Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Residual Stress Related Abstracts

29 Computation of Thermal Stress Intensity Factor for Bonded Composite Repairs in Aircraft Structures

Authors: Fayçal Benyahia, Abdelmohsen Albedah, Bel Abbes Bachir Bouiadjra

Abstract:

In this study the Finite element method is used to analyse the effect of the thermal residual stresses resulting from adhesive curing on the performances of the bonded composite repair in aircraft structures. The stress intensity factor at the crack tip is chosen as fracture criterion in order to estimate the repair performances. The obtained results show that the presence of the thermal residual stresses reduces considerably the repair performances and consequently decreases the fatigue life of cracked structures. The effects of the curing temperature, the adhesive properties and the adhesive thickness on the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) variation with thermal stresses are also analysed.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Adhesion, Residual Stress, bonded composite repair, stress transfer

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28 Experimental Study on Ultrasonic Shot Peening Forming and Surface Properties of AALY12

Authors: Shi-hong Lu, Chao-xun Liu, Yi-feng Zhu

Abstract:

Ultrasonic shot peening (USP) on AALY12 sheet was studied. Several parameters (arc heights, surface roughness, surface topography and microhardness) with different USP process parameters were measured. The research proposes that the radius of curvature of shot peened sheet increases with time and electric current decreasing, while it increases with pin diameter increasing, and radius of curvature reaches a saturation level after a specific processing time and electric current. An empirical model of the relationship between radius of curvature and pin diameter, electric current, time was also obtained. The research shows that the increment of surface and vertical microhardness of material is more obvious with longer time and higher value of electric current, which can be up to 20% and 28% respectively.

Keywords: Residual Stress, surface properties, USP forming, radius of curvature

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27 Finite Element Modeling of Ultrasonic Shot Peening Process using Multiple Pin Impacts

Authors: Chao-xun Liu, Shi-hong Lu

Abstract:

In spite of its importance to the aerospace and automobile industries, little or no attention has been devoted to the accurate modeling of the ultrasonic shot peening (USP) process. It is therefore the purpose of this study to conduct finite element analysis of the process using a realistic multiple pin impacts model with the explicit solver of ABAQUS. In this paper, we research the effect of several key parameters on the residual stress distribution within the target, including impact velocity, incident angle, friction coefficient between pins and target and impact number of times were investigated. The results reveal that the impact velocity and impact number of times have obvious effect and impacting vertically could produce the most perfect residual stress distribution. Then we compare the results with the date in USP experiment and verify the exactness of the model. The analysis of the multiple pin impacts date reveal the relationships between peening process parameters and peening quality, which are useful for identifying the parameters which need to be controlled and regulated in order to produce a more beneficial compressive residual stress distribution within the target.

Keywords: Numerical Simulation, Residual Stress, finite element, ultrasonic shot peening, multiple pins

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26 Experimental and Numerical Investigation of “Machining Induced Residual Stresses” during Orthogonal Machining of Alloy Steel AISI 4340

Authors: Theena Thayalan, K. N. Ramesh Babu

Abstract:

Machining induced residual stress (RS) is one of the most important surface integrity parameters that characterize the near surface layer of a mechanical component, which plays a crucial role in controlling the performance, especially its fatigue life. Since experimental determination of RS is expensive and time consuming, it would be of great benefit if they could be predicted. In such case, it would be possible to select the cutting parameters required to produce a favorable RS profile. In the present study, an effort has been made to develop a 'two dimensional finite element model (FEM)' to simulate orthogonal cutting process and to predict surface and sub-surface RS using the commercial FEA software DEFORM-2D. The developed finite element model has been validated through experimental investigation of RS. In the experimentation, the orthogonal cutting tests were carried out on AISI 4340 by varying the cutting speed (VC) and uncut chip thickness (f) at three levels and the surface & sub-surface RS has been measured using XRD and Electro polishing techniques. The comparison showed that the RS obtained using developed numerical model is in reasonable agreement with that of experimental data.

Keywords: Machining, Residual Stress, FEM, XRF

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25 The Influence of Residual Stress on Hardness and Microstructure in Railway Rails

Authors: Muhammet Emre Turan, Sait Özçelik, Yavuz Sun

Abstract:

In railway rails, residual stress was measured and the values of residual stress were associated with hardness and micro structure in this study. At first, three rails as one meter long were taken and residual stresses were measured by cutting method according to the EN 13674-1 standardization. In this study, strain gauge that is an electrical apparatus was used. During the cutting, change in resistance in rail gave us residual stress value via computer program. After residual stress measurement, Brinell hardness distribution were performed for head parts of rails. Thus, the relationship between residual stress and hardness were established. In addition to that, micro structure analysis was carried out by optical microscope. The results show that, the micro structure and hardness value was changed with residual stress.

