Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Reservoir Characterization Related Abstracts

4 Amplitude Versus Offset (AVO) Modeling as a Tool for Seismic Reservoir Characterization of the Semliki Basin

Authors: Hillary Mwongyera


The Semliki basin has become a frontier for petroleum exploration in recent years. Exploration efforts have resulted into extensive seismic data acquisition and drilling of three wells namely; Turaco 1, Turaco 2 and Turaco 3. A petrophysical analysis of the Turaco 1 well was carried out to identify two reservoir zones on which AVO modeling was performed. A combination of seismic modeling and rock physics modeling was applied during reservoir characterization and monitoring to determine variations of seismic responses with amplitude characteristics. AVO intercept gradient analysis applied on AVO synthetic CDP gathers classified AVO anomalies associated with both reservoir zones as Class 1 AVO anomalies. Fluid replacement modeling was carried out on both reservoir zones using homogeneous mixing and patchy saturation patterns to determine effects of fluid substitution on rock property interactions. For both homogeneous mixing and saturation patterns, density (ρ) showed an increasing trend with increasing brine substitution while Shear wave velocity (Vs) decreased with increasing brine substitution. A study of compressional wave velocity (Vp) with increasing brine substitution for both homogeneous mixing and patchy saturation gave quite interesting results. During patchy saturation, Vp increased with increasing brine substitution. During homogeneous mixing however, Vp showed a slightly decreasing trend with increasing brine substitution but increased tremendously towards and at full brine saturation. A sensitivity analysis carried out showed that density was a very sensitive rock property responding to brine saturation except at full brine saturation during homogeneous mixing where Vp showed greater sensitivity with brine saturation. Rock physics modeling was performed to predict diagnostics of reservoir quality using an inverse deterministic approach which showed low shale content and a high degree of shale stiffness within reservoir zones.

Keywords: Reservoir Characterization, Amplitude Versus Offset (AVO), fluid replacement modelling, AVO attributes, rock physics modelling, reservoir monitoring

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3 Seismic Data Analysis of Intensity, Orientation and Distribution of Fractures in Basement Rocks for Reservoir Characterization

Authors: mohit kumar


Natural fractures are classified in two broad categories of joints and faults on the basis of shear movement in the deposited strata. Natural fracture always has high structural relationship with extensional or non-extensional tectonics and sometimes the result is seen in the form of micro cracks. Geological evidences suggest that both large and small-scale fractures help in to analyze the seismic anisotropy which essentially contribute into characterization of petro physical properties behavior associated with directional migration of fluid. We generally question why basement study is much needed as historically it is being treated as non-productive and geoscientist had no interest in exploration of these basement rocks. Basement rock goes under high pressure and temperature, and seems to be highly fractured because of the tectonic stresses that are applied to the formation along with the other geological factors such as depositional trend, internal stress of the rock body, rock rheology, pore fluid and capillary pressure. Sometimes carbonate rocks also plays the role of basement and igneous body e.g basalt deposited over the carbonate rocks and fluid migrate from carbonate to igneous rock due to buoyancy force and adequate permeability generated by fracturing. So in order to analyze the complete petroleum system, FMC (Fluid Migration Characterization) is necessary through fractured media including fracture intensity, orientation and distribution both in basement rock and county rock. Thus good understanding of fractures can lead to project the correct wellbore trajectory or path which passes through potential permeable zone generated through intensified P-T and tectonic stress condition. This paper deals with the analysis of these fracture property such as intensity, orientation and distribution in basement rock as large scale fracture can be interpreted on seismic section, however, small scale fractures show ambiguity in interpretation because fracture in basement rock lies below the seismic wavelength and hence shows erroneous result in identification. Seismic attribute technique also helps us to delineate the seismic fracture and subtle changes in fracture zone and these can be inferred from azimuthal anisotropy in velocity and amplitude and spectral decomposition. Seismic azimuthal anisotropy derives fracture intensity and orientation from compressional wave and converted wave data and based on variation of amplitude or velocity with azimuth. Still detailed analysis of fractured basement required full isotropic and anisotropic analysis of fracture matrix and surrounding rock matrix in order to characterize the spatial variability of basement fracture which support the migration of fluid from basement to overlying rock.

