Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Reproductive Health Related Abstracts

13 Reproductive Health of Women After Taking Chemotherapy for Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

Authors: Ezeh Chukwunonso Peter Excel, Akruti Vg

Abstract:

Aim/Background: To show that even after undergoing 1-5 courses of chemotherapy for Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD) reproductive health of women is intact and they conceive successfully after it. Method: Retrospective cohort analysis using data from the Lugansk regional maternity hospital database of years 1993-2013, which shows n=18 females had GTD and underwent 1-5 courses of chemotherapy. Results and Discussion: Frequency of GTD was rare. All 18 patients (pts) belong to age group of 17-39 years, covering wide range of reproductive age. Out of 18 pts, 15 had hydatidiform mole (HM) while other 3 had choriocarcinoma (CC). In anamnesis, among CC pts, 1 had early pre-eclampsia at 24 weeks and 1 had 4th week of late postpartum (PP) bleeding, while all HM pts had genital inflammatory diseases, 1 pt of HM during follow-up had High hCG and 3 times curettage in 5 months. 18 women became pregnant for 25 times after chemotherapy. Chemotherapy was given under indication of either high level of HCG, luteal cyst >6cm or path-morphological results of curettage. CC 3 pts had (2 spontaneous abortions (SA), 2 term cesarean section (CS), 1 preterm CS). HM 15 pts had (3 artificial abortion, 2 SA, 7CS (5 term and 2 preterm), 8 vaginal deliveries (7 term and 1 preterm)). Conclusion: During our research we got 22.2% preterm deliveries and 55.6% CS which is higher than the normal cases, but still all the 18 women were able to have kids successfully after chemotherapy. So we can conclude that chemotherapy for GTD was successful in keeping the reproductive health of women intact.

Keywords: Chemotherapy, Women, Reproductive Health, gestational trophoblastic disease

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12 Students Awareness on Reproductive Health Education in Sri Lanka

Authors: Ayomi Indika Irugalbandara

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Reproductive Health (RE) education among Sri Lankan Adolescents (comprising one fifth inner population) remains unsatisfactory despite 91.8% of them completing primary education & 56.2 % receiving post secondary level education. The main reason for this large population not receiving satisfactory RH education is traditional values and longstanding taboos surrounding sexuality. The current study was undertaken with there objectives. The relevance of achieving them being to formulate RH educational policies and programs that address a sizable and sensitive chunk of the population thereby achieving the goal of mental and social well being and not merely the absence of reproductive disease or infirmity. This research was a descriptive study, using random sampling technique, sample of the study consisting of 160 adolescent in the age group of 16-19, studying in government schools in Sri Lanka. Questionnaire was the main instrument of data collection, qualitative and quantitative techniques were used in data analysis. According to the data it was revealed that a majority has some idea about RH education. While this awareness had been provided by the school, the source of information had been Health and Physical Education. The entire sample mentioned that more RH information, than was provided, should be given and everybody wanted further knowledge regarding sexuality, and in depth information on it was essential. About 96 adolescents were of the opinion that their behavior was respectful to elders and 64 felt embarrassed while communicating with elders regarding RH issues. About their preferred sources of information, both genders named health providers as their first choice, followed by family members and friends. The internet was cited by a few boys; less than 5 percent cited religious figures. More than 50% of respondents had no knowledge about abortion and they were unaware of dangerous abortion. The practice of abortion was reported among zero percent. Although every member of the sample did not possess knowledge of the scientific process involved in abortion, all of them totally rejected the idea of destroying a foetus. Adolescence is a critical period in the life of girls and boys and sexuality education empowers young people to protect their health and well-being. Schools have the proper staff, and environment for learning. It might be stated that the greater segment of individuals entering adolescents and going through their adolescence are still in the school. This becomes the reason why it is mandatory that the school should be geared to handle this critical stage of the students. Adolescents or those approaching adolescence are best educated by the relevant parents, but this being quite a sensitive issue in the socio cultural context, it is somewhat doubtful whether all parents are prepared to handle this candidly, due either to lack of knowledge or absence of the appropriate state of mind. As such it is best that seminars/workshops be conducted to enlighten parents on handling HR issues related to their adolescent children. Apart from the awareness on HR provided through the school curriculum a greater impact can be brought about through street dramas, exhibitions etc. specific to HR. Finally the researcher would like to suggest that Sunday schools be harnessed for the provision of HR education linked with cultural values, ethics, and social well-being.