Keywords: Rail, Hardness, Residual Stress, micro structure, strain gauge

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24 The Interaction between Hydrogen and Surface Stress in Stainless Steel

Authors: Osamu Takakuwa, Yuta Mano, Hitoshi Soyama

Abstract:

This paper reveals the interaction between hydrogen and surface stress in austenitic stainless steel by X-ray diffraction stress measurement and thermal desorption analysis before and after being charged with hydrogen. The surface residual stress was varied by surface finishing using several disc polishing agents. The obtained results show that the residual stress near surface had a significant effect on hydrogen absorption behavior, that is, tensile residual stress promoted the hydrogen absorption and compressive one did opposite. Also, hydrogen induced equi-biaxial stress and this stress has a linear correlation with hydrogen content.

Keywords: Residual Stress, Hydrogen embrittlement, stainless steel, surface finishing

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23 Electro-Discharge Drilling in Residual Stress Measurement of Annealed St.37 Steel

Authors: H. Gholami, M. Jalali Azizpour

Abstract:

For materials such as hard coating whose stresses state are difficult to obtain by a widely used method called high-speed hole-drilling method (ASTM Standard E837). It is important to develop a non contact method. This process itself imposes an additional stresses. The through thickness residual stress of st37 steel using elector-discharge was investigated. The strain gage and dynamic strain indicator used in all cases was FRS-2-11 rosette type and TML 221, respectively. The average residual stress in depth of 320 µm was -6.47 MPa.

Keywords: Residual Stress, HVOF, thermal spray, WC-Co

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22 Properties of Poly(Amide-Imide) with Low Residual Stress for Electronic Material

Authors: Kwangin Kim, Taewon Yoo, Haksoo Han

Abstract:

Polyimide is a superior polymer in the electronics industry, and we conducted a study to synthesize poly(amide-imide) at low temperatures. Poly(amide-imide) was synthesized at low-temperature curing to offer a thermal stable membrane with low residual stress and good processability. As a result, the low crack polymer with good processability could be used to various applications such as semiconductors, integrated circuits, coating materials, membranes, and display. The synthesis of poly(amide-imide) at low temperatures was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Thermal stabilities of the polymer was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

Keywords: Thermal Stability, Residual Stress, poly(amide-imide)

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21 Direct Design of Steel Bridge Using Nonlinear Inelastic Analysis

Authors: Boo-Sung Koh, Seung-Eock Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, a direct design using a nonlinear inelastic analysis is suggested. Also, this paper compares the load carrying capacity obtained by a nonlinear inelastic analysis with experiment results to verify the accuracy of the results. The allowable stress design results of a railroad through a plate girder bridge and the safety factor of the nonlinear inelastic analysis were compared to examine the safety performance. As a result, the load safety factor for the nonlinear inelastic analysis was twice as high as the required safety factor under the allowable stress design standard specified in the civil engineering structure design standards for urban magnetic levitation railways, which further verified the advantages of the proposed direct design method.

Keywords: Residual Stress, direct design, nonlinear inelastic analysis, initial geometric imperfection

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20 Assessment of Residual Stress on HDPE Pipe Wall Thickness

Authors: D. Sersab, M. Aberkane

Abstract:

Residual stresses, in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipes, result from a nonhomogeneous cooling rate that occurs between the inner and outer surfaces during the extrusion process in manufacture. Most known methods of measurements to determine the magnitude and profile of the residual stresses in the pipe wall thickness are layer removal and ring slitting method. The combined layer removal and ring slitting methods described in this paper involves measurement of the circumferential residual stresses with minimal local disturbance. The existing methods used for pipe geometry (ring slitting method) gives a single residual stress value at the bore. The layer removal method which is used more in flat plate specimen is implemented with ring slitting method. The method permits stress measurements to be made directly at different depth in the pipe wall and a well-defined residual stress profile was consequently obtained.

