Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Responsibility Related Abstracts

8 Application of Corporate Social Responsibility in Small Manufacturing Enterprises

Authors: Winai Rungrittidetch

Abstract:

This paper investigated the operational system, procedures, outcomes, and obstacles during the application of the Corporate Social Responsibility by the small enterprises and other involved groups in the anchor production business of the core firm, Jatura Charoen Chai Company Limited. The paper also aimed to discover ways to improve the stakeholders who participated in the CSR training and advisory programme. The paper utilized the qualitative methodology which included documentary review and semi- structured interview. The interviews were made with 8 respondents as the representative of different groups of the company’s stakeholder. The findings drew out the lessons learned from the participation of the selected small manufacturing enterprises in the CSR training and advisory programme. Some suggestions were also made, addressing the significance of the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy.

Keywords: Social, Corporate, Responsibility, enterprises

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7 Authority and Responsibility of Turkish Physical Education Teachers

Authors: Mufide Cotuk, Muslim Bakir

Abstract:

National education in Turkey aims to provide superior education opportunities to students in order to develop their intellectual abilities in accordance with contemporary pedagogy. Physical education (PE) plays an important role in this context. Various factors affect the quality and efficiency of the process of PE. Factors related to governance are crucially important, especially those of authority and responsibility. For educational institutions at high school level, the factors affecting authority and responsibility have not been clearly delineated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine authority and responsibility of PE teachers as the balance between them. The study sample consisted of 60 PE teachers (19 women, 41 men) at 57 high schools in Istanbul (65% state and 35% private institutions). All PE teachers completed the study questionnaire collecting demographic and institutional data as knowledge and attitudes regarding authority and responsibility issues. The determination of authority and responsibility of PE teachers has been grounded on the law for government officials, course-passing regulations, and school sports regulations. The PE teachers declared as the primary source of their authority and responsibility ‘school sports regulations’ (56,7% of PE teachers), ‘course-passing regulations’ (36,7% of PE teachers) and ‘the law for government officials’ (30,0% of PE teachers). The PE teachers mentioned that the school administration burdened them with additional responsibilities (58,3% of PE teachers). Such ‘additional’ responsibilities were primarily related to ‘disciplinary regulations’ (21,7% of PE teachers) and ‘maintenance of school order’ (16,0% of PE teachers). In conclusion, authority and responsibility of PE teachers were not well balanced. As authority issues were not clearly stated, ‘compulsory’ responsibilities increased causing this imbalance.

Keywords: Sport Management, Responsibility, Authority, PE teacher

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6 The Opinions of Counselor Candidates' regarding Universal Values in Marriage Relationship

Authors: Seval Kizildag, Ozge Can Aran

Abstract:

The effective intervention of counselors’ in conflict between spouses may be effective in increasing the quality of marital relationship. At this point, it is necessary for counselors to consider their own value systems at first and then reflect this correctly to the counseling process. For this reason, it is primarily important to determine the needs of counselors. Starting from this point of view, in this study, it is aimed to reveal the perspective of counselor candidates about the universal values in marriage relation. The study group of the survey was formed by sampling, which is one of the prospective sampling methods. As a criterion being a candidate for counseling area and having knowledge of the concepts of the Marriage and Family Counseling course is based, because, that candidate students have a comprehensive knowledge of the field and that students have mastered the concepts of marriage and family counseling will strengthen the findings of this study. For this reason, 61 counselor candidates, 32 (52%) female and 29 (48%) male counselor candidates, who were about to graduate from a university in south-east Turkey and who took a Marriage and Family Counseling course, voluntarily participated in the study. The average age of counselor candidates’ is 23. At the same time, 70 % of the parents of these candidates brought about their marriage through arranged marriage, 13% through flirting, 8% by relative marriage, 7% through friend circles and 2% by custom. The data were collected through Demographic Information Form and a form titled ‘Universal Values Form in Marriage’ which consists of six questions prepared by researchers. After the data were transferred to the computer, necessary statistical evaluations were made on the data. The qualitative data analysis was used on the data which was obtained in the study. The universal values which include six basic values covering trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, fairness, caring, citizenship, determined under the name as ‘six pillar of character’ are used as base and frequency values of the data were calculated trough content analysis. According to the findings of the study, while the value which most students find the most important value in marriage relation is being reliable, the value which they find the least important is to have citizenship consciousness. Also in this study, it is found out that counselor candidates associate the value of being trustworthiness ‘loyalty’ with (33%) as the highest in terms of frequency, the value of being respect ‘No violence’ with (23%), the value of responsibility ‘in the context of gender roles and spouses doing their owns’ with (35%) the value of being fairness ‘impartiality’ with (25%), the value of being caring ‘ being helpful’ with (25%) and finally as to the value of citizenship ‘love of country’ with (14%) and’ respect for the laws ‘ with (14%). It is believed that these results of the study will contribute to the arrangements for the development of counseling skills for counselor candidates regarding value in marriage and family counseling curricula.

