of the test involved a word recognition/false memory test of three types. Type 1 was presented words from each category; Type 2 was non-presented words from those same categories; and Type 3 was non-presented words from different categories. Participants were asked to respond with whether they thought they had seen the words before or not. Accuracy of responses and reaction times were recorded. The key finding was that reaction times for Type 2 words (highest difficulty) were significantly different between urban and green view conditions. Those with an urban view had slower reaction times for these words, so a view of greenspace resulted in better information retrieval for word and false memory recognition. Importantly, this difference was found after only 5 minutes of exposure to either view, during winter, and with a sample size of only 26. Greenspace views improve performance in a learning task. This provides a case for better visual access to greenspace in work and learning environments.

Keywords: Learning, Restoration, Greenspace, benefits

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3 Reinvestment of the Urban Context in Historic Cities: The Case Study of El Sheikh Kandil Street, Rosetta, Egypt

Authors: Riham A. Ragheb, Ingy M. Naguib

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Conservation and urban investment are a prerequisite to improve the quality of life. Since the historic street is a part of the economic system, it should be able to play an important role in the city development by upgrading all services, public open spaces and reuse of historical buildings and sites. Furthermore, historical conservation enriches the political, economic, social, cultural and functional aspects of the site. Rosetta has been selected as an area of study because it has a unique character due to its possession of a variety of monuments and historical buildings. The aim of this research is to analyze the existing situation of an historic street named El Sheikh Kandil, to be able to identify the potentials and problems. The paper gives a proposal for the redesign and reinvestment of the street and the reuse for the historical buildings to serve the community, users and visitors. Then, it concludes with recommendations to improve quality of life through the rehabilitation of the historical buildings and strengthening of the cultural and historical identity of the street. Rosetta city can benefit from these development proposals by preserving and revitalizing its unique character which leads to tourism development and benefits from the new investments.

Keywords: urban Design, Restoration, Adaptive Reuse, heritage street, historic investment

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2 Improving Evapotranspiration Estimates for Hydrologic Assessment and Restoration Using Modified Remotely Sensed Data and Penman-Monteith Methods for the Apalachicola Region, Northwest Florida

Authors: Chisty Crandall, Joseph St. Peter, Jason Drake, Paul Medley, Victor Ibeanusi, Charles Jagoe, Gang Chen

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The Lower Apalachicola Region in Northwest Florida has declined in species richness and diversity due to decreases in freshwater availability and reduced critical habitat that once supported many threatened and endangered species. Another consequence of the decline in freshwater availability includes the loss of the fishery and, as a consequence, tourism, two major economic drivers of the region. Precipitous declines in the fishery and tourism followed a 5-year regional drought (2007-2012) and three major hurricanes (2015-2018). The loss has created severe hardship to residents and community disruption. The lower Apalachicola basin, comprised primarily of forest, was managed for timber production and, as a secondary priority, recreation for nearly 100 years. This region once contained numerous wetlands, intermittent ponds, swamps, and forest streams and lakes that supplied the bulk of freshwater discharge to the Apalachicola River, Bay, and Estuary, but freshwater availability and streamflows have decreased significantly in the last 50 years. A century of forestry land-use and management practices, including road, ditch, and culvert construction, pine plantation management (clear-cutting every 25 years and high-density replanting with Slash pine instead of the more common and lower density Longleaf pine), and draining wetlands and swamps for road construction and pine production have reduced streamflow, and wetland and pond acreage. This study proposes to use estimated basal area and vegetation geospatial data, developed from recent high resolution LiDAR, and remotely sensed imagery and land use data to estimate and refine evapotranspiration (ET) estimates throughout the Apalachicola Region. Generated ET estimates will be compared with calculated ET estimates using the modified Penman-Monteith equation, and final ET estimates will be a combined dataset. Improved ET estimates will be used to calculate soil water yield. Areas that will potentially generate maximum positive change in water yield will be identified and flagged for restoration in the regional hydrologic assessment and restoration plan. Stochastic methods will be used to generate confidence intervals and error estimates for ET and soil water yield. Increased soil water yield and water availability are the primary objectives of the Apalachicola Hydrologic Restoration project. This research will ensure that land managers focus scarce restoration resources in areas that will provide the greatest potential increase in water yield which, in turn, will ensure the maximum increase in freshwater availability for water resources, improved water quality, and increased critical habitat promoting a stronger and more resilient ecosystem for the future.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Restoration, Hydrologic, Ecosystem Resilience, Evapotranspiration, soil water yield

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1 Swedish Police Officers' Experiences of Meeting with Women Who Were Raped

Authors: Lisa Rudolfsson

Abstract:

Socio-cognitive factors, such as social support and attribution of blame, influence the victim’s psychological adjustment after the abuse. Furthermore, the response from the person that the victim first confides to effect adjustment following the abuse. In Sweden, although police are investigating most of the reported cases of rape, very few rape-cases leads to trial and sentence. For many women who have been raped, contact with the police officer when reporting the crime will, therefore, be the most notable experience of how representatives for the Swedish society regard and handle what has happened. Hence, it seems urgent to gather information about these initial meetings. This study is part of a three-year research project, titled 'Female rape victims: Quality of initial police and medical care contact', funded by the Swedish Crime Victim and Support Authority. The focus of this study was on police officers in Sweden: their thoughts and experiences of meeting with raped women. Forthcoming are interviews with raped women about their experiences of meeting with police. Sixteen police officers participated in three focus groups and one interview. The participants consisted of five men and eleven women. Focus groups and interview were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. The material was analyzed using thematic analysis. Participants described how violence against women was not a priority in Swedish society or within the Police Authority. They talked about rape cases as a Sisyphean work-task that put high demands on them, while they also lacked training and support. They expressed a wish to offer the woman some kind of restoration, and they talked about their work as potentially making a difference for the woman – even if she did not get juridical justice. However, participants also described that they did not feel validated in their hard work. They talked about working rape cases as causing them a great deal of frustration - directed towards the Police Authority, the juridical system, colleagues, and sometimes towards the woman. Participants also described how meeting with raped women was a work that affected them in a personal manner. Listening to stories about sexual violence made the participants sad, and they described it as a struggle to understand. They described wondering how the woman’s life turned out and how they sometimes questioned if they had done enough. Some of the conclusions concern the lack of prerequisites needed for police officers to be able to offer a good-enough treatment of raped women, as well as the lack of tools needed for police officers to care for themselves. In lack of training, validation, and support, the knowledge of how to offer a good- enough treatment of raped women becomes a task learned by doing. Attempts to offer, if not legal justice, then at least some kind of restoration becomes a personal task, dependent on individual police officers. It seems urgent that we address the risk of police officers’ frustration building up to be detrimental for both the crime victim and the officer her/himself.

Keywords: Police, Restoration, Focus Groups, raped women

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