Keywords: Perception, Reproductive Health, awareness, school curriculum

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11 Effectiveness of Peer Reproductive Health Education Program in Improving Knowledge, Attitude, and Use Health Service of High School Adolescent Girls in Eritrea in 2014

Authors: Ghidey Ghebreyohanes, Eltahir Awad Gasim Khalil, Zemenfes Tsighe, Faiza Ali

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Background: reproductive health (RH) is a state of physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system at all stages of life. In East Africa including Eritrea, adolescents comprise more than a quarter of the population. The region holds the highest rates of sexually transmitted diseases, HIV, unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion with its complications. Young girls carry the highest burden of reproductive health problems due to their risk taking behavior, lack of knowledge, peer pressure, physiologic immaturity and low socioeconomic status. Design: this was a Community-based, randomized, case-controlled and pre-test-post-test intervention study. Setting: Zoba Debub was randomly selected out of the six zobas in Eritrea. The four high schools out of the 26 in Zoba Debub were randomly selected as study target schools. Over three quarter of the people live on farming. The target population was female students attending grade nine with majority of these girls live in the distant villages and walk to school. The study participants were randomly selected (n=165) from each school. Furthermore, the 1 intervention and 3 controls for the study arms were assigned randomly. Objectives: this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of peer reproductive health education in improving knowledge, attitude, and health service use of high school adolescent girls in Eritrea Methods: the protocol was reviewed and approved by the Scientific and Ethics Committees of Faculty of Nursing Sciences, University of Khartoum. Data was collected using pre-designed and pretested questionnaire emphasizing on reproductive health knowledge, attitude and practice. Sample size was calculated using proportion formula (α 0.01; power of 95%). Measures used were scores and proportions. Descriptive and inferential statistics, t-test and chi square at (α .01), 99% confidence interval were used to compare changes of pre and post-intervention scores using SPSS soft ware. Seventeen students were selected for peer educators by the school principals and other teachers based on inclusion criteria that include: good academic performance and acceptable behavior. One peer educator educated one group composed of 8-10 students for two months. One faculty member was selected to supervise peer educators. The principal investigator conducted the training of trainers and provided supervision and discussion to peer educators every two weeks until the end of intervention. Results: following informed consent, 627 students [164 in intervention and 463 in the control group] with a ratio of 1 to 3, were enrolled in the study. The mean age for the total study population was 15.4±1.0 years. The intervention group mean age was 15.3±1.0 year; while the control group had a mean age of 15.4±1.0. The mean ages for the study arms were similar (p= 0.4). The majority (96 %) of the study participants are from Tigrigna ethnic group. Reproductive knowledge scores which was calculated out of a total 61 grade points: intervention group (pretest 6.7 %, post-test 33.6 %; p= 0.0001); control group (pretest 7.3 %, posttest 7.3 %, p= 0.92). Proportion difference in attitude calculated out of 100%: intervention group (pretest 42.3 % post test 54.7% p= 0.001); controls group (pretest 45%, post test 44.8 p= 0.7). Proportion difference in Practice calculated out of 100 %: intervention group (pretest 15.4%, post test 80.4 % p= 0.0001); control group (pretest 16.8%, posttest 16.9 % p= 0.8). Mothers were quoted as major (> 90 %) source of reproductive health information. All focus group discussants and most of survey participants agreed on the urgent need of reproductive health information and services for adolescent girls. Conclusion: reproductive health knowledge and use of facilities is poor among adolescent girls in sub-urban Eretria. School-based peer reproductive health education is effective and is the best strategy to improve reproductive health knowledge and attitudes.