Keywords: Residual Stress, HDPE, layer removal, ring splitting, wall thickness

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19 Simulation the Effect of Temperature on the Residual Stress in Shot Peening Process Using FEM Method

Authors: M. Jalali Azizpour, H. Mohammadi Majd, A.R. Aboudi Asl, D. Sajedipour, V. Tawaf

Abstract:

Sandblasting is a generally used surface treatment technique to improve the residual stress and adhesion of coatings to substrate. The goal of this work is to study the effect of temperature on the residual stress in sandblasting AISI1045 substrate. For this purpose a two dimensional axisymmetric model of shot impacting on an AISI 1045 disc was generated using ABAQUS version 6.10. The result shows for sandblasting temperature there is an optimum condition. In addition there are other effective factors that influence the fatigue life of parts.

Keywords: Modeling, temperature, Residual Stress, shot peen

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18 Numerical Investigation on Optimizing Fatigue Life in a Lap Joint Structure

Authors: P. Zamani, S. Mohajerzadeh, R. Masoudinejad, K. Farhangdoost

Abstract:

The riveting process is one of the important ways to keep fastening the lap joints in aircraft structures. Failure of aircraft lap joints directly depends on the stress field in the joint. An important application of riveting process is in the construction of aircraft fuselage structures. In this paper, a 3D finite element method is carried out in order to optimize residual stress field in a riveted lap joint and also to estimate its fatigue life. In continue, a number of experiments are designed and analyzed using design of experiments (DOE). Then, Taguchi method is used to select an optimized case between different levels of each factor. Besides that, the factor which affects the most on residual stress field is investigated. Such optimized case provides the maximum residual stress field. Fatigue life of the optimized joint is estimated by Paris-Erdogan law. Stress intensity factors (SIFs) are calculated using both finite element analysis and experimental formula. In addition, the effect of residual stress field, geometry, and secondary bending are considered in SIF calculation. A good agreement is found between results of such methods. Comparison between optimized fatigue life and fatigue life of other joints has shown an improvement in the joint’s life.

Keywords: Residual Stress, Fatigue Life, Taguchi method, stress intensity factor, riveting process

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17 Estimation of Residual Stresses in Thick Walled Cylinder by Radial Basis Artificial Neural

Authors: Mohammad Heidari

Abstract:

In this paper a method for high strength steel is proposed of residual stresses in autofrettaged tubes by combination of artificial neural networks is presented. Many different thick walled cylinders that were subjected to different conditions were studied. At first, the residual stress is calculated by analytical solution. Then by changing of the parameters that influenced in residual stresses such as percentage of autofrettage, internal pressure, wall ratio of cylinder, material property of cylinder, bauschinger and hardening effect factor, a neural network is created. These parameters are the input of network. The output of network is residual stress. Numerical data, employed for training the network and capabilities of the model in predicting the residual stress has been verified. The output obtained from neural network model is compared with numerical results, and the amount of relative error has been calculated. Based on this verification error, it is shown that the radial basis function of neural network has the average error of 2.75% in predicting residual stress of thick wall cylinder. Further analysis of residual stress of thick wall cylinder under different input conditions has been investigated and comparison results of modeling with numerical considerations shows a good agreement, which also proves the feasibility and effectiveness of the adopted approach.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Residual Stress, thick walled cylinder, radial basis

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16 Computation of Residual Stresses in Human Face Due to Growth

Authors: M. A. Askari, M. A. Nazari, P. Perrier, Y. Payan

Abstract:

Growth and remodeling of biological structures have gained lots of attention over the past decades. Determining the response of the living tissues to the mechanical loads is necessary for a wide range of developing fields such as, designing of prosthetics and optimized surgery operations. It is a well-known fact that biological structures are never stress-free, even when externally unloaded. The exact origin of these residual stresses is not clear, but theoretically growth and remodeling is one of the main sources. Extracting body organs from medical imaging, does not produce any information regarding the existing residual stresses in that organ. The simplest cause of such stresses is the gravity since an organ grows under its influence from its birth. Ignoring such residual stresses might cause erroneous results in numerical simulations. Accounting for residual stresses due to tissue growth can improve the accuracy of mechanical analysis results. In this paper, we have implemented a computational framework based on fixed-point iteration to determine the residual stresses due to growth. Using nonlinear continuum mechanics and the concept of fictitious configuration we find the unknown stress-free reference configuration which is necessary for mechanical analysis. To illustrate the method, we apply it to a finite element model of healthy human face whose geometry has been extracted from medical images. We have computed the distribution of residual stress in facial tissues, which can overcome the effect of gravity and cause that tissues remain firm. Tissue wrinkles caused by aging could be a consequence of decreasing residual stress and not counteracting the gravity. Considering these stresses has important application in maxillofacial surgery. It helps the surgeons to predict the changes after surgical operations and their consequences.

