Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 96

Resilience Related Abstracts

96 Urban Resilince and Its Prioritised Components: Analysis of Industrial Township Greater Noida

Authors: N. Mehrotra, V. Ahuja, N. Sridharan


Resilience is an all hazard and a proactive approach, require a multidisciplinary input in the inter related variables of the city system. This research based to identify and operationalize indicators for assessment in domain of institutions, infrastructure and knowledge, all three operating in task oriented community networks. This paper gives a brief account of the methodology developed for assessment of Urban Resilience and its prioritized components for a target population within a newly planned urban complex integrating Surajpur and Kasna village as nodes. People’s perception of Urban Resilience has been examined by conducting questionnaire survey among the target population of Greater Noida. As defined by experts, Urban Resilience of a place is considered to be both a product and process of operation to regain normalcy after an event of disturbance of certain level. Based on this methodology, six indicators are identified that contribute to perception of urban resilience both as in the process of evolution and as an outcome. The relative significance of 6 R’ has also been identified. The dependency factor of various resilience indicators have been explored in this paper, which helps in generating new perspective for future research in disaster management. Based on the stated factors this methodology can be applied to assess urban resilience requirements of a well planned town, which is not an end in itself, but calls for new beginnings.

Keywords: System, Disaster, Urban, Resilience

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95 Resilience, Mental Health, and Life Satisfaction

Authors: Saba Harati, Nasrin Arian Parsa


The current research was an attempt to investigate the effect of resilience on mental health and life satisfaction. In one Cross Sectional research, 287 (173 females and 114 males) students of Tehran University were participated their average age was 23.17 years old (SD=4.9). The instruments used for assessing the research variables included: Cutter and Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC), the short form of the depression-anxiety-stress scale, and life satisfaction scale. The data analysis was done in the form of structural equation model. The results of Simultaneous Hierarchical Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that there was a significant mediating role of the negative emotions (depression, anxiety, and stress), in the relationship between the family resilience (p < 0.001) and satisfaction with life (p < 0.001). Resilience results in life satisfaction by reducing the emotional problems (or increasing the mental health level). The effect of the resilience variable on life satisfaction was indirect.

Keywords: Mental Health, Resilience, Life Satisfaction, negative emotion

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94 Exaptive Urbanism: Evolutionary Biology and the Regeneration of Mumbai’s Dhobighat

Authors: Piyush Bajpai, Sneha Pandey


Mumbai’s Dhobighat, 150 year old largest open laundry in the world, is the true live-work place and only source of income for some of Mumbai’s highest density ‘urban poor’ residents. The regeneration of Dhobighat, due to its ultra prime location and complex socio-political culture has been a complex issue. This once flourishing urban industrial core has been degrading for the past several decades mainly due to the decline of the open laundry business, the site’s over burdened infrastructure and conflicting socio-political and economic forces. The phenomena of ‘exaptation’ or ‘co-option’ has been observed by evolutionary biologists as a process responsible for producing highly tenacious and resilient offsprings within a species. The reddish egret uses its wings to cast shadow in shallow waters to attract small fish and hunt them. An unrelated feature used opportunistically to produce a very favorable result. How can this idea of co-option be applied to resolve the complex issue of Dhobighat’s regeneration? Our paper proposes a new methodology/approach for the regeneration of Dhobighat through the lens of evolutionary biology. Forces and systems (social, political, economic, cultural and ecological) that seem conflicting or unrelated by nature are opportunistically transformed into symbiotic and complimentary relationships that produce an inclusive, resilient and holistic solution for the regeneration of Dhobighat.

Keywords: Urban Regeneration, Resilience, exaptation, Dhobighat, Mumbai

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93 A Study of the Establishment of the Evaluation Index System for Tourist Attraction Disaster Resilience

Authors: Chung-Hung Tsai, Ya-Ping Li


Tourism industry is highly depended on the natural environment and climate. Compared to other industries, it is more susceptible to environment and climate. Taiwan belongs to a sea island country and located in the subtropical monsoon zone. The events of climate variability, frequency of typhoons and rainfalls raged are caused regularly serious disaster. In traditional disaster assessment, it usually focuses on the disaster damage and risk assessment, which is short of the features from different industries to understand the impact of the restoring force in post-disaster resilience and the main factors that constitute resilience. The object of this study is based on disaster recovery experience of tourism area and to understand the main factors affecting the tourist area of disaster resilience. The combinations of literature review and interviews with experts are prepared an early indicator system of the disaster resilience. Then, it is screened through a Fuzzy Delphi Method and Analytic Network Process for weight analysis. Finally, this study will establish the tourism disaster resilience evaluation index system considering the Taiwan's tourism industry characteristics. We hope that be able to enhance disaster resilience after tourist areas and increases the sustainability of industrial development. It is expected to provide government departments the tourism industry as the future owner of the assets in extreme climates responses.

Keywords: Resilience, Industrial Development, analytic network process, Fuzzy Delphi Method

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92 Principles of Teaching for Successful Intelligence

Authors: Shabnam


The purpose of this study was to see importance of successful intelligence in education which can enhance achievement. There are a number of researches which have tried to apply psychological theories of education and many researches emphasized the role of thinking and intelligence. While going through the various researches, it was found that many students could learn more effectively than they do, if they were taught in a way that better matched their patterns of abilities. Attempts to apply psychological theories to education can falter on the translation of the theory into educational practice. Often, this translation is not clear. Therefore, when a program does not succeed, it is not clear whether the lack of success was due to the inadequacy of the theory or the inadequacy of the implementation of the theory. A set of basic principles for translating a theory into practice can help clarify just what an educational implementation should (and should not) look like. Sternberg’s theory of successful intelligence; analytical, creative and practical intelligence provides a way to create such a match. The results suggest that theory of successful intelligence provides successful interventions in classrooms and provides a proven model for gifted education. This article presents principles for translating a triarchic theory of successful intelligence into educational practice.