Keywords: Health Education, Reproductive Health, adolescent girls, eretria

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10 Encouraging Girl-Child Education for Better Reproductive Health in Nigeria

Authors: Alikeju F. Maji

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The role of girl child education on reproductive health of any nation cannot be over emphasized. Today this has become a global concern because of the awareness that girl child education has direct proven impact on reproductive health and sustainable development of a national. Thus, this paper attempts to re-emphasize and re-awaken the mind of humanity on the undisputable importance of girl-child education as a tool for improving reproductive health in Nigeria. The paper further examine that despite government’s effort in attaining education for all by the year 2015, the numbers of girls attending schools remain abysmally low in Nigeria. The paper noted that if the trend persists, personal health of women and their contribution to national development will reduce. The paper recommends that women in Nigeria should be availed with good educational opportunities to enhance their improved reproductive health, and greater participating in national development.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Reproductive Health, personal health, girl-child education

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9 Q Eqchi Mayan Piper and Cissampelos Species Alter Reporter Genes and Endogenous Genes Expression in Mc-7 Cells

Authors: Sheila M. Wicks, Gail Mahady, Udesh Patel, Joanna Michel, Armando Caceres

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Introduction: The genus piperaceae contains approximately 1000 species of herbs scrubs small trees and hanging vines distributed in both hemispheres. During our ethno medical work in Guatemala of the 27 plant families documented for us e by the Qeqchi Maya for reproductive disorders the most prominent were the Piperaceae (15%) and Menispermiaceae. Our Previous work showed that extracts from form Piper and Cissampelos species bound to both and progesterone and the estrogen receptors. In this work active extracts from Piper aeruginosibaccum Trelease, P auritum, P tuerckheimii and Cissampels tropaeolifolia were tested in functionalized cell based assays including a SEAP reporter gene and by qPCR of ER-responsive gene expression in MCF-7cells. In the reporter gene assay P aeruginosibaccum was estrogenic and enhanced E2 EFFECTS IN MCF-7 CELLS. P. tuerckheimi was not estrogenic alone but significantly enhanced the effects of E2 on SEAP reporter gene expression. Both altered mRNA expression of E2 responsive genes in MCF-7. Methods: this is collaborative project between University of Illinois at Chicago and University of San Carlos Guatemala City. 144 spices of plants were collected in Guatemala of which 57 used to treat a variety of women's reproductive health. The Genus Piperaraceae contains approximately 1000 species of herbs scrubs and small trees. Active extracts of the plants were tested in functionalized in cell-based bioassays including SEAP reporter genes. Results demonstrated altered mRNA expression of E2 responsive genes in MC-7 cells plants were collected in Guatemala of which 57 used. Conclusion of the 5 plants tested all were shown to contain components of binding to estrogenic receptor to a greater or lesser degree. These effects support the use of QEqchi Maya women in Guatemala for reproductive.

Keywords: Reproductive Health, reporter genes, MC7, guatemala piperaceae

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8 Non-Governmental Organisations and Human Development in Bauchi State, Nigeria

