Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Resource Related Abstracts

4 Evaluation of Shale Gas Resource Potential of the Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria

Authors: Ovye Yohanna Musah


Shale formations of the Middle Benue Trough in North Central Nigeria present a variety of opportunities for the exploration, development and exploitation of unconventional natural gas. Prospective formations range in age from Albian through Coniacian; they include the Asu River Group, Awe, Ezeaku and the Awgu formations, however, the Keana and Lafia formations are thought to be of lesser importance. The Awgu formation presents the best prospect when compared to the Barnett Shales of Fort Worth Basin in Texa, United States with regards to the organic matter maturition, TOC content of formation and shale thicknesses which are key attributes that aid in determining the economic viability of any shale gas play. The vitrinite reflectance value from Rock Eval pyrolysis for Awe and Awgu formations are 0.89—1.34(%) and 0.83—1.13(%) respectively and are good and sufficiently mature to generate gas from the Benue Trough. The TOC value are good for Awgu formation which is 0.83—6.54(%) and closest to that of the Barnett at 1—4.5(%). Asu River and Ezeaku are less viable. Furthermore, the High to Medium Volatile bituminous coals found in the Awgu formation are characterized by high TOC contents which may enhance gas generation and this is good for further examination and possible development.

Keywords: Resource, Shale Gas, unconventional, benue, TOC

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3 Cross-Layer Design of Event-Triggered Adaptive OFDMA Resource Allocation Protocols with Application to Vehicle Clusters

Authors: Shaban Guma, Naim Bajcinca


We propose an event-triggered algorithm for the solution of a distributed optimization problem by means of the projected subgradient method. Thereby, we invoke an OFDMA resource allocation scheme by applying an event-triggered sensitivity analysis at the access point. The optimal resource assignment of the subcarriers to the involved wireless nodes is carried out by considering the sensitivity analysis of the overall objective function as defined by the control of vehicle clusters with respect to the information exchange between the nodes.

Keywords: Wireless, Distributed, Resource, OFDMA, consensus, protocol, cross-layer, event-triggered, multi-vehicle

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2 Resilience in the Face of Environmental Extremes through Networking and Resource Mobilization

Authors: Abdullah Al Mohiuddin


Bangladesh is one of the poorest countries in the world, and ranks low on almost all measures of economic development, thus leaving the population extremely vulnerable to natural disasters and climate events. 20% of GDP come from agriculture but more than 60% of the population relies on agriculture as their main source of income making the entire economy vulnerable to climate change and natural disasters. High population density exacerbates the exposure to and effect of climate events, and increases the levels of vulnerability, as does the poor institutional development of the country. The most vulnerable sectors to climate change impacts in Bangladesh are agriculture, coastal zones, water resources, forestry, fishery, health, biomass, and energy. High temperatures, heavy rainfall, high humidity and fairly marked seasonal variations characterize the climate in Bangladesh: Mild winter, hot humid summer and humid, warm rainy monsoon. Much of the country is flooded during the summer monsoon. The Department of Environment (DOE) under the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF) is the focal point for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and coordinates climate related activities in the country. Recently, a Climate Change Cell (CCC) has been established to address several issues including adaptation to climate change. The climate change focus started with The National Environmental Management Action Plan (NEMAP) which was prepared in 1995 in order to initiate the process to address environmental and climate change issues as long-term environmental problems for Bangladesh. Bangladesh was one of the first countries to finalise a NAPA (Preparation of a National Adaptation Plan of Action) which addresses climate change issues. The NAPA was completed in 2005, and is the first official initiative for mainstreaming adaptation to national policies and actions to cope with climate change and vulnerability. The NAPA suggests a number of adaptation strategies, for example: - Providing drinking water to coastal communities to fight the enhanced salinity caused by sea level rise, - Integrating climate change in planning and design of infrastructure, - Including climate change issues in education, - Supporting adaptation of agricultural systems to new weather extremes, - Mainstreaming CCA into policies and programmes in different sectors, e.g. disaster management, water and health, - Dissemination of CCA information and awareness raising on enhanced climate disasters, especially in vulnerable communities. Bangladesh has geared up its environment conservation steps to save the world’s poorest countries from the adverse effects of global warming. Now it is turning towards green economy policies to save the degrading ecosystem. Bangladesh is a developing country and always fights against Natural Disaster. At the same time we also fight for establishing ecological environment through promoting Green Economy/Energy by Youth Networking. ANTAR is coordinating a big Youth Network in the southern part of Bangladesh where 30 Youth group involved. It can be explained as the economic development based on sustainable development which generates growth and improvement in human’s lives while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities. Green economy in Bangladesh promotes three bottom lines – sustaining economic, environment and social well-being.

Keywords: Networking, Resource, Resilience, mobilizing

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1 Mature Field Rejuvenation Using Hydraulic Fracturing: A Case Study of Tight Mature Oilfield with Reveal Simulator

Authors: Mohamed Hassan, Amjad Shah, Amir Gharavi


The main characteristics of unconventional reservoirs include low-to ultra low permeability and low-to-moderate porosity. As a result, hydrocarbon production from these reservoirs requires different extraction technologies than from conventional resources. An unconventional reservoir must be stimulated to produce hydrocarbons at an acceptable flow rate to recover commercial quantities of hydrocarbons. Permeability for unconventional reservoirs is mostly below 0.1 mD, and reservoirs with permeability above 0.1 mD are generally considered to be conventional. The hydrocarbon held in these formations naturally will not move towards producing wells at economic rates without aid from hydraulic fracturing which is the only technique to assess these tight reservoir productions. Horizontal well with multi-stage fracking is the key technique to maximize stimulated reservoir volume and achieve commercial production. The main objective of this research paper is to investigate development options for a tight mature oilfield. This includes multistage hydraulic fracturing and spacing by building of reservoir models in the Reveal simulator to model potential development options based on sidetracking the existing vertical well. To simulate potential options, reservoir models have been built in the Reveal. An existing Petrel geological model was used to build the static parts of these models. A FBHP limit of 40bars was assumed to take into account pump operating limits and to maintain the reservoir pressure above the bubble point. 300m, 600m and 900m lateral length wells were modelled, in conjunction with 4, 6 and 8 stages of fracs. Simulation results indicate that higher initial recoveries and peak oil rates are obtained with longer well lengths and also with more fracs and spacing. For a 25year forecast, the ultimate recovery ranging from 0.4% to 2.56% for 300m and 1000m laterals respectively. The 900m lateral with 8 fracs 100m spacing gave the highest peak rate of 120m3/day, with the 600m and 300m cases giving initial peak rates of 110m3/day. Similarly, recovery factor for the 900m lateral with 8 fracs and 100m spacing was the highest at 2.65% after 25 years. The corresponding values for the 300m and 600m laterals were 2.37% and 2.42%. Therefore, the study suggests that longer laterals with 8 fracs and 100m spacing provided the optimal recovery, and this design is recommended as the basis for further study.

Keywords: Hydraulic, Resource, fracturing, unconventional

Procedia PDF Downloads 152