Keywords: Analytical, Resilience, success, achievement, successful intelligence, creative and practical intelligence

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91 Application Potential of Selected Tools in Context of Critical Infrastructure Protection and Risk Analysis

Authors: Hromada Martin


Risk analysis is considered as a fundamental aspect relevant for ensuring the level of critical infrastructure protection, where the critical infrastructure is seen as system, asset or its part which is important for maintaining the vital societal functions. Article actually discusses and analyzes the potential application of selected tools of information support for the implementation and within the framework of risk analysis and critical infrastructure protection. Use of the information in relation to their risk analysis can be viewed as a form of simplifying the analytical process. It is clear that these instruments (information support) for these purposes are countless, so they were selected representatives who have already been applied in the selected area of critical infrastructure, or they can be used. All presented fact were the basis for critical infrastructure resilience evaluation methodology development.

Keywords: risk analysis, critical infrastructure, Resilience, Protection

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90 The Process of Critical Care Nursing Resilience in Workplace Adversity

Authors: Jennifer Jackson


Critical care nurses are at risk for burnout when confronted with sustained workplace adversity, which stems from a variety of social, structural, and environmental factors. Researchers have suggested that nurses can become resilient and overcome workplace adversity to achieve positive outcomes. The purpose of this study is to learn more about critical care nurses’ experiences with workplace adversity, and their process of becoming resilient. The research question will be: what is the process of critical care nursing resilience in workplace adversity? In-depth interviews with critical care nurses will provide the data to inductively generate the grounded theory. The resultant grounded theory will provide a framework to inform nurses and managers in developing interventions to support critical care nurses in their workplace. By enhancing nursing resilience, burnout may be avoided, and nurse satisfaction and overall quality of care may be improved.

Keywords: Nursing, Critical Care, Resilience, Burnout

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89 Nursing Workers’ Capacity of Resilience at a Psychiatric Hospital in Brazil

Authors: Cheila Cristina Leonardo Oliveira Gaioli, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi Rocha, Sandra Cristina Pillon


Resilience is a psychological process that facilitates the maintenance of health, developed in response to numerous existing stressors in daily life. Furthermore, resilience can be described as the ability which allows an individual or group to hold up well before unfavorable situations. This study aimed to identify nursing workers’ resilience at a psychiatric hospital in Brazil. This is an exploratory research with quantitative data approach. The sample consisted of 56 workers, using the Resilience Scale. Of the 56 subjects, 45 (80.4%) were women; 22 (39.2%) were 20- to 40-years-old and 30 (53.6%) were 41- to 60-years-old; 11 (19.6%) were nurses and 45 (80.4%) were technicians or nursing assistants. The results also showed that 50% of subjects showed a high resilience degree and 42.9% an average resilience degree. Thus, it was found that workers seek to develop protective factors in coping with a work environment that does not value the individual subjectivity and does not allow professional development, discouraging workers.

Keywords: Health Promotion, Nursing, Occupational Health, Resilience

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88 Innovations in the Implementation of Preventive Strategies and Measuring Their Effectiveness Towards the Prevention of Harmful Incidents to People with Mental Disabilities who Receive Home and Community Based Services

Authors: Carlos V. Gonzalez


Background: Providers of in-home and community based services strive for the elimination of preventable harm to the people under their care as well as to the employees who support them. Traditional models of safety and protection from harm have assumed that the absence of incidents of harm is a good indicator of safe practices. However, this model creates an illusion of safety that is easily shaken by sudden and inadvertent harmful events. As an alternative, we have developed and implemented an evidence-based resilient model of safety known as C.O.P.E. (Caring, Observing, Predicting and Evaluating). Within this model, safety is not defined by the absence of harmful incidents, but by the presence of continuous monitoring, anticipation, learning, and rapid response to events that may lead to harm. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the C.O.P.E. model for the reduction of harm to individuals with mental disabilities who receive home and community based services. Methods: Over the course of 2 years we counted the number of incidents of harm and near misses. We trained employees on strategies to eliminate incidents before they fully escalated. We trained employees to track different levels of patient status within a scale from 0 to 10. Additionally, we provided direct support professionals and supervisors with customized smart phone applications to track and notify the team of changes in that status every 30 minutes. Finally, the information that we collected was saved in a private computer network that analyzes and graphs the outcome of each incident. Result and conclusions: The use of the COPE model resulted in: A reduction in incidents of harm. A reduction the use of restraints and other physical interventions. An increase in Direct Support Professional’s ability to detect and respond to health problems. Improvement in employee alertness by decreasing sleeping on duty. Improvement in caring and positive interaction between Direct Support Professionals and the person who is supported. Developing a method to globally measure and assess the effectiveness of prevention from harm plans. Future applications of the COPE model for the reduction of harm to people who receive home and community based services are discussed.

