Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

resistance genes Related Abstracts

3 Genetic Analysis of Rust Resistance Genes in Global Wheat

Authors: Mohamed Hanafi Musa, Aktar-uz-Zaman, M. Tuhina-Khatun


Three rust diseases: leaf (brown) rust caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks, stripe (yellow) rust caused by Puccinia striiformis West, and stem (black) rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici are economically important diseases of wheat in world wide. Yield loss due to leaf rust is 40% in susceptible cultivars. Yield losses caused by the stem rust pathogens in the mid of 20 century reached 20-30% in Eastern and Central Europe and the most virulent stem rust race Ug99 emerged first in Uganda and after that in Kenya, Ethiopia, Yemen, in the Middle East and South Asia. Yield losses were estimated up to 100%, whereas, up to 80% have been reported in Kenya during 1999. In case of stripe rust, severity level has been recorded 60% - 70% as compared to 100% severity of susceptible check in disease screening nurseries in Kenya. Improvement of resistant varieties or cultivars is the sustainable, economical and environmentally friendly approaches for increasing the global wheat production to suppress the rust diseases. More than 68 leaf rust, 49 stripe rust and 53 stem rust resistance genes have been identified in the global wheat cultivars or varieties using different molecular breeding approaches. Among these, Lr1, Lr9, Lr10, Lr19, Lr21, Lr24, Lr25, Lr28, Lr29, Lr34, Lr35, Lr37, Lr39, Lr47, Lr51, Lr3bg, Lr18, Lr40, Lr46, and Lr50 leaf rust resistance genes have been identified by using molecular, enzymatic and microsatellite markers from African, Asian, European cultivars of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat and diploid wheat species. These genes are located on 20, of the 21 chromosomes of hexaploid wheat. Similarly, Sr1, Sr2, Sr24, and Sr3, Sr31 stem rust resistance genes have been recognized from wheat cultivars of Pakistan, India, Kenya, and Uganda etc. A race of P. striiformis (stripe rust) Yr9, Yr18, and Yr29 was first observed in East Africa, Italy, Pakistan and India wheat cultivars. These stripe rust resistance genes are located on chromosomes 1BL, 4BL, 6AL, 3BS and 6BL in bread wheat cultivars. All these identified resistant genes could be used for notable improvement of susceptible wheat cultivars in the future.

Keywords: Triticum aestivum, hexaploid wheat, resistance genes, rust disease

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2 Multidrug Resistance Mechanisms among Gram Negative Clinical Isolates from Egypt

Authors: Omneya M. Helmy, Mona T. Kashef


Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria have become a significant public health threat. The prevalence rates, of Gram negative MDR bacteria, are in continuous increase. However, few data are available about these resistant strains. Since, third generation cephalosporins are one of the most commonly used antimicrobials, we set out to investigate the prevalence, different mechanisms and clonal relatedness of multidrug resistance among third generation resistant Gram negative clinical isolates. A total of 114 Gram negative clinical isolates, previously characterized as being resistant to at least one of 3rd generation cephalosporins, were included in this study. Each isolate was tested, using Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method, against its assigned categories of antimicrobials. The role of efflux pump in resistance development was tested by the efflux pump inhibitor-based microplate assay using chloropromazine as an inhibitor. Detecting different aminoglycosides, β-lactams and quinolones resistance genes was done using polymerase chain reaction. The genetic diversity of MDR isolates was investigated using Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA technique. MDR phenotype was detected in 101 isolates (89%). Efflux pump mediated resistance was detected in 49/101 isolates. Aminoglycosides resistance genes; armA and aac(6)-Ib were detected in one and 53 isolates, respectively. The aac(6)-Ib-cr allele, that also confers resistance to floroquinolones, was detected in 28/53 isolates. β-lactam resistance genes; blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M group 1 and group 9 were detected in 52, 29, 61 and 35 isolates, respectively. Quinolone resistance genes; qnrA, qnrB and qnrS were detectable in 2, 14, 8 isolates respectively, while qepA was not detectable at all. High diversity was observed among tested MDR isolates. MDR is common among 3rd generation cephalosporins resistant Gram negative bacteria, in Egypt. In most cases, resistance was caused by different mechanisms. Therefore, new treatment strategies should be implemented.

Keywords: gram negative, multidrug resistance, resistance genes, RAPD typing

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1 Characterization of Antibiotic Resistance in Cultivable Enterobacteriaceae Isolates from Different Ecological Niches in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

Authors: Anthony I. Okoh, Martins A. Adefisoye, Mpaka Lindelwa, Fadare Folake


Evolution and rapid dissemination of antibiotic resistance from one ecosystem to another has been responsible for wide-scale epidemic and endemic spreads of multi-drug resistance pathogens. This study assessed the prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae in different environmental samples, including river water, hospital effluents, abattoir wastewater, animal rectal swabs and faecal droppings, soil, and vegetables, using standard microbiological procedure. The identity of the isolates were confirmed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrophotometry (MALDI-TOF) while the isolates were profiled for resistance against a panel of 16 antibiotics using disc diffusion (DD) test, and the occurrence of resistance genes (ARG) was determined by polymerase chain reactions (PCR). Enterobacteriaceae counts in the samples range as follows: river water 4.0 × 101 – 2.0 × 104 cfu/100 ml, hospital effluents 1.5 × 103 – 3.0 × 107 cfu/100 ml, municipal wastewater 2.3 × 103 – 9.2 × 104 cfu/100 ml, faecal droppings 3.0 × 105 – 9.5 × 106 cfu/g, animal rectal swabs 3.0 × 102 – 2.9 × 107 cfu/ml, soil 0 – 1.2 × 105 cfu/g and vegetables 0 – 2.2 × 107 cfu/g. Of the 700 randomly selected presumptive isolates subjected to MALDI-TOF analysis, 129 (18.4%), 68 (9.7%), 67 (9.5%), 41 (5.9%) were E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., and Citrobacter spp. respectively while the remaining isolates belong to other genera not targeted in the study. The DD test shows resistance ranging between 91.6% (175/191) for cefuroxime and (15.2%, 29/191) for imipenem The predominant multiple antibiotic resistance phenotypes (MARP), (GM-AUG-AP-CTX-CXM-CIP-NOR-NI-C-NA-TS-T-DXT) occurred in 9 Klebsiella isolates. The multiple antibiotic resistance indices (MARI) the isolates (range 0.17–1.0) generally showed >95% had MARI above the 0.2 thresholds, suggesting that most of the isolates originate from high-risk environments with high antibiotic use and high selective pressure for the emergence of resistance. The associated ARG in the isolates include: bla TEM 61.9 (65), bla SHV 1.9 (2), bla OXA 8.6 (9), CTX-M-2 8.6 (9), CTX-M-9 6.7 (7), sul 2 26.7 (28), tet A 16.2 (17), tet M 17.1 (18), aadA 59.1 (62), strA 34.3 (36), aac(3)A 19.1 (20), (aa2)A 7.6 (8), and aph(3)-1A 10.5 (11). The results underscore the need for preventative measures to curb the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria including Enterobacteriaceae to protect public health.

Keywords: Public Health, resistance genes, enterobacteriaceae, MARP, MALDI-TOF, antibiotic-resistance, MARI

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