Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 56

Resistance Related Abstracts

56 Baseline Data for Insecticide Resistance Monitoring in Tobacco Caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Cole Crops

Authors: Balwinder Singh, Prabhjot Kaur, B.K. Kang

Abstract:

The tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an agricultural important pest species. S. litura has a wide host range of approximately recorded 150 plant species worldwide. In Punjab, this pest attains sporadic status primarily on cauliflower, Brassica oleracea (L.). This pest destroys vegetable crop and particularly prefers the cruciferae family. However, it is also observed feeding on other crops such as arbi, Colocasia esculenta (L.), mung bean, Vigna radiata (L.), sunflower, Helianthus annuus (L.), cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), castor, Ricinus communis (L.), etc. Larvae of this pest completely devour the leaves of infested plant resulting in huge crop losses which ranges from 50 to 70 per cent. Indiscriminate and continuous use of insecticides has contributed in development of insecticide resistance in insects and caused the environmental degradation as well. Moreover, a base line data regarding the toxicity of the newer insecticides would help in understanding the level of resistance developed in this pest and any possible cross-resistance there in, which could be assessed in advance. Therefore, present studies on development of resistance in S. litura against four new chemistry insecticides (emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, indoxacarb and spinosad) were carried out in the Toxicology laboratory, Department of Entomology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India during the year 2011-12. Various stages of S. litura (eggs, larvae) were collected from four different locations (Malerkotla, Hoshiarpur, Amritsar and Samrala) of Punjab. Resistance is developed in third instars of lepidopterous pests. Therefore, larval bioassays were conducted to estimate the response of field populations of thirty third-instar larvae of S. litura under laboratory conditions at 25±2°C and 65±5 per cent relative humidity. Leaf dip bioassay technique with diluted insecticide formulations recommended by Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) was performed in the laboratory with seven to ten treatments depending on the insecticide class, respectively. LC50 values were estimated by probit analysis after correction to record control mortality data which was used to calculate the resistance ratios (RR). The LC50 values worked out for emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, indoxacarb, spinosad are 0.081, 0.088, 0.380, 4.00 parts per million (ppm) against pest populations collected from Malerkotla; 0.051, 0.060, 0.250, 3.00 (ppm) of Amritsar; 0.002, 0.001, 0.0076, 0.10 ppm for Samrala and 0.000014, 0.00001, 0.00056, 0.003 ppm against pest population of Hoshiarpur, respectively. The LC50 values for populations collected from these four locations were in the order Malerkotla>Amritsar>Samrala>Hoshiarpur for the insecticides (emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, indoxacarb and spinosad) tested. Based on LC50 values obtained, emamectin benzoate (0.000014 ppm) was found to be the most toxic among all the tested populations, followed by chlorantraniliprole (0.00001 ppm), indoxacarb (0.00056 ppm) and spinosad (0.003 ppm), respectively. The pairwise correlation coefficients of LC50 values indicated that there was lack of cross resistance for emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, spinosad, indoxacarb in populations of S. litura from Punjab. These insecticides may prove to be promising substitutes for the effective control of insecticide resistant populations of S. litura in Punjab state, India.

Keywords: Toxicity, Resistance, Insecticides, Spodoptera litura

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55 Microwave-Assisted Eradication of Wool

Authors: M. Salama, K. Haggag, H. El-Sayed

Abstract:

An environmentally and ecologically acceptable method for eradication of wool fabrics based on microwave irradiation (MWI) was described. The process would be a suitable alternative for mothproofing of wool using toxic degradative chemical or biological methods. The effect of microwave irradiation and exposure time on the extent of eradication of wool fabrics from moth larvae was monitored. The inherent properties of the MW-irradiated wool fabrics; viz. tensile properties, alkali solubility, and yellowing index, were not adversely altered.

Keywords: Resistance, Microwave, Wool, Fabric, moth, eradication

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54 Rapid Detection of MBL Genes by SYBR Green Based Real-Time PCR

Authors: Taru Singh, Shukla Das, V. G. Ramachandran

Abstract:

Objectives: To develop SYBR green based real-time PCR assay to detect carbapenemases (NDM, IMP) genes in E. coli. Methods: A total of 40 E. coli from stool samples were tested. Six were previously characterized as resistant to carbapenems and documented by PCR. The remaining 34 isolates previously tested susceptible to carbapenems and were negative for these genes. Bacterial RNA was extracted using manual method. The real-time PCR was performed using the Light Cycler III 480 instrument (Roche) and specific primers for each carbapenemase target were used. Results: Each one of the two carbapenemase gene tested presented a different melting curve after PCR amplification. The melting temperature (Tm) analysis of the amplicons identified was as follows: blaIMP type (Tm 82.18°C), blaNDM-1 (Tm 78.8°C). No amplification was detected among the negative samples. The results showed 100% concordance with the genotypes previously identified. Conclusions: The new assay was able to detect the presence of two different carbapenemase gene type by real-time PCR.

Keywords: Resistance, E. coli, b-lactamases, real-time PCR

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53 Political and Economic Transition of People with Disabilities Related to Globalization

Authors: Jihye Jeon

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the political and economic issues that people with disabilities face related to globalization; how people with disabilities have been adapting globalization and surviving under worldwide competition system. It explains that economic globalization exacerbates inequality and deprivation of people with disabilities. The rising tide of neo-liberal welfare policies emphasized efficiency, downsized social expenditure for people with disabilities, excluded people with disabilities against labor market, and shifted them from welfare system to nothing. However, there have been people with disabilities' political responses to globalization, which are characterized by a global network of people with disabilities as well as participation to global governance. Their resistance can be seen as an attempt to tackle the problems that economic globalization has produced. It is necessary paradigm shift of disability policy from dependency represented by disability benefits to independency represented by labor market policies for people with disabilities.