Keywords: Safety, Disability, Resilience, Mental Illness, patients, harm

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87 Resilience Building, the Case of Dire Dawa Community, Ethiopia

Authors: Getachew Demesa Bexa


Building resilience to withstand extreme weather events through reduction and mitigation measures towards predicted disasters with appropriate contingency plans complemented by timely and effective emergency response demands committed and integrated/coordinated efforts. The 2006 flood disaster that claimed more than 200 people in Dire Dawa town shifted the paradigm from reactive to proactive engagement among government, NGOs and communities to contain future disasters through resilience building. Dire Dawa CMDRR Association is a model community organization that demonstrated the basic minimum and turning adversity into opportunity by mobilizing vulnerable community members. Meanwhile the birth of African Centre for Disaster Risk Management is a milestone in changing the image of the country and beyond in resilience building while linking relief and development.

Keywords: Risk management, Disaster, Resilience, Dire Dawa

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86 Terrorism: A Threat in Constant Evolution Still Misunderstood

Authors: M. J. Gazapo Lapayese


It is a well-established fact that terrorism is one of the foremost threats to present-day international security. The creation of tools or mechanisms for confronting it in an effective and efficient manner will only be possible by way of an objective assessment of the phenomenon. In order to achieve this, this paper has the following three main objectives: Firstly, setting out to find the reasons that have prevented the establishment of a universally accepted definition of terrorism, and consequently trying to outline the main features defining the face of the terrorist threat in order to discover the fundamental goals of what is now a serious blight on world society. Secondly, trying to explain the differences between a terrorist movement and a terrorist organisation, and the reasons for which a terrorist movement can be led to transform itself into an organisation. After analysing these motivations and the characteristics of a terrorist organisation, an example of the latter will be succinctly analysed to help the reader understand the ideas expressed. Lastly, discovering and exposing the factors that can lead to the appearance of terrorist tendencies, and discussing the most efficient and effective responses that can be given to this global security threat.

Keywords: Security, Terrorism, Resilience, responses

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85 Urban Landscape Sustainability Between Past and Present: Toward a Future Vision

Authors: Dina Salem


A variety of definitions and interpretations for sustainable development has been offered since the widely known definition of the World Commission on Environment and Development in 1987, the perspectives have ranged from deep ecology to better life quality for people. Sustainable landscape is widely understood as a key contributor to urban sustainability for the fact that all landscapes has a social, economic, cultural and ecological function for the community’s well-being and urban development, that was evident even before the emergence of sustainability concept. In this paper, the concepts of landscape planning and sustainable development are briefly reviewed; visions for landscape sustainability are demonstrated and classified. Challenges facing sustainable landscape planning are discussed. Finally, the paper investigates how our future urban open space could be sustainable and how does this contribute to urban sustainability, by creating urban landscapes that takes into account the social and cultural values of users of urban open space besides the ecological balance of urban open spaces as an integrated network.

Keywords: Resilience, Urban Landscape, open spaces, Urban Sustainability

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84 Resilient Regions for Purpose of Crisis Management

Authors: Jana Gebhartova, Tomas Duda, Ivan Benes


World is characterized by constantly emerging new links, increasing complexity and speed of processes in the society. The globalized world needs (except political and financial mechanisms and institutions) functional supply chains. Transport and supply chains can be interrupted in case of natural disasters, conflicts and civil disorders, sudden demand shocks, export/import restrictions, terrorism. Long-term interruption of crucial services for human existence can results in breakdown of the whole society. If global supply chains can be interrupted, the ability to survive a crisis situation depends on local self-sufficiency, it means ensuring water, food and energy. In the world of 21st century, new way of thinking (based on the concept of resilience) is needed. Planning for self-sufficiency and resilience must be part of the agenda of local governments. The paper presents first results of research project VF20112015518 “Security of population – crisis management” that deals with issue of critical infrastructure, ensuring regional self-sufficiency in crisis situations and issues related to population protection and water, energy and food security. The project is being solved within Security Research of Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic in 2011-2015.

Keywords: Crisis Management, Resilience, indicators of self-sufficiency, continuity of supplies

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83 Measuring the Resilience of e-Governments Using an Ontology

Authors: Onyekachi Onwudike, Russell Lock, Iain Phillips


The variability that exists across governments, her departments and the provisioning of services has been areas of concern in the E-Government domain. There is a need for reuse and integration across government departments which are accompanied by varying degrees of risks and threats. There is also the need for assessment, prevention, preparation, response and recovery when dealing with these risks or threats. The ability of a government to cope with the emerging changes that occur within it is known as resilience. In order to forge ahead with concerted efforts to manage reuse and integration induced risks or threats to governments, the ambiguities contained within resilience must be addressed. Enhancing resilience in the E-Government domain is synonymous with reducing risks governments face with provisioning of services as well as reuse of components across departments. Therefore, it can be said that resilience is responsible for the reduction in government’s vulnerability to changes. In this paper, we present the use of the ontology to measure the resilience of governments. This ontology is made up of a well-defined construct for the taxonomy of resilience. A specific class known as ‘Resilience Requirements’ is added to the ontology. This class embraces the concept of resilience into the E-Government domain ontology. Considering that the E-Government domain is a highly complex one made up of different departments offering different services, the reliability and resilience of the E-Government domain have become more complex and critical to understand. We present questions that can help a government access how prepared they are in the face of risks and what steps can be taken to recover from them. These questions can be asked with the use of queries. The ontology focuses on developing a case study section that is used to explore ways in which government departments can become resilient to the different kinds of risks and threats they may face. A collection of resilience tools and resources have been developed in our ontology to encourage governments to take steps to prepare for emergencies and risks that a government may face with the integration of departments and reuse of components across government departments. To achieve this, the ontology has been extended by rules. We present two tools for understanding resilience in the E-Government domain as a risk analysis target and the output of these tools when applied to resilience in the E-Government domain. We introduce the classification of resilience using the defined taxonomy and modelling of existent relationships based on the defined taxonomy. The ontology is constructed on formal theory and it provides a semantic reference framework for the concept of resilience. Key terms which fall under the purview of resilience with respect to E-Governments are defined. Terms are made explicit and the relationships that exist between risks and resilience are made explicit. The overall aim of the ontology is to use it within standards that would be followed by all governments for government-based resilience measures.