Keywords: Reservoir Characterization, basement rock, natural fracture, seismic attribute

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2 Combination of Geological, Geophysical and Reservoir Engineering Analyses in Field Development: A Case Study

Authors: Atif Zafar, Fan Haijun


A sequence of different Reservoir Engineering methods and tools in reservoir characterization and field development are presented in this paper. The real data of Jin Gas Field of L-Basin of Pakistan is used. The basic concept behind this work is to enlighten the importance of well test analysis in a broader way (i.e. reservoir characterization and field development) unlike to just determine the permeability and skin parameters. Normally in the case of reservoir characterization we rely on well test analysis to some extent but for field development plan, the well test analysis has become a forgotten tool specifically for locations of new development wells. This paper describes the successful implementation of well test analysis in Jin Gas Field where the main uncertainties are identified during initial stage of field development when location of new development well was marked only on the basis of G&G (Geologic and Geophysical) data. The seismic interpretation could not encounter one of the boundary (fault, sub-seismic fault, heterogeneity) near the main and only producing well of Jin Gas Field whereas the results of the model from the well test analysis played a very crucial rule in order to propose the location of second well of the newly discovered field. The results from different methods of well test analysis of Jin Gas Field are also integrated with and supported by other tools of Reservoir Engineering i.e. Material Balance Method and Volumetric Method. In this way, a comprehensive way out and algorithm is obtained in order to integrate the well test analyses with Geological and Geophysical analyses for reservoir characterization and field development. On the strong basis of this working and algorithm, it was successfully evaluated that the proposed location of new development well was not justified and it must be somewhere else except South direction.

Keywords: Reservoir Engineering, Well Test Analysis, Reservoir Characterization, field development plan

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1 An Overview of the Porosity Classification in Carbonate Reservoirs and Their Challenges: An Example of Macro-Microporosity Classification from Offshore Miocene Carbonate in Central Luconia, Malaysia

Authors: Hammad T. Janjuhah, Josep Sanjuan, Mohamed K. Salah


Biological and chemical activities in carbonates are responsible for the complexity of the pore system. Primary porosity is generally of natural origin while secondary porosity is subject to chemical reactivity through diagenetic processes. To understand the integrated part of hydrocarbon exploration, it is necessary to understand the carbonate pore system. However, the current porosity classification scheme is limited to adequately predict the petrophysical properties of different reservoirs having various origins and depositional environments. Rock classification provides a descriptive method for explaining the lithofacies but makes no significant contribution to the application of porosity and permeability (poro-perm) correlation. The Central Luconia carbonate system (Malaysia) represents a good example of pore complexity (in terms of nature and origin) mainly related to diagenetic processes which have altered the original reservoir. For quantitative analysis, 32 high-resolution images of each thin section were taken using transmitted light microscopy. The quantification of grains, matrix, cement, and macroporosity (pore types) was achieved using a petrographic analysis of thin sections and FESEM images. The point counting technique was used to estimate the amount of macroporosity from thin section, which was then subtracted from the total porosity to derive the microporosity. The quantitative observation of thin sections revealed that the mouldic porosity (macroporosity) is the dominant porosity type present, whereas the microporosity seems to correspond to a sum of 40 to 50% of the total porosity. It has been proven that these Miocene carbonates contain a significant amount of microporosity, which significantly complicates the estimation and production of hydrocarbons. Neglecting its impact can increase uncertainty about estimating hydrocarbon reserves. Due to the diversity of geological parameters, the application of existing porosity classifications does not allow a better understanding of the poro-perm relationship. However, the classification can be improved by including the pore types and pore structures where they can be divided into macro- and microporosity. Such studies of microporosity identification/classification represent now a major concern in limestone reservoirs around the world.

Keywords: Reservoir Characterization, overview of porosity classification, microporosity, carbonate reservoir

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