Keywords: Resistance, Economic Globalization, people with disability, deprivation, welfare cut, disability right movement

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52 Monitoring Prolong Use of Intravenous Antibiotics: Antimicrobial Stewardship

Authors: Komal Fizza

Abstract:

Irrational and non-judicious use of antibiotics pave the way for an upsurge in antibiotic resistance, diminished effectiveness of different therapeutic regimens and as well as impounding effect on disease management leading to further morbidities. In the backdrop of this the current research is aimed to assess whether antimicrobial prescribing is in accordance with the Infectious Disease Society of America Guidelines in hospitalized patients at Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan. Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad is a 500 bed hospital. With the help of MIS team a form wad developed that gave the information about medical records number, name of the patient, day of start of antibiotic, the day antibiotic is supposed to be stopped and as well as the diagnosis of the patient. A ward pharmacist was employed to generate this report on a daily basis. The therapeutic regiment was reviewed by the pharmacist by monitoring the clinical progress, laboratory report and diagnosis. On the basis of this information, pharmacist made suggestions and forwarded to the hospital doctors responsible for prescribing antibiotics. If desired, changes were made regularly. In the current research our main focus was to implement this action and therefore, started monitoring patients who were on antibiotic regimens for more than 10-15 days. We took this initiative since November, 2013. At the start of the program a maximum 19 patients/day were reported to be on antibiotic regimen for more than 10-15 days. After the implementation of the initiative, the number of patients was decreased to fifteen patients per day in December, further decreased to 7 in the month of January and 9 and 6 in February and March respectively. The average patient census was 350. The current pilot study highlighted the role of pharmacist in initiating antibiotic stewardship programs in hospital settings.

Keywords: Resistance, Stewardship, Antibiotics, clinical process

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51 Representation of “Gezi Parkı Actions” in Media and Resistance

Authors: Sibel Özkan

Abstract:

This study aims to set forth the perception of young people in Turkey about “Gezi Parkı Actions” which has been represented by different views on social and traditional media. In-depth interview method was carried out with all of the participants who consisted of high school students. All interviews has been conducted in areas where the actions take place and the numbers of participants who are using and not using social media were equal. There are minor differences between young people who are using and not using social media. Participants who are not using social media had an opinion only about saving nature aspect of Gezi Parkı Actions. On the other hand, people who are using social media had another reasons such as freedom of expression, respect to the lifestyles etc. to join Gezi Parkı Actions. It was found that young people do not completely trust traditional media anymore.

Keywords: Social Media, Resistance, Gezi Parkı, hegemony

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50 Identification and Characterization of Heavy Metal Resistant Bacteria from the Klip River

Authors: P. Chihomvu, P. Stegmann, M. Pillay

Abstract:

Pollution of the Klip River has caused microorganisms inhabiting it to develop protective survival mechanisms. This study isolated and characterized the heavy metal resistant bacteria in the Klip River. Water and sediment samples were collected from six sites along the course of the river. The pH, turbidity, salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen were measured in-situ. The concentrations of six heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn) of the water samples were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Biochemical and antibiotic profiles of the isolates were assessed using the API 20E® and Kirby Bauer Method. Growth studies were carried out using spectrophotometric methods. The isolates were identified using 16SrDNA sequencing. The uppermost part of the Klip River with the lowest pH had the highest levels of heavy metals. Turbidity, salinity and specific conductivity increased measurably at Site 4 (Henley on Klip Weir). MIC tests showed that 16 isolates exhibited high iron and lead resistance. Antibiotic susceptibility tests revealed that the isolates exhibited multi-tolerances to drugs such as tetracycline, ampicillin, and amoxicillin.

Keywords: Resistance, Heavy Metals, Klip River

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49 Examples from a Traditional Sismo-Resistant Architecture

Authors: Sara Zatir, Amira Zatir, Abderahmane Mokhtari, Amina Foufa

Abstract:

It exists in several regions in the world, of numerous historic monuments, buildings and housing environment, built in traditional ways which survive for earthquakes, even in zones where the seismic risk is particularly raised. These constructions, stemming from vernacular architecture, allow, through their resistances in the time earthquakes, to identify the various sismo-resistant "local" techniques. Through the examples and the experiences presented, the remark which can be made, is that in the traditional built, two major principles in a way opposite, govern the constructions in earthquake-resistant. It is about the very big flexibility, whom answer very light constructions, like the Japanese wooden constructions, Turkish and even Chinese; that of the very big rigidity to which correspond constructions in masonry in particular stone, more or less heavy and massive, which we meet in particular in the Mediterranean Basin, and in the historic sanctuary of Machu Pacchu. In it sensible and well-reflected techniques of construction are added, of which the use of the humble materials such as the earth and the adobe. The ancient communities were able to face the seismic risks, thanks to them know-how reflected in their intelligently designed constructions, testifying of a local seismic culture.

Keywords: Construction, Earthquake, Architecture, Resistance, traditional

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48 Resistance of Haemonchus spp. to Albendazole, Fenbendazole and Levamisole in 4 Goat Farms of Antioquia, Colombia

Authors: Jose D. Zapata-Torres, Esteban Naranjo-Gutiérrez, Angela M. Martínez-Valencia, Jenny J. Chaparro-Gutiérrez, David Villar-Argaiz

Abstract:

Reports of drug resistance have been made in every livestock host and to every anthelmintic class. In some regions of world, the extremely high prevalence of multi-drug resistance in nematodes of sheep and goats threatens the viability of small-ruminant industries. In the region of Antioquia, Colombia, no reports of nematode resistance have been documented due to a lack of veterinary diagnostic laboratories. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of albendazole, fenbendazole, and levamisole to control gastrointestinal nematodes in goat farms of Antioquia by doing fecal egg count reduction tests. A total of 139 crossbreed goats from four separate farms were sampled for feces prior to, and 14 days following anthelmintc treatments. Individual fecal egg counts were performed using the modified three chamber McMaster technique. The anthelmintics administered at day 0 were albendazole (farm 1, n=63), fenbendazole (farm 2, n=20), and levamisole (farm 3 and 4, n= 37, and 19). Larval cultures were used to identify the genus of nematodes using Baermann`s technique and the morphological keys for identification of L3 in small ruminants. There was no difference in fecal egg counts between 0 and 14, with means (±SD) of 1681,5 ± 2121,5 and 1715,12 ± 1895,4 epg (eggs per gram), respectively. The egg count reductions for each anthelmintic and farm were 25,86% for albendazole (farm 1), 0% for fenbendazole (farm 2), 0% (farm 3), and 5,5% (farm 4) for levamisole. The genus of nematodes identified was predominantly Haemonchus spp., with 70,27% and 82,81% for samples from day 0 and 14, respectively. These results provide evidence of a total state of resistance to 3 common anthelmintics. Further research is needed to design integrate management programs to control nematodes in small ruminants in Colombia.

Keywords: Resistance, Goat, anthelmintics, haemonchus

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47 Is Presence of Psychotic Features Themselves Carry a Risk for Metabolic Syndrome?

Authors: Rady A., Elsheshai A., Elsawy M., Nagui R.

Abstract:

Background and Aim: Metabolic syndrome affect around 20% of general population , authors have incriminated antipsychotics as serious risk factor that may provoke such derangement. The aim of our study is to assess metabolic syndrome in patients presenting psychotic features (delusions and hallucinations) whether schizophrenia or mood disorder and compare results in terms of drug naïf, on medication and healthy control. Subjects and Methods: The study recruited 40 schizophrenic patients, half of them drug naïf and the other half on antipsychotics, 40 patients with mood disorder with psychotic features, half of them drug naïf and the other half on medication, 20 healthy control. Exclusion criteria were put in order to exclude patients having already endocrine or metabolic disorders that my interfere with results obtain to minimize confusion bias. Metabolic syndrome assessed by measuring parameters including weight, body mass index, waist circumference, triglyceride level, HDL, fasting glucose, fasting insulin and insulin resistance Results: No difference was found when comparing drug naïf to those on medication in both schizophrenic and psychotic mood disorder arms, schizophrenic patients whether on medication or drug naïf should difference with control group for fasting glucose, schizophrenic patients on medication also showed difference in insulin resistance compared to control group. On the other hand, patients with psychotic mood disorder whether drug naïf or on medication showed difference from control group for fasting insulin level. Those on medication also differed from control for insulin resistance Conclusion: Our study didn’t reveal difference in metabolic syndrome among patients with psychotic features whether on medication or drug naïf. Only patients with Psychotic features on medication showed insulin resistance. Schizophrenic patients drug naïf or on medication tend to show higher fasting glucose while psychotic mood disorder whether drug naïf or on medication tend to show higher fasting insulin. This study suggest that presence of psychotic features themselves regardless being on medication or not carries a risk for insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Limitation: This study is limited by number of participants and larger numbers in future studies should be included in order to extrapolate results. Cohort longitudinal studies are needed in order to evaluate such hypothesis.

Keywords: Resistance, Schizophrenia, metabolic syndrome, psychosis, insulin

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46 Microbiological Examination and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Microorganisms Isolated from Salt Mining Site in Ebonyi State

Authors: U. C. C. Egbule, J. O. Orji, C. J. Aneke, Anyimc, O. Nworie

Abstract:

The microbial examination and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of microorganism isolated from the salt mining site in Ebonyi state were evaluated in the present study using a standard microbiological technique. A total of 300 samples were randomly collected in three sample groups (A, B, and C) of 100 each. Isolation, Identification and characterization of organization present on the soil samples were determined by culturing, gram-staining and biochemical technique. The result showed the following organisms were isolated with their frequency as follow: Bacillus species (37.3%) and Staphylococcus species(23.5%) had the highest frequency in the whole Sample group A and B while Klebsiella specie (15.7%), Pseudomonas species(13.7%), and Erwinia species (9.8%) had the least. Rhizopus species (42.0%) and Aspergillus species (26.0%) were the highest fungi isolated, followed by Penicillum species (20.0%) while Mucor species (4.0%), and Fusarium species (8.0%) recorded the least. Sample group C showed high microbial population of all the microbial isolates when compared to sample group A and B. Disc diffusion method was used to determine the susceptibility of isolated bacteria to various antibiotics (oxfloxacin, pefloxacin, ciprorex, augumentin, gentamycin, ciproflox, septrin, ampicillin), while agar well diffusion method was used to determine the susceptibility of isolated fungi to some antifungal drugs (metronidazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole fluconazole). The antibacterial activity of the antibiotics used showed that ciproflux has the best inhibitory effect on all the test bacteria. Ketoconazole showed the highest inhibitory effect on the fungal isolates, followed by itraconazole, while metronidazole and fluconazole showed the least inhibitory effect on the entire test fungal isolates. Hence, the multiple drug resistance of most isolates to appropriate drugs of choice are of great public health concern and cells for periodic monitoring of antibiograms to detect possible changing patterns. Microbes isolated in the salt mining site can also be used as a source of gene(s) that can increase salt tolerance in different crop species through genetic engineering.

Keywords: Resistance, Antibacterial, Microorganisms, Antifungal, salt mining site, Ebonyi State

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45 Surface Modification of SUS-304 Using Nitriding Treatment for Application of Bipolar Plates of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

Authors: Wei-Ru Chang, Jenn-Jiang Hwang, Zen-Ting Hsiao, Shu-Feng Lee

Abstract:

Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are widely used in electrical systems as an economical, low-polluting energy source. This study investigates the effects of PEMFC gas nitriding treatment on metal bipolar plates. The test material was SUS304 stainless steel. The study explored five different pretreatment processes, varying the corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity conditions. The most effective process was industrial acid washing, followed by heating to 500 °C. Under the condition, the corrosion current density was 8.695 μA, significantly lower than that of the untreated pretreatment sample flakes, which was measured as 38.351 μA.