Authors: Sadeeq Launi

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NGOs, the world over, have been recognized as part of the institutions that complement government activities in providing services to the people, particularly in respect of human development. This study examined the role played by the NGOs in human development in Bauchi State, Nigeria, between 2004 and 2013. The emphasis was on reproductive health and access to education role of the selected NGOs. All the research questions, objectives and hypotheses were stated in line with these variables. The theoretical framework that guided the study was the participatory development approach. Being a survey research, data were generated from both primary and secondary sources with questionnaires and interviews as the instruments for generating the primary data. The population of the study was made up of the staff of the selected NGOs, beneficiaries, health staff and school teachers in Bauchi State. The sample drawn from these categories were 90, 107 and 148 units respectively. Stratified random and simple random sampling techniques were adopted for NGOs staff, and Health staff and school teachers data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively and hypotheses were tested using Pearson Chi-square test through SPSS computer statistical package. The study revealed that despite the challenges facing NGOs operations in the study area, NGOs rendered services in the areas of health and education This research recommends among others that, both government and people should be more cooperative to NGOs to enable them provide more efficient and effective services. Governments at all levels should be more dedicated to increasing accessibility and affordability of basic education and reproductive health care facilities and services in Bauchi state through committing more resources to the Health and Education sectors, this would support and facilitate the complementary role of NGOs in providing teaching facilities, drugs, and other reproductive health services in the States. More enlightenment campaigns should be carried out by governments to sensitize the public, particularly women on the need to embrace immunization programmes for their children and antenatal care services being provided by both the government and NGOs.

Keywords: Human Development, Reproductive Health, NGOs, access to education

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7 Taking Risks to Get Pleasure: Reproductive Health Behaviour of Early Adolescents in Pantura Line, Indonesia

Authors: Juariah Salam Suryadi

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North coast (Pantura) line is known as a high-risk area related to reproductive health. This is because along the line, there are many food stalls and entertainment industries that at night the function changed to be sexual transaction areas. This business line also facilitate circulation and transaction of drug and substance abuse. The environment conditions can influence adolescents who live in this area. It is because of adolescence characteristics that has high curiosity and looking for their identities. Therefore, purposes of this study were to explore reproductive health behaviour of early adolescents who lived in Pantura line and to suggest intervention based on the adolescents reproductive health conditions. This study was conducted in November 2016 among the seventh-grade students of Pusakajaya Junior High School 1 and 2, Subang District. Number of respondents were 269 students (Male=135, Female=134). The students were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Some teachers also interviewed to complement the data. The quantitative data was analyzed with univariate analysis, while content analysis was used for the qualitative data. Findings of this study showed that 85,2% of male students were smoker. Most of them started smoking at elementary school. Male students who often drunk alcohol were about 25,2% and all of them initiated to drink at elementary school. There were about 21,5% of male students ever used drug and substance abuse. There were 54,6% of the students that confessed having a lover. Most of them were female students. Sexual behaviour that ever done with their lovers were: holding hands (37,4%), kissing (4%) and embracing (6,8%). Although all of the students claimed to have never had sexual intercourse, but 5,9% of them said that they had friends who have had sexual intercourse. Most of the students also had friends with negative characteristics. Their friends were smoker (82,2%), drinker (53,2%) and drug abuse (42%). Most of the students recognized that they took the risks behaviour to get pleasure with their peers. Information from the teachers indicated that most problem of male students were smoking and drug and substance abuse; while sexuality including unwanted pregnancies were reproductive problems of many female students. Therefore, It is recommended to enhance understanding of the adolescents about risks of unhealthy behaviour through continuing reproductive health education, both in school and out of school. Policy support to create positive social environment and adolescents friendly is also suggested.

Keywords: Behaviour, Reproductive Health, early adolescents, pantura line

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6 Impact of Youth Corners and Knowledge about Human Sexuality among Young Adults and Adolescents of Nigerian Population in the Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Authors: Gabriel I. Oke, Faremi O. Ayodeji