Keywords: Soft tissue, Growth, Finite Element Method, Residual Stress

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15 The Effect of Material Properties and Volumetric Changes in Phase Transformation to the Final Residual Stress of Welding Process

Authors: Djarot B. Darmadi

Abstract:

The wider growing Finite Element Method (FEM) application is caused by its benefits of cost saving and environment friendly. Also, by using FEM a deep understanding of certain phenomenon can be achieved. This paper observed the role of material properties and volumetric change when Solid State Phase Transformation (SSPT) takes place in residual stress formation due to a welding process of ferritic steels through coupled Thermo-Metallurgy-Mechanical (TMM) analysis. The correctness of FEM residual stress prediction was validated by experiment. From parametric study of the FEM model, it can be concluded that the material properties change tend to over-predicts residual stress in the weld center whilst volumetric change tend to underestimates it. The best final result is the compromise of both by incorporates them in the model which has a better result compared to a model without SSPT.

Keywords: Residual Stress, Ferritic Steels, SSPT, coupled-TMM

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14 Evaluation of Residual Stresses in Human Face as a Function of Growth

Authors: M. A. Askari, M. A. Nazari, P. Perrier, Y. Payan

Abstract:

Growth and remodeling of biological structures have gained lots of attention over the past decades. Determining the response of living tissues to mechanical loads is necessary for a wide range of developing fields such as prosthetics design or computerassisted surgical interventions. It is a well-known fact that biological structures are never stress-free, even when externally unloaded. The exact origin of these residual stresses is not clear, but theoretically, growth is one of the main sources. Extracting body organ’s shapes from medical imaging does not produce any information regarding the existing residual stresses in that organ. The simplest cause of such stresses is gravity since an organ grows under its influence from birth. Ignoring such residual stresses might cause erroneous results in numerical simulations. Accounting for residual stresses due to tissue growth can improve the accuracy of mechanical analysis results. This paper presents an original computational framework based on gradual growth to determine the residual stresses due to growth. To illustrate the method, we apply it to a finite element model of a healthy human face reconstructed from medical images. The distribution of residual stress in facial tissues is computed, which can overcome the effect of gravity and maintain tissues firmness. Our assumption is that tissue wrinkles caused by aging could be a consequence of decreasing residual stress and thus not counteracting gravity. Taking into account these stresses seems therefore extremely important in maxillofacial surgery. It would indeed help surgeons to estimate tissues changes after surgery.

Keywords: Soft tissue, Growth, Finite Element Method, Residual Stress

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13 Analysis of Residual Stresses and Angular Distortion in Stiffened Cylindrical Shell Fillet Welds Using Finite Element Method

Authors: M. R. Daneshgar, S. E. Habibi, E. Daneshgar, A. Daneshgar

Abstract:

In this paper, a two-dimensional method is developed to simulate the fillet welds in a stiffened cylindrical shell, using finite element method. The stiffener material is aluminum 2519. The thermo-elasto-plastic analysis is used to analyze the thermo-mechanical behavior. Due to the high heat flux rate of the welding process, two uncouple thermal and mechanical analysis are carried out instead of performing a single couple thermo-mechanical simulation. In order to investigate the effects of the welding procedures, two different welding techniques are examined. The resulted residual stresses and distortions due to different welding procedures are obtained. Furthermore, this study employed the technique of element birth and death to simulate the weld filler variation with time in fillet welds. The obtained results are in good agreement with the published experimental and three-dimensional numerical simulation results. Therefore, the proposed 2D modeling technique can effectively give the corresponding results of 3D models. Furthermore, by inspection of the obtained residual hoop and transverse stresses and angular distortions, proper welding procedure is suggested.