Keywords: Resistance, Corrosion, Pretreatment, Bipolar, Nitriding

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44 Political Islam: From Coinage to Hot Debate

Authors: Sajid Iqbal Sheikh

Abstract:

From almost last 100 years 'political islam' has diversity in its usage as terminology in the speculative works of both muslim and non-muslims theorists. 'Political islam' as a term was coined consciously as equal to the 'militant islam' and “Terrorist Islam” vs “Plain Islam” and “Modern Islam” etc. Many paradigm shifts tamed the term into one of the hottest debate of the day. This research paper aims to categorize historical linkage of its coinage, development phases and present status. Based on content analysis, Narrative approach has been utilized for the sake of dexterous conclusion. The paper treasures out that Western dominance on civilizational and political spheres of the holistic world considers 'political islam' a gigantic threat and plans to resist it in theoretic and practical fields simultaneously. Despite minor strategic variances, the ideological followers of Syed Qutab, Mulana Mudoodi and Hasan Al-Bana, are struggling hard for the achievement of their ultimate goal of Political change, specifically in the Muslim World in the prior phase. The paper concludes that Resistance to Islamic resurgence and its Political goals is being observed in most of the Muslim world, especially in the Turkey, Algeria, Egypt, Tsunia and Yeman etc, which is a basic cause of contrary reaction in the Muslim World.

Keywords: Resistance, electoral process, islamic resurgence, islamic political theory, muslim response, western hegemony

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43 Effect of Resistance Exercise on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis

Authors: Saeed Shirali, Alireza Barari, Ahmad Abdi

Abstract:

Abstract: Introduction: Physical activity may be related to male reproductive function by affecting on thehypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal(HPG) axis. Our aim was to determine the effects of 6 weeks resistance exercise on reproductive hormones, HPG axis. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis refers tothe effects of endocrine glands in three-level including (i) the hypothalamic releasing hormone GnRH, which is synthesized in in a small heterogenous neuronal population and released in a pulsatile fashion, (ii) the anterior pituitary hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) and (iii) the gonadal hormones, which include both steroid such as testosterone (T), estradiol and progesterone and peptide hormones (such as inhibin). Hormonal changes that create a more anabolic environment have been suggested to contribute to the adaptation to strength exercise. Physical activity has an extensive impact on male reproductive function depending upon the intensity and duration of the exercise and the fitness level of the individual. However, strenuous exercise represents a physical stress and inflammation changed that challenges homeostasis. Materials and methods: Sixteen male volunteered were included in a 6-week control period followed by 6 weeks of resistance training (leg press, lat pull, chest press, squat, seatedrow, abdominal crunch, shoulder press, biceps curl and triceps press down) four times per week. intensity of training loading was 60%-75% of one maximum repetition. Participants performed 3 sets of 10 repetitions. Rest periods were two min between exercises and sets. Start with warm up exercises include: The muscles relax and stretch the body, which was for 10 minutes. Body composition, VO2max and the circulating level of free testosterone (fT), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and inhibin B measured prior and post 6-week intervention. The hormonal levels of each serum sample were measured using commercially available ELISA kits. Analysis of anthropometrical data and hormonal level were compared using the independent samples t- test in both groups and using SPSS (version 19). P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: For muscle strength, both lower- and upper-body strength were increased significantly. Aerobic fitness level improved in trained participant from 39.4 ± 5.6 to 41.9 ± 5.3 (P = 0.002). fT concentration rise progressively in the trained group and was significantly greater than those in the control group (P = 0.000). By the end of the 6-week resistance training, serum SHBG significantly increased in the trained group compared with the control group (P = 0.013). In response to resistance training, LH, FSH and inhibin B were not significantly changed. Discussion: According to our finfings, 6 weeks of resistance training induce fat loss without any changes in body weight and BMI. A decline of 25.3% in percentage of body fat with statiscally same weight was due to increase in muscle mass that happened during resistance exercise periods . Six weeks of resistance training resulted in significant improvement in BF%, VO2max and increasing strength and the level of fT and SHBG.

Keywords: Resistance, hypothalamic, pituitary, gonadal axis

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42 Current Status of Mosquitoes Vector Research and Control in Iran

Authors: Seyed Hassan Moosa-kazemi, Hassan Vatandoost

Abstract:

Malaria, Dirofilaria immitis (dog heart worm), and D. repens (dirofilariasis), which are transmitted by mosquitoes, have been reported in Iran. The Iranian mosquito fauna includes seven genera, 65 species, and three subspecies. Aedes albopictus has been reported since. West Nile, Sindbis, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis viruses, and the nematode Setaria (setariasis) has been reported in the country but there are no information about their vectors in Iran. Iran is malaria elimination phase. Insecticides residual spraying (IRS), distributed of insecticides long lasting treated nets (ITNs), fogging, release of larvivours fishes and Bacillus thuringiensis, chemical larviciding, as well as case finding and manipulation and modification of breeding places carried out thought the IVM program in the country. Prolonged exposure to insecticides over several generations of the vectors, develop resistance, a capacity to survive contact with insecticides. However, use of insecticides in agriculture has often been implicated as contributing to resistance in mosquito’s vectors. Resistance of mosquitoes to some insecticides has been documented just within a few years after the insecticides were introduced. Some enzymes such as monooxygenases, esterases and glutathione S-transferases have been considered as a reason for resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. In conclusion, regarding to documented resistance and tolerance of mosquitoes vectors to some insecticides, resistance management is suggested by using new insecticide with novel mode of action.