Keywords: e-Government, Ontology, Resilience, Threats, Relationships, risks

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82 Indeterminacy: An Urban Design Tool to Measure Resilience to Climate Change, a Caribbean Case Study

Authors: Tapan Kumar Dhar


How well are our city forms designed to adapt to climate change and its resulting uncertainty? What urban design tools can be used to measure and improve resilience to climate change, and how would they do so? In addressing these questions, this paper considers indeterminacy, a concept originated in the resilience literature, to measure the resilience of built environments. In the realm of urban design, ‘indeterminacy’ can be referred to as built-in design capabilities of an urban system to serve different purposes which are not necessarily predetermined. An urban system, particularly that with a higher degree of indeterminacy, can enable the system to be reorganized and changed to accommodate new or unknown functions while coping with uncertainty over time. Underlying principles of this concept have long been discussed in the urban design and planning literature, including open architecture, landscape urbanism, and flexible housing. This paper argues that the concept indeterminacy holds the potential to reduce the impacts of climate change incrementally and proactively. With regard to sustainable development, both planning and climate change literature highly recommend proactive adaptation as it involves less cost, efforts, and energy than last-minute emergency or reactive actions. Nevertheless, the concept still remains isolated from resilience and climate change adaptation discourses even though the discourses advocate the incremental transformation of a system to cope with climatic uncertainty. This paper considers indeterminacy, as an urban design tool, to measure and increase resilience (and adaptive capacity) of Long Bay’s coastal settlements in Negril, Jamaica. Negril is one of the popular tourism destinations in the Caribbean highly vulnerable to sea-level rise and its associated impacts. This paper employs empirical information obtained from direct observation and informal interviews with local people. While testing the tool, this paper deploys an urban morphology study, which includes land use patterns and the physical characteristics of urban form, including street networks, block patterns, and building footprints. The results reveal that most resorts in Long Bay are designed for pre-determined purposes and offer a little potential to use differently if needed. Additionally, Negril’s street networks are found to be rigid and have limited accessibility to different points of interest. This rigidity can expose the entire infrastructure further to extreme climatic events and also impedes recovery actions after a disaster. However, Long Bay still has room for future resilient developments in other relatively less vulnerable areas. In adapting to climate change, indeterminacy can be reached through design that achieves a balance between the degree of vulnerability and the degree of indeterminacy: the more vulnerable a place is, the more indeterminacy is useful. This paper concludes with a set of urban design typologies to increase the resilience of coastal settlements.

Keywords: Resilience, Climate Change Adaptation, Urban Form, sea-level rise

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81 Neighborhood Sustainability Assessment Tools: A Conceptual Framework for Their Use in Building Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change

Authors: Sally Naji, Julie Gwilliam


Climate change remains a challenging matter for the human and the built environment in the 21st century, where the need to consider adaptation to climate change in the development process is paramount. However, there remains a lack of information regarding how we should prepare responses to this issue, such as through developing organized and sophisticated tools enabling the adaptation process. This study aims to build a systematic framework approach to investigate the potentials that Neighborhood Sustainability Assessment tools (NSA) might offer in enabling both the analysis of the emerging adaptive capacity to climate change. The analysis of the framework presented in this paper aims to discuss this issue in three main phases. The first part attempts to link sustainability and climate change, in the context of adaptive capacity. It is argued that in deciding to promote sustainability in the context of climate change, both the resilience and vulnerability processes become central. However, there is still a gap in the current literature regarding how the sustainable development process can respond to climate change. As well as how the resilience of practical strategies might be evaluated. It is suggested that the integration of the sustainability assessment processes with both the resilience thinking process, and vulnerability might provide important components for addressing the adaptive capacity to climate change. A critical review of existing literature is presented illustrating the current lack of work in this field, integrating these three concepts in the context of addressing the adaptive capacity to climate change. The second part aims to identify the most appropriate scale at which to address the built environment for the climate change adaptation. It is suggested that the neighborhood scale can be considered as more suitable than either the building or urban scales. It then presents the example of NSAs, and discusses the need to explore their potential role in promoting the adaptive capacity to climate change. The third part of the framework presents a comparison among three example NSAs, BREEAM Communities, LEED-ND, and CASBEE-UD. These three tools have been selected as the most developed and comprehensive assessment tools that are currently available for the neighborhood scale. This study concludes that NSAs are likely to present the basis for an organized framework to address the practical process for analyzing and yet promoting Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change. It is further argued that vulnerability (exposure & sensitivity) and resilience (Interdependence & Recovery) form essential aspects to be addressed in the future assessment of NSA’s capability to adapt to both short and long term climate change impacts. Finally, it is acknowledged that further work is now required to understand impact assessment in terms of the range of physical sectors (Water, Energy, Transportation, Building, Land Use and Ecosystems), Actor and stakeholder engagement as well as a detailed evaluation of the NSA indicators, together with a barriers diagnosis process.