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Background: Access to youth Friendly Health Corners is vital for ensuring sexual reproductive health and total well being of young Adults since human sexuality has been widely misunderstood. Meanwhile, behavior of young people towards it remains at variance with the alarm. This study attempt to access the impact of youth corners also called Adolescent Friendly Health Corners on manifestation of human sexual behavior among Nigerian adolescent and young adults. Description: Hundred young adults and adolescents of both sex between the Age range of 12-25years were randomly selected from 5 secondary schools and 3 prominent universities in Southwestern Nigeria and focal group discussions (FGD) were conducted among them. Fifty secondary and primary health facilities were visited between February and June 2017 to conduct interviews for health workers and to ascertain the presence or absence of youth corners. Results: 95% of the health facilities visited lack Youth Corners section neither are they willing to make provision for it due to lack of workmanship and sponsorship. However, 5% with Youth corners does not have well-trained Counselors or a Health Educator but health professionals from nursing profession. 90% of the respondents of which 16-17 years of Age is the mean age had their first sexual exposure with no use of protection even before been introduced to what Sexuality is all about. Virtually, none of the respondents had ever visited a Youth Corner before or heard the term before. 86% have heard about the term STI before of which 60% are using protection, 10% care less about any information attached to the term STI, 4% have not heard of the term STI before even when translated to their local dialect. 20% are abstaining as at the time the study was conducted and they attribute their sexual decision to religion and parental influence. Of the age group 20-25, 45% claimed they have had symptoms of one STI or the other and 40% claimed they have been tested positive for an STI before of which 12% have positive HIV status. Promiscuous behaviors were found among them before they reach the age 16years with pornography ranking the highest, followed by masturbation. Respondents blame this on peer pressure, the lack of Youth Friendly Centers in their locality and lack of proper Sexual Orientation on time. About half of the respondents make use of contraceptives while others have varying views. We found out that inability to access Youth Friendly Centers amongst the respondents might be one of the singular reasons of their early experimentation of their sex life and lack of healthy sexual lifestyle. (95% CI, P=0.922) Conclusion: The study reveals that a connection between youth Friendly Centers and Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, therefore more sustainable Friendly Youth Corners with well-trained educators are needed in various Health facilities to checkmate the numerous risks of Young People along the path of adulthood.

Keywords: Adolescents, Reproductive Health, sexually transmitted infections, youth corners

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5 The Design and Development of Online Infertility Prevention Education in the Frame of Mayer's Multimedia Learning Theory

Authors: B. Baran, S. N. Kaptanoglu, M. Ocal, Y. Kagnici, E. Esen, E. Siyez, D. M. Siyez

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Infertility is the fact that couples cannot have children despite 1 year of unprotected sexual life. Infertility can be considered as an important problem affecting not only sexual life but also social and psychological conditions of couples. Learning about information about preventable factors related to infertility during university years plays an important role in preventing a possible infertility case in older ages. The possibility to facilitate access to information with the internet has provided the opportunity to reach a broad audience in the diverse learning environments and educational environment. Moreover, the internet has become a basic resource for the 21st-century learners. Providing information about infertility over the internet will enable more people to reach in a short time. When studies conducted abroad about infertility are examined, interactive websites and online education programs come to the fore. In Turkey, while there is no comprehensive online education program for university students, it seems that existing studies are aimed to make more advertisements for doctors or hospitals. In this study, it was aimed to design and develop online infertility prevention education for university students. Mayer’s Multimedia Learning Theory made up the framework for the online learning environment in this study. The results of the needs analysis collected from the university students in Turkey who were selected with sampling to represent the audience for online learning contributed to the design phase. In this study, an infertility prevention online education environment designed as a 4-week education was developed by explaining the theoretical basis and needs analysis results. As a result; in the development of the online environment, different kind of visual aids that will increase teaching were used in the environment of online education according to Mayer’s principles of extraneous processing (coherence, signaling, spatial contiguity, temporal contiguity, redundancy, expectation principles), essential processing (segmenting, pre-training, modality principles) and generative processing (multimedia, personalization, voice principles). For example, the important points in reproductive systems’ expression were emphasized by visuals in order to draw learners’ attention, and the presentation of the information was also supported by the human voice. In addition, because of the limited knowledge of university students in the subject, the issue of female reproductive and male reproductive systems was taught before preventable factors related to infertility. Furthermore, 3D video and augmented reality application were developed in order to embody female and male reproductive systems. In conclusion, this study aims to develop an interactive Online Infertility Prevention Education in which university students can easily access reliable information and evaluate their own level of knowledge about the subject. It is believed that the study will also guide the researchers who want to develop online education in this area as it contains design-stage decisions of interactive online infertility prevention education for university students.