Keywords: Control, Resistance, Iran, vector

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41 Evaluation of Genetic Resistance to Haemonchus Contortus in Teddy and Beetal Goat Breeds of Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Nisar Khan, Muhammad Saqib, Muhammad S. Sajid, Asim Shamim, Ashfaq A. Chatta

Abstract:

Goats (Capra hircus) are a valued asset for resource poor farmers globally. But the parasitic infection especially Haemonchus contortus (Trichostrongylid), impact the health and production of goats globally. The present study intended to evaluate resilient and resistance to Haemonchus contortus in indigenous goat breeds (Teddy and Beetal) of Punjab, Pakistan. Out of 60, 30 goats of each breed were divided into 6 groups and each group contain five goats. Two group of each breed received challenged infection with 12000 and 18000 L3 (third stage) larvae of Haemonchus contortus under two infection protocol that is early and trickle and remaining two group of each breed was kept as control. Resilient and resistance of each breed was then measured on the basis of their phenotypic markers like: faecal egg counts, packed cell volume, FAMACHA score system, body weight, total protein, albumin and worm count on 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th week of post infection. Variation in response of each goat breeds to Haemonchus contortus was observed. Teddy breed showed significant (P < 0.05)resistance as compared to Beetal. It is probably first attempt to report an evaluation of goat breed response towards Haemonchus contortus in Pakistan. It was concluded that Teddy goats have a greater genetic tendency to resist against to the Haemonchus contortus infection and this breed could be kept and bred from the economic point of view. Evaluation of genetic markers are like: gene, protein expression, Immunoglobulin, Histamines and interleukins determination are recommended for future studies which can be helpful to be fined resistant breed of goats.

Keywords: Resistance, Resilience, Goat, Haemonchus contortus, beetal, teddy, phenotypic markers

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40 β-Lactamase Inhibitory Effects of Anchusa azurea Extracts

Authors: Hayat Trabsa, Lekhmici Arrar, Abderrahmane Baghiani, Naoual Boussoualim, Iman Krache

Abstract:

Resistance to antibiotics has emerged following their widespread use; the important mechanism of beta-lactam resistance in bacteria is the production of beta-lactamase. In order to find new bioactive beta-lactamase inhibitors, this study investigated the inhibition effect of the extracts of Anchusa azurea (AA) on a beta-lactamase from Bacillus cereus. The extracts exerted inhibitory effects on beta-lactamase in a dose-dependent manner, the results showed that the crude extract (BrE) and the ethyl acetate extract (AcE) of Anchusa azurea showed a very high inhibitory activity at a concentration of 10 mg, the percentage of inhibition was between 58% and 68%. Not all extracts were as potent as the original inhibitors such as clavulanic acid, the isolation and the structural elucidation of the active constituents in these extracts will provide useful means in the development of beta -lactamase inhibitors.

Keywords: Resistance, Antibiotics, Natural Product, inhibitors, Anchusa azurea, beta-lactamase

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39 Mechanisms of Cultural Change Resistance through Cultures

Authors: Horaya Mostafa Ahmed

Abstract:

All cultures are inherently predisposed to change and, at the same time, to resisting change. There are dynamic processes operating that encourage the acceptance of new ideas and things, while there are others that encourage changeless stability. Despite the dramatic changes that have taken place in all human cultures, there are cultures still steadfast and resist change. These cultures resist through some culture mechanisms like, cultural boundaries, ethnocentrism, religion, and cultural relativity. So this paper is an attempt to discover these mechanisms of cultural change resistance and to ask is cultural change always required.

Keywords: Resistance, Religion, Cultural Change, ethnocentrism, cultural boundaries, cultural relativity

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38 Effects of New Anthraquinone Derivatives on Resistance Ovarian Cancer Cells and The Mechanism Investigation

Authors: Hui-Hsin Huang, Sheng-Tung Huang, Chi-Ming Lee, Chiao-Han Yen, Chun-Mao Lin

Abstract:

At initiation stage, there are no symptoms at initiation stage; however, at late stage, patients suffer symptoms as soon as ovarian cancer metastasis. Moreover, ovarian cancer cells are resistant to some anti-ovarian cancer drugs in clinical. Thus, it is very important to find an effective treatment for resistant ovarian cancer. Anthraquinone derivatives are able to induce DNA damage and lead to cell apoptosis, so several derivatives have been used for clinical application. Therefore, to explore more effective anti-ovarian cancer drugs, this study investigates the mechanism of three new anthraquinone compounds bearing different functional groups to camptothecin-resistance ovarian cell line A2780R2000. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay after treating A2780R2000 with the three new anthraquinone compounds. The results indicated that IC50 values are 33.44μM (Compound I), 25.77μM (Compound II) and 24.59μM (Compound III). Next, through cell cycle analysis, the results demonstrated that three new anthraquinone compounds not only induced A2780R2000 cell cycle arrest at early stage but also apoptosis at late stage. Besides, through apoptosis assay, the results indicated new anthraquinone compound induced apoptosis at late stage. Furthermore, the results of western blot show that the three new anthraquinone compounds lead to A2780R2000 apoptosis through intrinsic pathway. Theses results suggested that three new anthraquinone compounds may be potential new drugs for clinical cancer treatment in the future.

Keywords: Resistance, Ovarian Cancer, Anthraquinone, camptothecin

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37 Drought Resistance of Nursery Grown Betel Nut (Areca catechu L.) under the Influences of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza MycoVAM

Authors: Eric Bimmoy

Abstract:

The aim of the study conducted inside screen house is to determine the effect of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza MycoVAM Glomus mosseae or Glomus fasciculatum on the drought resistance of Betel nut (Areca catechu). The study revealed that there is a highly significant growth increment and drought resistance of planted seedling inoculated with VAM compared to uninoculated seedling. The study revealed not significant under well water condition after 60 days. Growths are higher in inoculated seedlings compared to uninoculated seedlings. Seventy days (75) days after planting there was a highly significant difference in inoculated plants. It is not significant in height increment after 90 days, although the height percentage increase in inoculated seedlings was higher. The water stressed Areca catechu seedlings inoculated with VAM significantly increases total shoot height with increment of 72.34 while days before wilting 65.89 and 88.68 in the leaf water content. This demonstrates the result provided by VAM in the development of seedlings.