Keywords: Citizenship, Responsibility, Respect, Caring, Trustworthiness, value system, fairness, counselor candidate, marriage relationship

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5 Responsibility Attitude and Interpretation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Authors: Ryotaro Ishikawa

Abstract:

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common, chronic and long-lasting disorder in which a person has uncontrollable, reoccurring thoughts (obsessions) and behaviors (compulsions) that he or she feels the urge to repeat over and over. Inflated responsibility attitude and interpretation are central beliefs in a cognitive model of OCD. This study aimed to develop a Japanese version of the Responsibility Attitude Scale (RAS-J) and Responsibility Interpretation Questionnaire (RIQ-J). 98 participants (OCD group = 37; anxiety control group = 24; healthy control group = 37) completed the RAS-J, RIQ-J and other measures to assess the validity of the RAS-J and RIQ-J. As a result of analysis, both scales had adequate concurrent validity, demonstrated by significant correlations with other measures of OCD, anxiety, and depression. Group comparison data using ANOVA with Bonferroni method indicated that RAS-J and RIQ-J scores for the OCD group not only differed from the nonclinical group, but also from the clinically anxious comparison group. In conclusion, this study indicated that the developed RAS-J and RIQ-J effectively measure responsibility attitude and responsibility interpretation in the Japanese population.

Keywords: cognitive theory, Responsibility, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, anxiety disorder

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4 In Search of Bauman’s Moral Impulse in Shadow Factories of China

Authors: Akram Hatami, Naser Firoozi, Vesa Puhakka

Abstract:

Ethics and responsibility are rapidly becoming a distinguishing feature of organizations. In this paper, we analyze ethics and responsibility in shadow factories in China. We engage ourselves with Bauman’s moral impulse perspective because his idea can contextualize ethics and responsibility. Moral impulse is a feeling of a selfless, infinite and unconditional responsibility towards, and care for, Others. We analyze a case study from a secondary data source because, for such a critical phenomenon as business ethics in shadow factories, collecting primary data is difficult, since they are unregistered factories. We argue that there has not been enough attention given to the ethics and responsibility in shadow factories in China. Our main goal is to demonstrate that, considering the Other, more importantly the employees, in ethical decision-making is a simple instruction beyond the narrow version of ethics by ethical codes and rules.

Keywords: Responsibility, moral impulse, shadow factories, Bauman’s moral impulse

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3 How to Reach Net Zero Emissions? On the Permissibility of Negative Emission Technologies and the Danger of Moral Hazards

Authors: Hanna Schübel, Ivo Wallimann-Helmer

Abstract:

In order to reach the goal of the Paris Agreement to not overshoot 1.5°C of warming above pre-industrial levels, various countries including the UK and Switzerland have committed themselves to net zero emissions by 2050. The employment of negative emission technologies (NETs) is very likely going to be necessary for meeting these national objectives as well as other internationally agreed climate targets. NETs are methods of removing carbon from the atmosphere and are thus a means for addressing climate change. They range from afforestation to technological measures such as direct air capture and carbon storage (DACCS), where CO2 is captured from the air and stored underground. As all so-called geoengineering technologies, the development and deployment of NETs are often subject to moral hazard arguments. As these technologies could be perceived as an alternative to mitigation efforts, so the argument goes, they are potentially a dangerous distraction from the main target of mitigating emissions. We think that this is a dangerous argument to make as it may hinder the development of NETs which are an essential element of net zero emission targets. In this paper we argue that the moral hazard argument is only problematic if we do not reflect upon which levels of emissions are at stake in order to meet net zero emissions. In response to the moral hazard argument we develop an account of which levels of emissions in given societies should be mitigated and not be the target of NETs and which levels of emissions can legitimately be a target of NETs. For this purpose, we define four different levels of emissions: the current level of individual emissions, the level individuals emit in order to appear in public without shame, the level of a fair share of individual emissions in the global budget, and finally the baseline of net zero emissions. At each level of emissions there are different subjects to be assigned responsibilities if societies and/or individuals are committed to the target of net zero emissions. We argue that all emissions within one’s fair share do not demand individual mitigation efforts. The same holds with regard to individuals and the baseline level of emissions necessary to appear in public in their societies without shame. Individuals are only under duty to reduce their emissions if they exceed this baseline level. This is different for whole societies. Societies demanding more emissions to appear in public without shame than the individual fair share are under duty to foster emission reductions and are not legitimate to reduce by introducing NETs. NETs are legitimate for reducing emissions only below the level of fair shares and for reaching net zero emissions. Since access to NETs to achieve net zero emissions demands technology not affordable to individuals there are also no full individual responsibilities to achieve net zero emissions. This is mainly a responsibility of societies as a whole.