Keywords: Climate Change, Sustainability, Resilience, Adaptive Capacity, NSA tools

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80 Readiness of Military Professionals for Challenging Situations

Authors: Petra Hurbišová, Monika Davidová


The article deals with the readiness of military professionals for challenging situations. It discusses higher requirements on the psychical endurance of military professionals arising from the specific nature of the military occupation, which is typical for being very difficult to maintain regularity, which is in accordance with the hygiene of work alternated by relaxation. The soldier must be able to serve in the long term and constantly intense performance that goes beyond human tolerance to stress situations. A challenging situation is always associated with overcoming difficulties, obstacles and complicated circumstances or using unusual methods, ways and means to achieve the desired (expected) objectives, performing a given task or satisfying an important need. This paper describes the categories of challenging situations, their classification and characteristics. Attention is also paid to the formation of personality in challenging situations, coping with stress in challenging situations, Phases of solutions of stressful situations, resistance to challenging life situations and its factors. Finally, the article is focused on increasing the readiness of military professionals for challenging situations.

Keywords: Resilience, stress, Coping, challenging situations, stressful situations, military professionals

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79 Evaluation of Genetic Resistance to Haemonchus Contortus in Teddy and Beetal Goat Breeds of Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad S. Sajid, Asim Shamim, Muhammad Nisar Khan, Ashfaq A. Chatta, Muhammad Saqib


Goats (Capra hircus) are a valued asset for resource poor farmers globally. But the parasitic infection especially Haemonchus contortus (Trichostrongylid), impact the health and production of goats globally. The present study intended to evaluate resilient and resistance to Haemonchus contortus in indigenous goat breeds (Teddy and Beetal) of Punjab, Pakistan. Out of 60, 30 goats of each breed were divided into 6 groups and each group contain five goats. Two group of each breed received challenged infection with 12000 and 18000 L3 (third stage) larvae of Haemonchus contortus under two infection protocol that is early and trickle and remaining two group of each breed was kept as control. Resilient and resistance of each breed was then measured on the basis of their phenotypic markers like: faecal egg counts, packed cell volume, FAMACHA score system, body weight, total protein, albumin and worm count on 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th week of post infection. Variation in response of each goat breeds to Haemonchus contortus was observed. Teddy breed showed significant (P < 0.05)resistance as compared to Beetal. It is probably first attempt to report an evaluation of goat breed response towards Haemonchus contortus in Pakistan. It was concluded that Teddy goats have a greater genetic tendency to resist against to the Haemonchus contortus infection and this breed could be kept and bred from the economic point of view. Evaluation of genetic markers are like: gene, protein expression, Immunoglobulin, Histamines and interleukins determination are recommended for future studies which can be helpful to be fined resistant breed of goats.

Keywords: Resistance, Resilience, Goat, Haemonchus contortus, beetal, teddy, phenotypic markers

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78 Rural Households’ Resilience to Food Insecurity in Niger

Authors: Aboubakr Gambo, Adama Diaw, Tobias Wunscher


This study attempts to identify factors affecting rural households’ resilience to food insecurity in Niger. For this, we first create a resilience index by using Principal Component Analysis on the following five variables at the household level: income, food expenditure, duration of grain held in stock, livestock in Tropical Livestock Units and number of farms exploited and second apply Structural Equation Modelling to identify the determinants. Data from the 2010 National Survey on Households’ Vulnerability to Food Insecurity done by the National Institute of Statistics is used. The study shows that asset and social safety nets indicators are significant and have a positive impact on households’ resilience. Climate change approximated by long-term mean rainfall has a negative and significant effect on households’ resilience to food insecurity. The results indicate that to strengthen households’ resilience to food insecurity, there is a need to increase assistance to households through social safety nets and to help them gather more resources in order to acquire more assets. Furthermore, early warning of climatic events could alert households especially farmers to be prepared and avoid important losses that they experience anytime an uneven climatic event occur.

Keywords: Resilience, Principal Component Analysis, food insecurity, structural equation modelling

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77 An Extended Model for Sustainable Food and Nutrition Security in the Agrifood Sector

Authors: Ioannis Manikas


The increased consumer demand for environmentally friendly production and distribution practices and the stricter environmental regulations turned environmental aspects into important criteria in business decision-making. On the other hand, Food and Nutrition Security (FNS) has evolved dramatically during the last decades in theory and practice serving as a reference point for exchanging experiences among all agents involved in programs and projects to fostering policy and strategy development. Global pressures make it more important than ever to gain a better understanding of the contribution that agrifood businesses make to FNS and to examine ways to make them more resilient in an increasingly globalized and uncertain world. This study extends the standard three-dimensional model of sustainability to include two more dimensions: A technological dimension and a policy/political dimension. Apart from the economic, environmental and social dimensions regularly used in sustainability literature, the extended model will accurately represent the measures and policies addressing food and nutrition security.