Keywords: Resistance, Symbiosis, vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza MycoVAM, water stressed

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36 The Impact of Foliar Application of the Calcium-Containing Compounds in Increasing Resistance to Blue Mold on Apples

Authors: Masoud Baghalian, Musa Arshad

Abstract:

In order to investigate the effect of foliar application of calcium chloride on the resistance of fruits such as Red and Golden Lebanese apple varieties to blue mold, a split plot experiment in time and space, based on accidental blocks, with three replications under foliar application were done (Control, one in a thousand, two in thousands) and the results of the variance analysis showed that there is a significant difference between the levels of foliar and variety at 5% level and between time, there is significant difference in interaction of variety × time and three way interaction of foliar×variety×time, at 1% level. The highest resistance to the blue mold disease in foliar application was observed at two in thousands calcium (calcium chloride) level.

Keywords: Resistance, Apple, blue mold, foliar calcium

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35 Bacteriological Spectrum and Resistance Patterns of Common Clinical Isolates from Infections in Cancer Patients

Authors: Vivek Bhat, Rohini Kelkar, Sanjay Biswas

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Introduction: Cancer patients are at increased risk of bacterial infections. This may due to the disease process itself, the effect of chemotherapeutic drugs or invasive procedures such as catheterization. A wide variety of bacteria including some emerging pathogens are increasingly being reported from these patients. The incidence of multidrug-resistant organisms particularly in the Gram negative group is also increasing, with higher resistance rates seen to cephalosporins, β-lactam/β-lactam inhibitor combinations, and the carbapenems. This study documents the bacteriological spectrum of infections and their resistance patterns in cancer patients. Methods: This study includes all bacterial isolates recovered from infections cancer patients over a period of 18 months. Samples included Blood cultures, Pus/wound swabs, urine, tissue biopsies, body fluids, catheter tips and respiratory specimens such as sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). All samples were processed in the microbiology laboratory as per standard laboratory protocols. Organisms were identified to species level and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed manually by the disc diffusion technique or in the Vitek-2 (Biomereux, France) instrument. Interpretations were as per Clinical laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: A total of 1150 bacterial isolates were cultured from 884 test samples during the study period. Of these 227 were Gram-positive and 923 were Gram-negative organisms. Staphylococcus aureus (99 isolates) was the commonest Gram-positive isolate followed by Enterococcus (79) and Gr A Streptococcus (30). Among the Gram negatives, E. coli (304), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (201) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (190) were the most common. Of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates 27.2% were methicillin resistant. Only 5.06% enterococci were vancomycin resistant. High rates of resistance to cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin were seen amongst E. coli (84.8% & 83.55%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (71 & 62.1%) respectively. Resistance to carbapenems (meropenem) was high at 70% in Acinetobacter spp.; however all isolates were sensitive to colistin. Among the aminoglycosides, amikacin retained good efficacy against Escherichia coli (82.9%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (78.1%). Occasional isolates of emerging pathogens such as Chryseobacterium indologens, Roseomonas, and Achromobacter xyloxidans were also recovered. Conclusion: The common infections in cancer patients include respiratory, wound, tract infections and sepsis. The commonest isolates include Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococci, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. There is a high level of resistance to the commonly used antibiotics among Gram-negative organisms.

Keywords: Cancer, Resistance, Infection, Bacteria

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34 Characterization of β-Lactamases Resistance amongst Acinetobacter Baumannii Isolated from Clinical Samples, Egypt

Authors: Amal Saafan, Kareem Al Sofy, Sameh AbdelGhani, Magdy Amin

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Background: Acinetobacter spp. resistance towards β-lactam antibiotics is mediated mainly by different classes of β-lactamases production; detection of some genes responsible for production of β-lactamases is the objective of the study. Methods: One hundred fifty bacterial isolates were recovered from blood, sputum, and urine specimens from different hospitals in Egypt. Sixty-nine isolate were identified as Acinetobacter baumannii using traditional biochemical tests, CHROM agar, MicroScan and PCR amplification of blaoxa-51like gene. Acinetobacterbaumannii isolates were grouped into carbapenem resistant group (GP1), cefotaxime, ceftazidime and cefoxitin resistant group (GP2) and carbapenem and cephalosporin non-resistant group (GP3). Carbapenemase activity was screened using modified Hodge test (MHT) for GP1.Metallo-β-lactamases screening was performed for MHT positive isolates using double disk synergy test (DDST) and combined disk test (CDT). Amp C activity was screened using Amp C disk test with Tris-EDTA, DDST, and CDT for GP2. Finally, PCR amplification of blaoxa-51like, blaoxa-23like, blaIMP-like, blaVIM-like, and blaADC-like genes was performed for isolates that showed, at least, two positive results of three for both AmpC and carbapenemases phenotypic screening tests (obvious activity), in addition to GP3 (for comparison). Detection of blaoxa-51like and blaADC-like genes preceded by ISAba1 was also performed. Results: Antibiogram of 69 pure Acinetobacter baumannii isolates resulted in 57, 64, and 2 isolates enrolled into GP1, GP2, and GP3, respectively. Carbapenemase activity was shown by 49(85.9%) isolate using MHT. Metallo-β-lactamases screening revealed 32(65.3%) and 35(71.4%) using DDST and CDT, respectively.AmpC activity was shown by 43(67.2%) and 50 (78.1%) isolates using AmpC disk test with Tris-EDTA, and both DDST and CDT, respectively. Twenty-seven isolates showed obvious activity, all of them (100%) were harboring blaoxa-51like and blaADC-like genes, while blaoxa-23like, blaIMP-like andblaVIM-like genes were harbored by 23(85.2%), 9 (33.%) and no isolate respectively. Only 12 (44.4%) isolates harbored blaoxa-51like and blaADC-like genes preceded by ISAba1. GP3 isolates showed only positive blaoxa-51like and blaADC-like genes. Conclusion: It is not possible to correlate resistance with presence of blaoxa-51like and blaADC-like genes and presence of ISAba1 was immediate as transcriptional promoter. A blaoxa-23like gene played an important role in carbapenem resistance when compared with blaIMP-like and blaVIM-like gene.