Keywords: Climate Change, Mitigation, Responsibility, Negative Emission Technologies, moral hazard

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2 Legal Personality and Responsibility of Robots

Authors: Mehrnoosh Abouzari, Shahrokh Sahraei

Abstract:

Arrival of artificial intelligence or smart robots in the modern world put them in charge on pericise and at risk. So acting human activities with robots makes criminal or civil responsibilities for their acts or behavior. The practical usage of smart robots has entered them in to a unique situation when naturalization happens and smart robots are identifies as members of society. There would be some legal situation by adopting these new smart citizens. The first situation is about legal responsibility of robots. Recognizing the naturalization of robot involves some basic right , so humans have the rights of employment, property, housing, using energy and other human rights may be employed for robots. So how would be the practice of these rights in the society and if some problems happens with these rights, how would the civil responsibility and punishment? May we consider them as population and count on the social programs? The second episode is about the criminal responsibility of robots in important activity instead of human that is the aim of inventing robots with handling works in AI technology , but the problem arises when some accidents are happened by robots who are in charge of important activities like army, surgery, transporting, judgement and so on. Moreover, recognizing independent identification for robots in the legal world by register ID cards, naturalization and civilian rights makes and prepare the same rights and obligations of human. So, the civil responsibility is not avoidable and if the robot commit a crime it would have criminal responsibility and have to be punished. The basic component of criminal responsibility may changes in so situation. For example, if designation for criminal responsibility bounds to human by sane, maturity, voluntariness, it would be for robots by being intelligent, good programming, not being hacked and so on. So it is irrational to punish robots by prisoning , execution and other human punishments for body. We may determine to make digital punishments like changing or repairing programs, exchanging some parts of its body or wreck it down completely. Finally the responsibility of the smart robot creators, programmers, the boss in chief, the organization who employed robot, the government which permitted to use robot in important bases and activities , will be analyzing and investigating in their article.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Robot, Personality, Responsibility

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1 Educational Path for Pedagogical Skills: A Football School Experience

Authors: A. Giani

Abstract:

The current pedagogical culture recognizes an educational scope within the sports practices. It is widely accepted, in the pedagogical culture, that thanks to the acquisition and development of motor skills, it is also possible to exercise abilities that concern the way of facing and managing the difficulties of everyday life. Sport is a peculiar educational environment: the children have the opportunity to discover the possibilities of their body, to correlate with their peers, and to learn how to manage the rules and the relationship with authorities, such as coaches. Educational aspects of the sport concern both non-formal and formal educational environments. Coaches play a critical role in an agonistic sphere: exactly like the competencies developed by the children, coaches have to work on their skills to properly set up the educational scene. Facing these new educational tasks - which are not new per se, but new because they are brought back to awareness - a few questions arise: does the coach have adequate preparation? Is the training of the coach in this specific area appropriate? This contribution aims to explore the issue in depth by focusing on the reality of the Football School. Starting from a possible sense of pedagogical inadequacy detected during a series of meetings with several football clubs in Piedmont (Italy), there have been highlighted some important educational needs within the professional training of sports coaches. It is indeed necessary for the coach to know the processes underlying the educational relationship in order to better understand the centrality of the assessment during the educational intervention and to be able to manage the asymmetry in the coach-athlete relationship. In order to provide a response to these pedagogical needs, a formative plan has been designed to allow both an in-depth study of educational issues and a correct self-evaluation of certain pedagogical skills’ control levels, led by the coach. This plan has been based on particular practices, the Educational Practices of Pre-test (EPP), a specific version of community practices designed for the extracurricular activities. The above-mentioned practices realized through the use of texts meant as pre-tests, promoted a reflection within the group of coaches: they set up real and plausible sports experiences - in particular football, triggering a reflection about the relationship’s object, spaces, and methods. The characteristic aspect of pre-tests is that it is impossible to anticipate the reflection as it is necessarily connected to the personal experience and sensitivity, requiring a strong interest and involvement by participants: situations must be considered by the coaches as possible settings in which they could be found on the field.

Keywords: Values, Responsibility, self-evaluation, relational needs

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