Keywords: Finite Element Method, Residual Stress, stiffened cylindrical shell, fillet welds, angular distortion

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12 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Effects of Ball-End Milling Process upon Residual Stresses and Cutting Forces

Authors: Belkacem Chebil Sonia, Bensalem Wacef

Abstract:

The majority of ball end milling models includes only the influence of cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut). Furthermore, this influence is studied in most of works on cutting force. Therefore, this study proposes an accurate ball end milling process modeling which includes also the influence of tool workpiece inclination. In addition, a characterization of residual stresses resulting of thermo mechanical loading in the workpiece was also presented. Moreover, the study of the influence of tool workpiece inclination and cutting parameters was made on residual stresses distribution. In order to achieve the predetermination of cutting forces and residual stresses during a milling operation, a thermo mechanical three-dimensional numerical model of ball end milling was developed. Furthermore, an experimental companion of ball end milling tests was realized on a 5-axis machining center to determine the cutting forces and characterize the residual stresses. The simulation results are compared with the experiment to validate the Finite Element Model and subsequently identify the optimum inclination angle and cutting parameters.

Keywords: Residual Stress, cutting parameters, cutting forces, ball end milling, tool-workpiece inclination

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11 Fatigue Life Estimation of Spiral Welded Waterworks Pipelines

Authors: Suk Woo Hong, Chang Sung Seok, Jae Mean Koo

Abstract:

Recently, the welding is widely used in modern industry for joining the structures. However, the waterworks pipes are exposed to the fatigue load by cars, earthquake and etc because of being buried underground. Moreover, the residual stress exists in weld zone by welding process and it is well known that the fatigue life of welded structures is degraded by residual stress. Due to such reasons, the crack can occur in the weld zone of pipeline. In this case, The ground subsidence or sinkhole can occur, if the soil and sand are washed down by fluid leaked from the crack of water pipe. These problems can lead to property damage and endangering lives. For these reasons, the estimation of fatigue characteristics for water pipeline weld zone is needed. Therefore, in this study, for fatigue characteristics estimation of spiral welded waterworks pipe, ASTM standard specimens and Curved Plate specimens were collected from the spiral welded waterworks pipe and the fatigue tests were performed. The S-N curves of each specimen were estimated, and then the fatigue life of weldment Curved Plate specimen was predicted by theoretical and analytical methods. After that, the weldment Curved Plate specimens were collected from the pipe and verification fatigue tests were performed. Finally, it was verified that the predicted S-N curve of weldment Curved Plate specimen was good agreement with fatigue test data.

Keywords: Residual Stress, spiral welded pipe, prediction fatigue life, endurance limit modifying factors

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10 The Development of a Residual Stress Measurement Method for Roll Formed Products

Authors: Yong Sun, Vladimir Luzin, Zhen Qian, William J. T. Daniel, Mingxing Zhang, Shichao Ding

Abstract:

The residual stresses in roll formed products are generally very high and un-predictable. This is due to the occurrence of redundant plastic deformation in roll forming process and it can cause various product defects. Although the residual stresses of a roll formed product consist of longitudinal and transverse residual stresses components, but the longitudinal residual stresses plays a key role to the product defects of a roll formed product and therefore, only the longitudinal residual stresses concerned by the roll forming scholars and engineers. However, how to inspect the residual stresses of a product quickly and economically as a routine operation is still a challenge. This paper introduces a residual stresses measurement method called slope cutting method to study the longitudinal residual stresses through layers geometrically to a roll formed products or a product with similar process such as a rolled sheet. The detailed measuring procedure is given and discussed. The residual stresses variation through the layer can be derived based on the variation of curvature in different layers and steps. The slope cutting method has been explored and validated by experimental study on a roll-formed square tube. The neutron diffraction method is applied to validate the accuracy of the newly proposed layering removal materials results. The two set results agree with each other very well and therefore, the method is expected to be a routine testing method to monitor the quality of a product been formed and that is a great impact to roll forming industry.

Keywords: Neutron Diffraction, Residual Stress, roll forming, measurement method

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9 The Relationship between Fatigue Crack Growth and Residual Stress in Rails

Authors: F. Husem, M. E. Turan, Y. Sun, H. Ahlatci, I. Tozlu

Abstract:

Residual stress and fatigue crack growth rates are important to determine mechanical behavior of rails. This study aims to make relationship between residual stress and fatigue crack growth values in rails. For this purpose, three R260 quality rails (0.6-0.8% C, 0.6-1.25 Mn) were chosen. Residual stress of samples was measured by cutting method that is related in railway standard. Then samples were machined for fatigue crack growth test and analyze was completed according to the ASTM E647 standard which gives information about parameters of rails for this test. Microstructure characterizations were examined by Light Optic Microscope (LOM). The results showed that residual stress change with fatigue crack growth rate. The sample has highest residual stress exhibits highest crack growth rate and pearlitic structure can be seen clearly for all samples by microstructure analyze.