Keywords: Resistance, Antimicrobial Agents, acinetobacter, beta-lactams

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33 Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Daptomycin

Authors: Ji-Chan Jang

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Tuberculosis is still major health problem because there is an increase of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant forms of the disease. Therefore, the most urgent clinical need is to discover potent agents and develop novel drug combination capable of reducing the duration of MDR and XDR tuberculosis therapy. Three reference strains H37Rv, CDC1551, W-Beijing GC1237 and six clinical isolates of MDRTB were tested to daptomycin in the range of 0.013 to 256 mg/L. Daptomycin is resistant to all tested M. tuberculosis strains not only laboratory strains but also clinical MDR strains that were isolated at different source. Daptomycin will not be an antibiotic of choice for treating infection of Gram positive atypical slowly growing M. tuberculosis.

Keywords: Resistance, Tuberculosis, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, daptomycin

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32 Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Polymorphism and Disease Resistance

Authors: Oguzhan Avci, Oya Bulut, Zafer Bulut, Atilla Simsek

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Livestock breeders have focused on the improvement of production traits with little or no attention for improvement of disease resistance traits. In order to determine the association between the genetic structure of the individual gene loci with possibility of the occurrence and the development of diseases, MHC (major histocompatibility complex) are frequently used. Because of their importance in the immune system, MHC locus is considered as candidate genes for resistance/susceptibility against to different diseases. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play a critical role in both innate and adaptive immunity and have been considered candidate molecular markers of an association between polymorphisms and resistance/susceptibility to diseases. The purpose of this study is to give some information about MHC genes become an important area of study in recent years in terms of animal husbandry and determine the relation between MHC genes and resistance/susceptibility to disease.

Keywords: Resistance, Disease, Polymorphism, MHC

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31 Evolution of Antimicrobial Resistance in Shigella since the Turn of 21st Century, India

Authors: Ajay Kumar, Neelam Taneja, Abhishek Mewara

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Multidrug resistant shigellae have emerged as a therapeutic challenge in India. At our 2000 bed tertiary care referral centre in Chandigarh, North India, which caters to a large population of 7 neighboring states, antibiotic resistance in Shigella is being constantly monitored. Shigellae are isolated from 3 to 5% of all stool samples. In 1990 nalidixic acid was the drug of choice as 82%, and 63% of shigellae were resistant to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole respectively. Nalidixic acid resistance emerged in 1992 and rapidly increased from 6% during 1994-98 to 86% by the turn of 21st century. In the 1990s, the WHO recommended ciprofloxacin as the drug of choice for empiric treatment of shigellosis in view of the existing high level resistance to agents like chloramphenicol, ampicillin, cotrimoxazole and nalidixic acid. First resistance to ciprofloxacin in S. flexneri at our centre appeared in 2000 and rapidly rose to 46% in 2007 (MIC>4mg/L). In between we had an outbreak of ciprofloxacin resistant S.dysenteriae serotype 1 in 2003. Therapeutic failures with ciprofloxacin occurred with both ciprofloxacin-resistant S. dysenteriae and ciprofloxacin-resistant S. flexneri. The severity of illness was more with ciprofloxacin-resistant strains. Till 2000, elsewhere in the world ciprofloxacin resistance in S. flexneri was sporadic and uncommon, though resistance to co-trimoxazole and ampicillin was common and in some areas resistance to nalidixic acid had also emerged. Fluoroquinolones due to extensive use and misuse for many other illnesses in our region are thus no longer the preferred group of drugs for managing shigellosis in India. WHO presently recommends ceftriaxone and azithromycin as alternative drugs to fluoroquinolone-resistant shigellae, however, overreliance on this group of drugs also seems to soon become questionable considering the emerging cephalosporin-resistant shigellae. We found 15.1% of S. flexneri isolates collected over a period of 9 years (2000-2009) resistant to at least one of the third-generation cephalosporins (ceftriaxone/cefotaxime). The first isolate showing ceftriaxone resistance was obtained in 2001, and we have observed an increase in number of isolates resistant to third generation cephalosporins in S. flexneri 2005 onwards. This situation has now become a therapeutic challenge in our region. The MIC values for Shigella isolates revealed a worrisome rise for ceftriaxone (MIC90:12 mg/L) and cefepime (MIC90:8 mg/L). MIC values for S. dysenteriae remained below 1 mg/L for ceftriaxone, however for cefepime, the MIC90 has raised to 4 mg/L. These infections caused by ceftriaxone-resistant S. flexneri isolates were successfully treated by azithromycin at our center. Most worrisome development in the present has been the emergence of DSA(Decreased susceptibility to azithromycin) which surfaced in 2001 and has increased from 4.3% till 2011 to 34% thereafter. We suspect plasmid-mediated resistance as we detected qnrS1-positive Shigella for the first time from the Indian subcontinent in 2 strains from 2010, indicating a relatively new appearance of this PMQR determinant among Shigella in India. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country. The prevention of shigellosis by developing cost-effective vaccines is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country