Keywords: Food Safety, Sustainability, Resilience, Food and Nutrition Security

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76 The City Narrated from the Hill, Evaluation of Natural Fabric in Urban Plans: A Case Study of Santiago de Chile

Authors: Monica Sanchez


What responsibility does urban planning have on climate changes? How does the territory give us answers of resilience? Historically, urban plans have civilized territories: waters are channeled, grounds are sealed, foreign species are incorporated, native ones are extinguished, and/or enclosed spaces are heated or cooled. Socially this facilitates coexistence, but in turn brings negative environmental consequences. The past fifty years, mankind has tried to redirect these consequences through different strategies. Research studies produced strategies designed to alleviate climate change. Exploring the nature of territories has been incorporated in urban planning to discover natures response. The case to be studied is Santiago, Chile: for its combined impacts of climate change and the significant response by this city on climate governance in the last decades. Warmer areas in Santiago are seen in the areas of high-density buildings such as the commune of Recoleta, while the coldest are characterized by the predominance of low residential densities as the commune of Providencia. These two communes are separated and complemented by an undulating body that comes from the Andes mountains called San Cristobal Hill. What if the hill were taken into account when making roads, zoning and buildings? Was it difficult to prolong in the urban plans the hill characteristics to the city solving the intersection with other natural areas? Apparently it was, because the projected-profile informs us that the planned strategies used correspond to the same operations used in the flat areas of Santiago. This research focuses on: explaining the geographic relationships between city-hill; explaining the planning process around the hill with a morphological analysis; evaluating how the hill has been considered the in the city in the plans that intended to cushion the environmental impacts and studying what is missing on the hill and city to strengthen their integration. Therefore, the research will have different scales of understanding: addressing territorial scale -understanding the vegetation, topography and hydrology; a city scale -analyzing urban plans that Santiago has dealt with the environment and city; and a local scale -studying the integration and public spaces and coverage- norms of the adjacent communes. The expected outcome is to decipher possible deficits and capabilities of the current urban plans for climate change. It is anticipated that the hill and valley is now trying to reconcile after such a long separation. Yet it seems that never will prevail all the Rules of Nature, but the Urban Rules. The plans will require pruning, irrigation, control of invasive alien species and public safety standards, but will be rejoining a dose of nature with the building environment -this will protect us better from it from the time that we feared from it and knew little about it. Today we know a little more, enough to adapt to the process. Although nature is not perceived and we ignore it, it has a remarkable ability to respond.

Keywords: Climate Change, Morphology, Resilience, Land Use, urban plans, hills and cities, heat islands

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75 Narrative Study to Resilience and Adversity's Response

Authors: Yun Hang Stanley Cheung


In recent years, many educators and entrepreneurs have often suggested that students’ and workers’ ability of the adversity response is very important, it would affect problem-solving strategies and ultimate success in their career or life. The meaning of resilience is discussed as the process of bouncing back and the ability to adapt well in adversity’s response, being resilient does not mean to live without any stress and difficulty, but to grow and thrive under pressure. The purpose of this study is to describe the process of resilience and adversity’s response. The use of the narrative inquiry aims for understanding the experiential process of adversity response, and the problem-solving strategies (such as emotion control, motivation, decisions making process), as well as making the experience become life story, which may be evaluated by its teller and its listeners. The narrative study describes the researcher’s self-experience of adversity’s response to the recovery of the seriously burnt injury from a hill fire at his 12 years old, as well as the adversities and obstacles related to the tragedy after the physical recovery. Sense-Making Theory and McCormack’s Lenses were used for constructive perspective and data analyzing. To conclude, this study has described the life story of fighting the adversities, also, those narratives come out some suggestions, which point out positive thinking is necessary to build up resilience and the ability of immediate adversity response. Also, some problem-solving strategies toward adversities are discussed, which are helpful for resilience education for youth and young adult.

Keywords: Resilience, life story, adversity response, narrative inquiry

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74 Resilience in Children: A Comparative Analysis between Children with and without Parental Supervision Bandar Abbas

Authors: N. Taghinejad, F. Dortaj, N. Khodabandeh


This research aimed at comparing resilience among male and female children with and without parental supervision in Bandar Abbas. The sample consists of 200 subjects selected through cluster sampling. The research method was comparative causal and Conner and Davidson’s questionnaire form resilience was used for data collection. Results indicated that there is no difference between children with and without parental supervision regarding their resilience capacity. These findings may be challenging and useful for psychologists, officials of children’s affairs and legislators.

Keywords: Children, Resilience, children with parental supervision, children without parental supervision

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73 Resilience and Urban Transformation: A Review of Recent Interventions in Europe and Turkey

Authors: Bilge Ozel


Cities are high-complex living organisms and are subjects to continuous transformations produced by the stress that derives from changing conditions. Today the metropolises are seen like “development engines” of the countries and accordingly they become the centre of better living conditions that encourages demographic growth which constitutes the main reason of the changes. Indeed, the potential for economic advancement of the cities directly represents the economic status of their countries. The term of “resilience”, which sees the changes as natural processes and represents the flexibility and adaptability of the systems in the face of changing conditions, becomes a key concept for the development of urban transformation policies. The term of “resilience” derives from the Latin word ‘resilire’, which means ‘bounce’, ‘jump back’, refers to the ability of a system to withstand shocks and still maintain the basic characteristics. A resilient system does not only survive the potential risks and threats but also takes advantage of the positive outcomes of the perturbations and ensures adaptation to the new external conditions. When this understanding is taken into the urban context - or rather “urban resilience” - it delineates the capacity of cities to anticipate upcoming shocks and changes without undergoing major alterations in its functional, physical, socio-economic systems. Undoubtedly, the issue of coordinating the urban systems in a “resilient” form is a multidisciplinary and complex process as the cities are multi-layered and dynamic structures. The concept of “urban transformation” is first launched in Europe just after World War II. It has been applied through different methods such as renovation, revitalization, improvement and gentrification. These methods have been in continuous advancement by acquiring new meanings and trends over years. With the effects of neoliberal policies in the 1980s, the concept of urban transformation has been associated with economic objectives. Subsequently this understanding has been improved over time and had new orientations such as providing more social justice and environmental sustainability. The aim of this research is to identify the most applied urban transformation methods in Turkey and its main reasons of being selected. Moreover, investigating the lacking and limiting points of the urban transformation policies in the context of “urban resilience” in a comparative way with European interventions. The emblematic examples, which symbolize the breaking points of the recent evolution of urban transformation concepts in Europe and Turkey, are chosen and reviewed in a critical way.