Keywords: Residual Stress, SEM, fatigue crack growth, R260, ASTM E647

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8 Reduction of Residual Stress by Variothermal Processing and Validation via Birefringence Measurement Technique on Injection Molded Polycarbonate Samples

Authors: Christoph Lohr, Hanna Wund, Peter Elsner, Kay André Weidenmann

Abstract:

Injection molding is one of the most commonly used techniques in the industrial polymer processing. In the conventional process of injection molding, the liquid polymer is injected into the cavity of the mold, where the polymer directly starts hardening at the cooled walls. To compensate the shrinkage, which is caused predominantly by the immediate cooling, holding pressure is applied. Through that whole process, residual stresses are produced by the temperature difference of the polymer melt and the injection mold and the relocation of the polymer chains, which were oriented by the high process pressures and injection speeds. These residual stresses often weaken or change the structural behavior of the parts or lead to deformation of components. One solution to reduce the residual stresses is the use of variothermal processing. Hereby the mold is heated – i.e. near/over the glass transition temperature of the polymer – the polymer is injected and before opening the mold and ejecting the part the mold is cooled. For the next cycle, the mold gets heated again and the procedure repeats. The rapid heating and cooling of the mold are realized indirectly by convection of heated and cooled liquid (here: water) which is pumped through fluid channels underneath the mold surface. In this paper, the influences of variothermal processing on the residual stresses are analyzed with samples in a larger scale (500 mm x 250 mm x 4 mm). In addition, the influence on functional elements, such as abrupt changes in wall thickness, bosses, and ribs, on the residual stress is examined. Therefore the polycarbonate samples are produced by variothermal and isothermal processing. The melt is injected into a heated mold, which has in our case a temperature varying between 70 °C and 160 °C. After the filling of the cavity, the closed mold is cooled down varying from 70 °C to 100 °C. The pressure and temperature inside the mold are monitored and evaluated with cavity sensors. The residual stresses of the produced samples are illustrated by birefringence where the effect on the refractive index on the polymer under stress is used. The colorful spectrum can be uncovered by placing the sample between a polarized light source and a second polarization filter. To show the achievement and processing effects on the reduction of residual stress the birefringence images of the isothermal and variothermal produced samples are compared and evaluated. In this comparison to the variothermal produced samples have a lower amount of maxima of each color spectrum than the isothermal produced samples, which concludes that the residual stress of the variothermal produced samples is lower.

Keywords: Residual Stress, injection molding, birefringence, polycarbonate, variothermal processing

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7 Study on Residual Stress Measurement of Inconel-718 under Different Lubricating Conditions

Authors: M. Sandeep Kumar, Vasu Velagapudi, A. Venugopal

Abstract:

When machining is carried out on a workpiece, residual stresses are induced in the workpiece due to nonuniform thermal and mechanical loads. These stresses play a vital role in the surface integrity of the final product or the output. Inconel 718 is commonly used in critical structural components of aircraft engines due to its properties at high temperatures. Therefore it is important to keep down the stresses induced due to machining. This can be achieved through proper lubricating conditions. In this work, experiments were carried out to check the influence of the developed nanofluid as cutting fluids on residual stresses developed during the course of machining. The results of MQL/Nanofluids were compared with MQL/Vegetable oil and dry machining lubricating condition. Results indicate the reduction in residual stress with the use of MQL/Nanofluid.

Keywords: Nanofluids, Residual Stress, MQL, Inconel-718

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6 Study of Error Analysis and Sources of Uncertainty in the Measurement of Residual Stresses by the X-Ray Diffraction

Authors: E. T. Carvalho Filho, J. T. N. Medeiros, L. G. Martinez

Abstract:

Residual stresses are self equilibrating in a rigid body that acts on the microstructure of the material without application of an external load. They are elastic stresses and can be induced by mechanical, thermal and chemical processes causing a deformation gradient in the crystal lattice favoring premature failure in mechanicals components. The search for measurements with good reliability has been of great importance for the manufacturing industries. Several methods are able to quantify these stresses according to physical principles and the response of the mechanical behavior of the material. The diffraction X-ray technique is one of the most sensitive techniques for small variations of the crystalline lattice since the X-ray beam interacts with the interplanar distance. Being very sensitive technique is also susceptible to variations in measurements requiring a study of the factors that influence the final result of the measurement. Instrumental, operational factors, form deviations of the samples and geometry of analyzes are some variables that need to be considered and analyzed in order for the true measurement. The aim of this work is to analyze the sources of errors inherent to the residual stress measurement process by X-ray diffraction technique making an interlaboratory comparison to verify the reproducibility of the measurements. In this work, two specimens were machined, differing from each other by the surface finishing: grinding and polishing. Additionally, iron powder with particle size less than 45 µm was selected in order to be a reference (as recommended by ASTM E915 standard) for the tests. To verify the deviations caused by the equipment, those specimens were positioned and with the same analysis condition, seven measurements were carried out at 11Ψ tilts. To verify sample positioning errors, seven measurements were performed by positioning the sample at each measurement. To check geometry errors, measurements were repeated for the geometry and Bragg Brentano parallel beams. In order to verify the reproducibility of the method, the measurements were performed in two different laboratories and equipments. The results were statistically worked out and the quantification of the errors.

Keywords: Error Analysis, Residual Stress, X-Ray Diffraction, Reproducibility, repeatability

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5 Effect of Cladding Direction on Residual Stress Distribution in Laser Cladded Rails

Authors: Taposh Roy, Anna Paradowska, Ralph Abrahams, Quan Lai, Michael Law, Peter Mutton, Mehdi Soodi, Wenyi Yan

Abstract:

In this investigation, a laser cladding process with a powder feeding was used to deposit stainless steel 410L (high strength, excellent resistance to abrasion and corrosion, and great laser compatibility) onto railhead (higher strength, heat treated hypereutectoid rail grade manufactured in accordance with the requirements of European standard EN 13674 Part 1 for R400HT grade), to investigate the development and controllability of process-induced residual stress in the cladding, heat-affected zone (HAZ) and substrate and to analyse their correlation with hardness profile during two different laser cladding directions (across and along the track). Residual stresses were analysed by neutron diffraction at OPAL reactor, ANSTO. Neutron diffraction was carried out on the samples in longitudinal (parallel to the rail), transverse (perpendicular to the rail) and normal (through thickness) directions with high spatial resolution through the thickness. Due to the thick rail and thin cladding, 4 mm thick reference samples were prepared from every specimen by Electric Discharge Machining (EDM). Metallography across the laser claded sample revealed four distinct zones: The clad zone, the dilution zone, HAZ and the substrate. Compressive residual stresses were found in the clad zone and tensile residual stress in the dilution zone and HAZ. Laser cladding in longitudinally cladding induced higher tensile stress in the HAZ, whereas transversely cladding rail showed lower tensile behavior.

Keywords: Neutron Diffraction, Residual Stress, Laser Cladding, HAZ

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4 Failure Analysis of Recoiler Mandrel Shaft Used for Coiling of Rolled Steel Sheet

Authors: Sachin Pawar, Suman Patra, Goutam Mukhopadhyay

Abstract:

The primary function of a shaft is to transfer power. The shaft can be cast or forged and then machined to the final shape. Manufacturing of ~5 m length and 0.6 m diameter shaft is very critical. More difficult is to maintain its straightness during heat treatment and machining operations, which involve thermal and mechanical loads, respectively. During the machining operation of a such forged mandrel shaft, a deflection of 3-4mm was observed. To remove this deflection shaft was pressed at both ends which led to the development of cracks in it. To investigate the root cause of the deflection and cracking, the sample was cut from the failed shaft. Possible causes were identified with the help of a cause and effect diagram. Chemical composition analysis, microstructural analysis, and hardness measurement were done to confirm whether the shaft meets the required specifications or not. Chemical composition analysis confirmed that the material grade was 42CrMo4. Microstructural analysis revealed the presence of untempered martensite, indicating improper heat treatment. Due to this, ductility and impact toughness values were considerably lower than the specification of the mentioned grade. Residual stress measurement of one more bent shaft manufactured by a similar route was done by portable X-ray diffraction(XRD) technique. For better understanding, measurements were done at twelve different locations along the length of the shaft. The occurrence of a high amount of undesirable tensile residual stresses close to the Ultimate Tensile Strength(UTS) of the material was observed. Untempered martensitic structure, lower ductility, lower impact strength, and presence of a high amount of residual stresses all confirmed the improper tempering heat treatment of the shaft. Tempering relieves the residual stresses. Based on the findings of this study, stress-relieving heat treatment was done to remove the residual stresses and deflection in the shaft successfully.