Keywords: Online Education, Reproductive Health, infertility, multimedia learning theory

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4 Development of Infertility Prevention Psycho-Education Program for University Students and Evaluation of Its Effectiveness

Authors: Erol Esen, Digdem M. Siyez, Bahar Baran, Ender Siyez, Bariscan Ozturk, Yelda Kagnici

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Infertility is a reproductive disease identified with the absence of pregnancy after regular unprotected sexual intercourse that has been lasting for 12 months or more. Some of the factors that cause infertility, which has been considered as a social and societal issue since the first days of the humankind, are preventable. These are veneral diseases, age, the frequency of the intercourse and its timing, drug use, bodyweight, environmental and professional conditions. Having actual information about the reproductive health is essential to take protective and preventive measures, and it is accepted as the most effective way to reduce the rate of infertility. However, during the literature review, it has been observed that there are so few studies that focus on the prevention of the infertility. The aim of this study is to develop a psycho-education program to reduce infertility among university students and also to evaluate the program’s effectiveness. It is believed that this program will increase the information level about infertility among the university students, help them to adopt healthy attitudes, develop life skills, create awareness about the risk factors and also contribute to the literature. Throughout the study, first, the contents of sexual/reproductive health programs developed for university students were examined by the researches. Besides, “Views about Reproductive Health Psycho-education Program Survey” was developed and applied to 10221 university students from 21 universities. In accordance with the literature and the university students’ views about reproductive health psycho-education program consisting of 9 sessions each of which lasts for 90 minutes was developed. The pilot program was carried out with 16 volunteer undergraduate students attending to a state university. During the evaluation of the pilot study, at the end of each session “Session Evaluation Form” and at the end of the entire program “Program Evaluation Form” were administered to the participants. Besides, one week after the end of the program, a focus group with half of the group, and individual interviews with the rest were conducted. Based on the evaluations, it was determined that the session duration is enough, the teaching methods meet the expectation, the techniques applied are appropriate and clear, and the materials are adequate. Also, an extra session was added to psycho-education program based on the feedbacks of the participants. In order to evaluate program’s effectiveness, Solomon control group design will be used. According to this design, the research has 2 experiment groups and 2 control groups. The participants who voluntarily participated in the research after the announcement of the psycho-education program were divided into experiment and control groups. In the experiment 1 and control 1 groups, “Personal Information Test”, “Infertility Information Test” and “Infertility Attitude Scale”, “Self Identification Inventory” and “Melbourne Decision Scale” were administered as a preliminary test. Currently, at the present stage, psycho-education still continues. After this 10-week program, the same tests will be administered again as the post-tests. The decision upon which statistical method will be applied in the analysis will be made afterwards according to whether the data meets the presuppositions or not.

Keywords: Prevention, Reproductive Health, infertility, psycho-education

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3 Changing Patterns of Marriage and Sexual Relations among Young Single Female Workers in Garment Factories in Gazipur, Bangladesh