Keywords: Resistance, Antimicrobial, India, Shigella

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30 An Analysis on the Hidden Transcripts and Power: A Cultural Study on Confliction between Mother and Daughter-in-Law in Contemporary Chinese Television Dramas

Authors: Xiaohui Pan

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As the most influential media for the dissemination of Chinese culture, films and television dramas have played cognitive orientation in guiding young audience to understand its cultural value. Taking a retrospective overview of the Chinese domestic film and television dramas in the last decade, it is tangible to notice that Westernization has become irresistible force in the presentation of Chinese youth culture, such as the rise of sensibility, publicity of subjectivity, and the resistance to mainstream discourse. However, the process of deconstruction and transition of these film and television works on Western youth culture brought about more comprehensive conflicts and integration rather than providing a panoramic interpretation to young Chinese. Issues of tradition and modernization, oriental and Western, and serious thinking and the spirit of entertainment overwhelmed those Chinese works. This study attempts to examine the mechanism of young Chinese’s resistance, compromise and re-construction in their marriages during the dynamic cultural intergration between traditional Chinese culture and Western culture. To investigate such a mechanism, this study analyzed four Chinese television dramas themed on family ethics to reveal the conflictions between two generations, mother-in-law and daughter-in-law, aiming to identify their strategies of their struggles. Incorporating the theory of Scott's weapons of the weak, this study examines the dynamic model of the struggles content analysis on their hidden language and the power. The finding shows that young Chinese identified their self-awakening during the resistance. The study also finds out that the external factors might have the functions of switching the power from the strong end to the weak end. The finding of this study can provide useful insights for researchers in this area and for those in the process of exploring cultural integration issues.

Keywords: Resistance, Integration, Youth culture, intergration

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29 Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the Spontaneous Nanosilver Resistant Bacterium Proteus mirabilis Strain scdr1

Authors: Amr Saeb, Khalid Al-Rubeaan, Mohamed Abouelhoda, Manojkumar Selvaraju, Hamsa Tayeb

Abstract:

Background: P. mirabilis is a common uropathogenic bacterium that can cause major complications in patients with long-standing indwelling catheters or patients with urinary tract anomalies. In addition, P. mirabilis is a common cause of chronic osteomyelitis in diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients. Methodology: P. mirabilis SCDR1 was isolated from a diabetic ulcer patient. We examined P. mirabilis SCDR1 levels of resistance against nano-silver colloids, the commercial nano-silver and silver containing bandages and commonly used antibiotics. We utilized next generation sequencing techniques (NGS), bioinformatics, phylogenetic analysis and pathogenomics in the identification and characterization of the infectious pathogen. Results: P. mirabilis SCDR1 is a multi-drug resistant isolate that also showed high levels of resistance against nano-silver colloids, nano-silver chitosan composite and the commercially available nano-silver and silver bandages. The P. mirabilis-SCDR1 genome size is 3,815,621 bp with G+C content of 38.44%. P. mirabilis-SCDR1 genome contains a total of 3,533 genes, 3,414 coding DNA sequence genes, 11, 10, 18 rRNAs (5S, 16S, and 23S), and 76 tRNAs. Our isolate contains all the required pathogenicity and virulence factors to establish a successful infection. P. mirabilis SCDR1 isolate is a potential virulent pathogen that despite its original isolation site, wound, it can establish kidney infection and its associated complications. P. mirabilis SCDR1 contains several mechanisms for antibiotics and metals resistance including, biofilm formation, swarming mobility, efflux systems, and enzymatic detoxification. Conclusion: P. mirabilis SCDR1 is the spontaneous nano-silver resistant bacterial strain. P. mirabilis SCDR1 strain contains all reported pathogenic and virulence factors characteristic for the species. In addition, it possesses several mechanisms that may lead to the observed nano-silver resistance.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Resistance, phylogeny, Altruism, Genome Analysis, Biofilm Formation, Silver Nanoparticles, Xenobiotics, Resistome, Multi-Drug Resistance, diabetic foot ulcer, proteus mirabilis, next generation sequencing techniques, pathogenomics, multidrug resistance efflux, swarming mobility, glutathione S-transferase, copper/silver efflux system

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28 Resistance towards Education System through Street Library Movement: A Study in Sukabumi, Indonesia

Authors: M. Inbar Daeribi, Vara Leoni

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Street Library Movement has been established and started to grow in some cities in Indonesia as a social movement. In the beginning, this movement emerged as a response to Indonesian lack of reading culture. Nevertheless, this study found out that street library movement is not only a literacy movement for developing reading culture. Furthermore, this movement is also a resistance towards education system in Indonesia. Street library movement is a critical consciousness driven by autonomous working group (community) as counter-public form towards Indonesia’s education condition legitimated by the government. This study, conducted in qualitative method with street library movement in Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia as the object of study, will examine resistance forms of this movement and its social impacts. By studying this paper, it can be explained how street library movement served as an engine for social development.

Keywords: Resistance, Social Movement, education system, street library movement

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27 Selection Effects on the Molecular and Abiotic Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance

Authors: Abishek Rajkumar

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Antibiotic resistance can occur naturally given the selective pressure placed on antibiotics. Within a large population of bacteria, there is a significant chance that some of those bacteria can develop resistance via mutations or genetic recombination. However, a growing public health concern has arisen over the fact that antibiotic resistance has increased significantly over the past few decades. This is because humans have been over-consuming and producing antibiotics, which has ultimately accelerated the antibiotic resistance seen in these bacteria. The product of all of this is an ongoing race between scientists and the bacteria as bacteria continue to develop resistance, which creates even more demand for an antibiotic that can still terminate the newly resistant strain of bacteria. This paper will focus on a myriad of aspects of antibiotic resistance in bacteria starting with how it occurs on a molecular level and then focusing on the antibiotic concentrations and how they affect the resistance and fitness seen in bacteria.

Keywords: Molecular, Resistance, Antibiotic, Mutation

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