Keywords: Resilience, Urban Transformation, Urban Dynamics, Urban Resilience

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72 Urban Transport System Resilience Guidelines

Authors: Evangelia Gaitanidou, Evangelos Bekiaris


Considering that resilience implies the ability of a system to adapt continuously in order to respond to its operational goals, a system is considered as more or less resilient depending on the level and time of recovering from disruptive events and/or shocks to its initial state. Regarding transport systems, enhancing resilience is considered imperative for two main reasons: Such systems provide critical support to every socio-economic activity, while being one of the most important economic sectors and, secondly, the paths that convey people, goods and information, are the same through which risks are propagated. RESOLUTE (RESilience management guidelines and Operationalization appLied to Urban Transport Environment) Horizon 2020 research project is answering those needs, by proposing and testing a set of guidelines for resilience management of the urban transport system. The methods and steps towards this goal, through a step-wise methodology, taking into account established models like FRAM (Functional Resonance Analysis Model), and upon gathering existing practices are described in this paper, together with an overview of the produced guidelines. The overall aim is to create a framework which public transport authorities could consult and apply, for rendering their infrastructure resilient against natural disaster and other threats.

Keywords: Transport, Infrastructure, Resilience, guidelines

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71 An Exploratory Case Study of the Transference of Skills and Dispositions Used by a Newly Qualified Teacher

Authors: Lynn Machin


Using the lens of a theoretical framework relating to learning to learn the intention of the case study was to explore how transferable the teaching and learning skills of a newly qualified teacher (post-compulsory education) were when used in an overseas, unfamiliar and challenging post-compulsory educational environment. Particularly, the research sought to explore how this newly qualified teacher made use of the skills developed during their teacher training and to ascertain if, and what, other skills were necessary in order for them to have a positive influence on their learners and for them to be able to thrive within a different country and learning milieu. This case study looks at the experience of a trainee teacher who recently qualified in the UK to teach in post compulsory education (i.e. post 16 education). Rather than gaining employment in a UK based academy or college of further education this newly qualified teacher secured her first employment as a teacher in a province in China. Moreover, the newly qualified teacher had limited travel experience and had never travelled to Asia. She was one of the quieter and more reserved members on the one year teacher training course and was the least likely of the group to have made the decision to work abroad. How transferable the pedagogical skills that she had gained during her training would be when used in a culturally different and therefore (to her, challenging) environment was a key focus of the study. Another key focus was to explore the dispositions being used by the newly qualified teacher in order for her to teach and to thrive in an overseas educational environment. The methodological approach used for this study was both interpretative and qualitative. Associated methods were: Observation: observing the wider and operational practice of the newly qualified teacher over a five day period, and their need, ability and willingness to be reflective, resilient, reciprocal and resourceful. Interview: semi-structured interview with the newly qualified teacher following the observation of her practice. Findings from this case study illuminate the modifications made by the newly qualified teacher to her bank of teaching and learning strategies as well as the essentiality of dispositions used by her to know how to learn and also, crucially, to be ready and willing to do so. Such dispositions include being resilient, resourceful, reciprocal and reflective; necessary in order to adapt to the emerging challenges encountered by the teacher during their first months of employment in China. It is concluded that developing the skills to teach is essential for good teaching and learning practices. Having dispositions that enable teachers to work in ever changing conditions and surroundings is, this paper argues, essential for transferability and longevity of use of these skills.

Keywords: Learning, Resilience, post-compulsory, transferable

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70 Explaining the Relationship between Religiosity and Resilience

Authors: Rita Phillips, Mark Burgess, Maga Berlinski


Although the positive impact of religiosity on well-being, health, and life-coping abilities is well known, up to date research has failed to provide scientific evidence for the relationship reasons. Therefore the present study took a qualitative approach by examining how religiosity interacts in coping with emotionally distressful situations, for which wedding preparations are an example. Wedding preparations, related to the experience of ambiguous emotions, can be the reason for phases of high distress. Although being per-se religious ceremonies, they are also socially-scripted and characterized by people’s striving for personally meaningful celebrations. The negotiation of these many influences can evoke conflicts. To reveal components of religiosity which contribute to stress-resolution, eight biographic-narrative interviews with recently married spouses were conducted. Participants were from different nationalities and Catholic deep-belief communities in order to determine factors independent from national-culture and social-subgroup. The audio-tape recorded, transcribed and translated interviews were analyzed by Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Opposing previous research on wedding-related conflicts but in-line with the quantitative account on the relation between stress-resilience and religiosity, the present study found participants reporting very low levels of distress and ambiguity. Although similar areas of potential conflicts were revealed, deep-belief Christians seemed to handle them in a different way. Participants freed themselves from own and others’ rigor mundane expectations by their spiritual preparation and the focus on a divine instance. This evoked a feeling of perceived closeness to God and of unconditional love, resulting in acceptance of oneself and others. Through relativizing mundane goods, participants perceived absolute freedom. Thus belief did not supplement coping strategies, previously defined in the literature, but substituted them. The paper implies that in explaining the connection between stress-resilience and religiosity, one’s perception and experience of unconditional love might outweigh other social or personal factors. However, further qualitative investigations are needed to fully explain the phenomenon.