Authors: Runa Laila

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In Bangladesh, migration and employment opportunities in the ready-made garment factories presented an alternative to early and arranged-marriage to many young women from the countryside. Although the positive impact of young women’s labour migration and employment in the garment industry on economic independence, increased negotiation power, and enhancement of self-esteem have been well documented, impact of employment on sexual norms and practices remained under-researched. This ethnographic study comprising of an in-depth interview of 21 single young women working in various garment factories in Gazipur, Dhaka, explores the implication of work on sexual norms and practices. This study found young single garment workers experience a range of consensual and coercive sexual relations. The mixed-sex work environment in the garment manufacturing industry and private housing arrangements provide young single women opportunities to develop romantic and sexual relationships in the transient urban space, which was more restricted in the rural areas. The use of mobile phones further aids lovers to meet in amusement parks, friends’ houses, or residential hotels beyond the gaze of colleagues and neighbors. Due to sexual double standard, men’s sexual advantage is seen as natural and accepted, while women are being blamed as immoral for being engaged in pre-marital sex. Although self-choice marriage and premarital relations reported to be common among garment workers, stigma related to premarital sex lead young single women to resort to secret abortion practices. Married men also use power position to lure women in a subordinate position in coerce sexual relations, putting their reproductive and psychological health at risk. To improve sexual and reproductive health and wellbeing of young female garment workers, it is important to understand these changing sexual practices which otherwise remain taboo in public health discourses.

Keywords: Reproductive Health, female migration, ready-made garment, sexual practice

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2 Understanding the Issue of Reproductive Matters among Urban Women: A Study of Four Cities in India from National Family Health Survey-4

Authors: Priyanka Dixit

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Reproductive health problem is an important public health issue in most of the developing countries like India. It is a common problem in India for women in the reproductive age group to suffer from reproductive illnesses and not seek care. Existing literatures tell us very little about the several dimensions of reproductive morbidity. In addition the general perception says, metros have better medical infrastructure, so its residents should lead a healthier life. However some of the studies reveal a very different picture. Therefore, the present study is conducted with the specific objectives to find out the prevalence of reproductive health problem and treatment seeking behavior of currently married women in four metro cities in India namely; Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai and Kolkata. In addition, this paper also examines the effect of socio-economic and demographic factors on self-reported reproductive health problems. Bi-variate and multivariate regression have been applied to achieve the proposed objectives. Study is based on National Family Health Survey 2015-16 data. The analysis shows that the prevalence of any reproductive health problem among women is the highest in Mumbai followed by Delhi, Chennai, and Kolkata. A bulk of women in all four metro cities has reported abdominal pain, itching and burning sensation as the major problems while urinating. However, in spite of the high prevalence of reproductive health problems, a huge proportion of such women in all these cities do not seek any advice or treatment for these problems. This study also investigates determinants that affect the prevalence of reproductive health problem to policy makers plan for proper interventions for improving women’s reproductive health.

Keywords: Reproductive Health, City, India, national family health survey-4

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1 Unveiling the Truth of Female Reproductive Health: The Tied Shackles of Authoritative Knowledge and Domestic Violence: An Ethnographic Study on an Urban Slum of Dhaka City

Authors: Saba Nuzhat

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The present ethnographic study examines how domestic violence and authoritative knowledge affect the reproductive health of females; in terms of contraceptive behavior and induced abortion. This qualitative study has been conducted by collecting in depth informal interviews and case studies of 12 female respondents living in an urban slum of Keraniganj, located Dhaka city. The study depicts how multivariable factors are linked to a woman’s ability to contracept and make abortion decisions in a cultural context where being a wife infers to submission, limited mobility, sexual availability, and restricted autonomy on her own reproduction health. This study shows how violence is being normalized and socially acceptable, every time women do not adhere to go through expected gender roles. The study primarily explores the subjective experiences and perceptions of the females about contraceptive behavior as well as abortions from a medical anthropological perspective. A number of salient examples are highlighted into this paper where women who go through abortion or adopt various measures of contraceptives get highly influenced by authoritative knowledge or under the pressure of male dominance. The lack of female autonomy or prevalence of domestic violence challenges the gender equality of Bangladeshi society and female sovereignty in accessing sexual or reproductive rights. This paper remarks the significance of medical anthropological research that helps to understand the intricate interrelationship between authoritative knowledge and male dominance with female reproductive health in order to reduce women’s risk of experiencing domestic violence and to promote reproductive health autonomy for themselves for espousing contraceptive behaviors and abortion decisions.

Keywords: abortion, Domestic Violence, Reproductive Health, Contraception, authoritative knowledge

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