Keywords: Residual Stress, mandrel shaft, untempered martensite, portable XRD

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3 FEM Simulation of Tool Wear and Edge Radius Effects on Residual Stress in High Speed Machining of Inconel718

Authors: Yang Liu, Mathias Agmell, Aylin Ahadi, Jan-Eric Stahl, Jinming Zhou

Abstract:

Tool wear and tool geometry have significant effects on the residual stresses in the component produced by high-speed machining. In this paper, Coupled Eulerian and Lagrangian (CEL) model is adopted to investigate the residual stress in high-speed machining of Inconel718 with a CBN170 cutting tool. The result shows that the mesh with the smallest size of 5 um yields cutting forces and chip morphology in close agreement with the experimental data. The analysis of thermal loading and mechanical loading are performed to study the effect of segmented chip morphology on the machined surface topography and residual stress distribution. The effects of cutting edge radius and flank wear on residual stresses formation and distribution on the workpiece were also investigated. It is found that the temperature within 100um depth of the machined surface increases drastically due to the more friction heat generation with the contact area of tool and workpiece increasing when a larger edge radius and flank wear are used. With the depth further increasing, the temperature drops rapidly for all cases due to the low conductivity of Inconel718. Consequently, higher and deeper tensile residual stress is generated on the superficial. Furthermore, an increased depth of plastic deformation and compressive residual stress is noticed in the subsurface, which is attributed to the reduction of the yield strength under the thermal effect. Besides, the ploughing effect produced by a larger tool edge radius contributes more than flank wear. The magnitude variation of the compressive residual stress caused by various edge radius and flank wear have a totally opposite trend, which depends on the magnitude of the ploughing and friction pressure acting on the machined surface.

Keywords: Residual Stress, Tool Wear, Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian, segmented chip, edge radius, Inconel718

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2 Study of Laser Induced Damage Threshold in HfO₂/SiO₂ Multilayer Films after β-Ray Irradiation

Authors: Meihua Fang, Tao Fei

Abstract:

Post-processing can effectively improve the resistance to laser damage in multilayer films used in a high power laser system. In this work, HfO₂/SiO₂ multilayer films are prepared by e-beam evaporation and then β-ray irradiation is employed as the post-processing method. The particle irradiation affects the laser induced damage threshold (LIDT), which includes defects, surface roughness, packing density, and residual stress. The residual stress that is relaxed during irradiation changes from compressive stress into tensile stress. Our results indicate that appropriate tensile stress can improve LIDT remarkably. In view of the fact that LIDT rises from 8 J/cm² to 12 J/cm², i.e., 50% increase, after the film has been irradiated by 2.2×10¹³/cm² β-ray, the particle irradiation can be used as a controllable and desirable post-processing method to improve the resistance to laser induced damage.

Keywords: Residual Stress, multilayer film, β-ray irradiation, laser-induced damage threshold

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1 Simulation on Influence of Environmental Conditions on Part Distortion in Fused Deposition Modelling

Authors: Anto Antony Samy, Atefeh Golbang, Edward Archer, Alistair McIlhagger

Abstract:

Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is one of the additive manufacturing techniques that has become highly attractive in the industrial and academic sectors. However, parts fabricated through FDM are highly susceptible to geometrical defects such as warpage, shrinkage, and delamination that can severely affect their function. Among the thermoplastic polymer feedstock for FDM, semi-crystalline polymers are highly prone to part distortion due to polymer crystallization. In this study, the influence of FDM processing conditions such as chamber temperature and print bed temperature on the induced thermal residual stress and resulting warpage are investigated using the 3D transient thermal model for a semi-crystalline polymer. The thermo-mechanical properties and the viscoelasticity of the polymer, as well as the crystallization physics, which considers the crystallinity of the polymer, are coupled with the evolving temperature gradient of the print model. From the results, it was observed that increasing the chamber temperature from 25°C to 75°C lead to a decrease of 1.5% residual stress, while decreasing bed temperature from 100°C to 60°C, resulted in a 33% increase in residual stress and a significant rise of 138% in warpage. The simulated warpage data is validated by comparing it with the measured warpage values of the samples using 3D scanning.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, warpage, Residual Stress, Fused Deposition Modelling

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