Keywords: Resilience, religiosity, deep-belief, wedding

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69 The Effects of Weather Events and Land Use Change on Urban Ecosystems: From Risk to Resilience

Authors: Szu-Hua Wang


Urban ecosystems, as complex coupled human-environment systems, contain abundant natural resources for breeding natural assets and, at the same time, attract urban assets and consume natural resources, triggered by urban development. Land use change illustrates the interaction between human activities and environments factually. However, IPCC (2014) announces that land use change and urbanization due to human activities are the major cause of climate change, leading to serious impacts on urban ecosystem resilience and risk. For this reason, risk assessment and resilience analysis are the keys for responding to climate change on urban ecosystems. Urban spatial planning can guide urban development by land use planning, transportation planning, and environmental planning and affect land use allocation and human activities by building major constructions and protecting important national land resources simultaneously. Urban spatial planning can aggravate climate change and, on the other hand, mitigate and adapt climate change. Research on effects of spatial planning on land use change and climate change is one of intense issues currently. Therefore, this research focuses on developing frameworks for risk assessment and resilience analysis from the aspect of ecosystem based on typhoon precipitation in Taipei area. The integrated method of risk assessment and resilience analysis will be also addressed for applying spatial planning practice and sustainable development.

Keywords: Ecosystem, risk analysis, Resilience, land use change

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68 Resilience in the Face of Environmental Extremes through Networking and Resource Mobilization

Authors: Abdullah Al Mohiuddin


Bangladesh is one of the poorest countries in the world, and ranks low on almost all measures of economic development, thus leaving the population extremely vulnerable to natural disasters and climate events. 20% of GDP come from agriculture but more than 60% of the population relies on agriculture as their main source of income making the entire economy vulnerable to climate change and natural disasters. High population density exacerbates the exposure to and effect of climate events, and increases the levels of vulnerability, as does the poor institutional development of the country. The most vulnerable sectors to climate change impacts in Bangladesh are agriculture, coastal zones, water resources, forestry, fishery, health, biomass, and energy. High temperatures, heavy rainfall, high humidity and fairly marked seasonal variations characterize the climate in Bangladesh: Mild winter, hot humid summer and humid, warm rainy monsoon. Much of the country is flooded during the summer monsoon. The Department of Environment (DOE) under the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF) is the focal point for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and coordinates climate related activities in the country. Recently, a Climate Change Cell (CCC) has been established to address several issues including adaptation to climate change. The climate change focus started with The National Environmental Management Action Plan (NEMAP) which was prepared in 1995 in order to initiate the process to address environmental and climate change issues as long-term environmental problems for Bangladesh. Bangladesh was one of the first countries to finalise a NAPA (Preparation of a National Adaptation Plan of Action) which addresses climate change issues. The NAPA was completed in 2005, and is the first official initiative for mainstreaming adaptation to national policies and actions to cope with climate change and vulnerability. The NAPA suggests a number of adaptation strategies, for example: - Providing drinking water to coastal communities to fight the enhanced salinity caused by sea level rise, - Integrating climate change in planning and design of infrastructure, - Including climate change issues in education, - Supporting adaptation of agricultural systems to new weather extremes, - Mainstreaming CCA into policies and programmes in different sectors, e.g. disaster management, water and health, - Dissemination of CCA information and awareness raising on enhanced climate disasters, especially in vulnerable communities. Bangladesh has geared up its environment conservation steps to save the world’s poorest countries from the adverse effects of global warming. Now it is turning towards green economy policies to save the degrading ecosystem. Bangladesh is a developing country and always fights against Natural Disaster. At the same time we also fight for establishing ecological environment through promoting Green Economy/Energy by Youth Networking. ANTAR is coordinating a big Youth Network in the southern part of Bangladesh where 30 Youth group involved. It can be explained as the economic development based on sustainable development which generates growth and improvement in human’s lives while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities. Green economy in Bangladesh promotes three bottom lines – sustaining economic, environment and social well-being.

Keywords: Networking, Resource, Resilience, mobilizing

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67 Build Back Better Propositions for Disaster Risk Reduction in Natural Environment Recovery

Authors: Tinu Rose Francis, S. Wilkinson, Y. Chang-Richards, S. Mannakkara


The objective of this paper is to assess the implementation of Build Back Better (BBB) propositions for disaster risk reduction in the natural environment with regard to greater Christchurch, New Zealand, after the 2010–2011 earthquakes in the region. A set of indicators was established to analyse the extent of recovery attained in Christchurch. Disaster recovery in the region is an ongoing process, which gives us the opportunity to rate the progress made so far. Disasters cause significant damage to the built, social and economic environments and also have severe consequences for the natural environment. Findings show that greater Christchurch has made important progress and implemented a comprehensive natural environment recovery plan. The plan addresses the restoration of biodiversity, natural resources, disaster waste management and amenity values in greater Christchurch. This paper also surveys the risk reduction actions being implemented with regard to the natural environment. The findings of this study will help governing bodies to identify and fill the gaps in their natural environment recovery plans.

Keywords: Planning, Resilience, Reconstruction, Recovery, risk reduction, Natural Environment, build back better (BBB)

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