Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Reproductive Related Abstracts

4 Effect of Dietary Organic Zinc Supplementation on Immunocompetance and Reproductive Performance in Rats

Authors: D. Nagalakshmi, S. Parashuramulu K. Sadasiva Rao, G. Aruna, L. Vikram


The zinc (Zn) is the second most abundant trace element in mammals and birds, forming structural component of over 300 enzymes, playing an important role in anti-oxidant defense, immune response and reproduction. Organic trace minerals are more readily absorbed from the digestive tract and more biologically available compared with its inorganic salt. Thus, the present study was undertaken on 60 adult female Sprague Dawley rats (275±2.04 g) for experimental duration of 12 weeks to investigate the effect of dietary Zn supplementation from various organic sources on immunity, reproduction, oxidative defense mechanism and blood biochemical profile. The rats were randomly allotted to 30 replicates (2 per replicate) which were in turn randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments varying in Zn source i.e., one inorganic source (Zn carbonate) and 4 organic sources (Zn-proteinate, Zn-propionate, Zn-amino acid complex and Zn-methionine) so as to supply NRC recommended Zn concentration (12 ppm Zn). Supplementation of organic Zn had no effect on various haematological and serum biochemical constituents compared to inorganic Zn fed rats. The TBARS and protein carbonyls concentration in liver indicative of oxidative stress was comparable between various organic and inorganic groups. The glutathione reductase activity in haemolysate (P<0.05) and reduced glutathione concentration in liver (P<0.01) was higher when fed organic Zn and RBC catalase activity was higher (P<0.01) on Zn methionine compared to other organic sources tested and the inorganic source. The humoral immune response assessed as antibody titres against sheep RBC was higher (P<0.05) when fed organic sources of zinc compared to inorganic source. The cell mediated immune response expressed as delayed type hypersensitivity reaction was higher (P<0.05) in rats fed Zn propionate with no effect of other organic Zn sources. The serum progesterone concentration was higher (P<0.05) in rats fed organic Zn sources compared to inorganic zinc. The data on ovarian folliculogenesis indicated that organic Zn supplementation increased (P<0.05) the number of graafian follicles and corpus luteum with no effect on primary, secondary and tertiary follicle number. The study indicated that rats fed organic sources of Zn had higher antioxidant enzyme activities, immune response and serum progesterone concentration with higher number of mature follicles. Though the effect of feeding various organic sources were comparable, rats fed zinc methionine had higher antioxidant activity and cell mediated immune response was higher in rats on Zn propionate.

Keywords: Immune, rats, Reproductive, organic zinc

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3 Reproductive Traits for Holstein Cattle

Authors: Ashraf M. Ward, Ruban S. Yu


Data consisting of 2757 records from tow Holstein herds made between 2000 and 2010 were used to examine environmental factors affecting age at first calving (AFC) and calving intervals (CI) and consequently estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters and trends. The overall means and standard errors for AFC and CI were 39.4 ± 7.2 months and 487.5 ± 151.6 days respectively. The respective heritability estimates were 0.091 ± 0.05 and 0.044 ± 0.032, while the repeatability estimate for CI was 0.096 ± 0.001. The genetic trends for CI and AFC were -0.6 d/yr and -0.01 mo/yr respectively and were both significant (P < 0.001), indicating a decrease in mean breeding value over the study period. Phenotypic trends were -0.31 mo/yr and -0.35 d/yr for AFC and CI respectively though non-significant (P > 0.05). The low heritability for CI and AFC indicated that temporary environmental influences were much greater than genetic influences or permanent environmental influences on these traits.

Keywords: Reproductive, Heritability, Holstein, genetic parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 578
2 Reproductive Performance of Red Sokoto Goats from a Semi-Intensive Management System in Semi-Arid Zone, Nigeria

Authors: Garba Yusuf, Ibrahim Rakson Muhammad, Bashir Fagge Muhammad, Shehu Ahmad Maigandi


On-farm data were collected to evaluate reproductive performance of Red Sokoto does reared under small-holder agro-pastoral production system within metropolitan Kano, semi-arid, Nigeria. The effects of age of dams, parity, litter size(s) and sex of kid(s) on pre-weaning growth rate were investigated. Data was obtained from semi-intensively managed herds of twenty four households for a period of six months. Pregnant does were ear tagged and age determined through dentition. Upon kidding, litter size, parity of dam and sex of kid(s) were recorded. Subsequently, daily liveweight changes of kids was monitored and recorded. Results obtained revealed average weight at birth to be 3.18 kg and 2.87 kg for female and male kids with average daily weight gain of 0.11 and 0.13 kg, respectively. Result also showed that male kids gained higher liveweight from 21st day to weaning and single or twin births had higher liveweight changes relative to triplets. Does at third parity produced kids with higher weight gain. From the results of this study, it is concluded that male kids at 21 days of age (single or twin) or dam at third parity or three years of age be selected for a sound breeding programme.

Keywords: Reproductive, Goats, parity, agro-pastoral, semi-intensive

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
1 Effects of a Cooler on the Sampling Process in a Continuous Emission Monitoring System

Authors: J. W. Ahn, I. Y. Choi, T. V. Dinh, J. C. Kim


A cooler has been widely employed in the extractive system of the continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) to remove water vapor in the gas stream. The effect of the cooler on analytical target gases was investigated in this research. A commercial cooler for the CEMS operated at 4 C was used. Several gases emitted from a coal power plant (i.e. CO2, SO2, NO, NO2 and CO) were mixed with humid air, and then introduced into the cooler to observe its effect. Concentrations of SO2, NO, NO2 and CO were made as 200 ppm. The CO2 concentration was 8%. The inlet absolute humidity was produced as 12.5% at 100 C using a bubbling method. It was found that the reduction rate of SO2 was the highest (~21%), followed by NO2 (~17%), CO2 (~11%) and CO (~10%). In contrast, the cooler was not affected by NO gas. The result indicated that the cooler caused a significant effect on the water soluble gases due to condensate water in the cooler. To overcome this problem, a correction factor may be applied. However, water vapor might be different, and emissions of target gases are also various. Therefore, the correction factor is not only a solution, but also a better available method should be employed.

Keywords: monitoring, Sampling, Reproductive, cooler, CEMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 227