Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

repair Related Abstracts

15 A Case Study on the Field Surveys and Repair of a Marine Approach-Bridge

Authors: S. H. Park, D. W. You

Abstract:

This study is about to the field survey and repair works in a marine approach-bride. In order to evaluate the stability of the ground and the structure, field surveys such as exterior inspection, non-destructive inspection, measurement, and geophysical exploration are carried out. Numerical analysis is conducted to investigate the cause of the abutment displacement at the same time. In addition, repair works are practiced to the region damaged with intent to sustain long-term safety.

Keywords: Maintenance, repair, field survey, expansion joint

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14 Research and Development of Lightweight Repair Mortars with Focus on Their Resistance to High Temperatures

Authors: Tomáš Melichar, Jiri Bydzovsky, Vít Černý

Abstract:

In this article our research focused on study of basic physical and mechanical parameters of polymer-cement repair materials is presented. Namely the influence of applied aggregates in combination with active admixture is specially considered. New formulas which were exposed in ambient with temperature even to 1000°C were suggested. Subsequently densities and strength characteristics including their changes were evaluated. Selected samples were analyzed using electron microscope. The positive influence of porous aggregates based on sintered ash was definitely demonstrated. Further it was found than in terms of thermal resistance the effective micro silica amount represents 5% to 7.5% of cement weight.

Keywords: repair, temperature, mortar, aggregate, ash, high, lightweight, microsilica, polymer-cement

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13 Efficient Moment Frame Structure

Authors: Mircea I. Pastrav, Cornelia Baera, Florea Dinu

Abstract:

A different concept for designing and detailing of reinforced concrete precast frame structures is analyzed in this paper. The new detailing of the joints derives from the special hybrid moment frame joints. The special reinforcements of this alternative detailing, named modified special hybrid joint, are bondless with respect to both column and beams. Full scale tests were performed on a plan model, which represents a part of 5 story structure, cropped in the middle of the beams and columns spans. Theoretical approach was developed, based on testing results on twice repaired model, subjected to lateral seismic type loading. Discussion regarding the modified special hybrid joint behavior and further on widening research needed concludes the presentation.

Keywords: repair, modified hybrid joint, seismic loading type, acceptance criteria

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12 Strengthening of Bridges by Additional Prestressing

Authors: A. Bouhaloufa, T. Kadri, S. Zouaoui, A. Belhacene

Abstract:

To put more durable bridges, it is important to maintain existing structures, rather than investing in new structures. Instead of demolishing the old bridge and replace them with new, we must preserve and upgrade using better methods of diagnosis, auscultation and repair, the interest of this work is to increase the bearing capacity bridges damaged by additional prestressing, this type of reinforcement is growing continuously. In addition to excellent static strength, prestressing also has a very high resistance to fatigue, so it is suitable to solve the problem of failure of the bearing capacity of the bridges. This failure often comes to the development of overloads in quantity and quality, that is our daily traffic has increased and become very complicated, on the other hand its constituents are advanced in weight and speed and therefore almost all old bridges became unable to support the movement of the latter and remain disabled to all these problems. The main purpose of this work includes the following three aspects: - Determination of the main diseases and factors affecting the deterioration of bridges in Algeria, - Evaluation of the bearing capacity of bridges, - Proposal technical reinforcement to improve the bearing capacity of a degraded structure.

Keywords: Diagnosis, Pathology, Bridges, repair, auscultation, additional prestressing

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11 Repair and Strengthening of Plain and FRC Shear Deficient Beams Using Externally Bonded CFRP Sheets

Authors: H. S. S. Abou El-Mal, H. E. M. Sallam

Abstract:

This paper presents experimental and analytical study on the behavior of repaired and strengthened shear critical RC beams using externally bonded CFRP bi-directional fabrics. The use of CFRP sheets to repair or strengthen RC beams has been repetitively studied and proven feasible. However, the use of combined repair techniques and applying that method to both plain and FRC beams can maximize the shear capacity of RC shear deficient beams. A total of twelve slender beams were tested under four-point bending. The test parameters included CFRP layout, number of layers and fiber direction, injecting cracks before applying repairing sheets, enhancing the flexural capacity to differentiate between shear repair and strengthening techniques, and concrete matrix types. The findings revealed that applying CFRP sheets increased the overall shear capacity, the amount and orientation of wrapping is of prime importance in both repairing and strengthening, CFRP wrapping could change the failure mode from shear to flexural shear, the use of crack injection combined to CFRP wrapping further improved the shear capacity while, applying the previous method to FRC beams enhanced both shear capacity and failure ductility. Acceptable agreement was found between predicted shear capacities using the Canadian code and the experimental results of the current study.

Keywords: repair, shear strengthening, CFRP, FRC

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10 Prioritization in a Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul (MRO) System Based on Fuzzy Logic at Iran Khodro (IKCO)

Authors: Izadi Banafsheh, Sedaghat Reza

Abstract:

Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul (MRO) of machinery are a key recent issue concerning the automotive industry. It has always been a debated question what order or priority should be adopted for the MRO of machinery. This study attempts to examine several criteria including process sensitivity, average time between machine failures, average duration of repair, availability of parts, availability of maintenance personnel and workload through a literature review and experts survey so as to determine the condition of the machine. According to the mentioned criteria, the machinery were ranked in four modes below: A) Need for inspection, B) Need for minor repair, C) Need for part replacement, and D) Need for major repair. The Fuzzy AHP was employed to determine the weighting of criteria. At the end, the obtained weights were ranked through the AHP for each criterion, three groups were specified: shaving machines, assembly and painting in four modes. The statistical population comprises the elite in the Iranian automotive industry at IKCO covering operation managers, CEOs and maintenance professionals who are highly specialized in MRO and perfectly knowledgeable in how the machinery function. The information required for this study were collected from both desk research and field review, which eventually led to construction of a questionnaire handed out to the sample respondents in order to collect information on the subject matter. The results of the AHP for weighting the criteria revealed that the availability of maintenance personnel was the top priority at coefficient of 0.206, while the process sensitivity took the last priority at coefficient of 0.066. Furthermore, the results of TOPSIS for prioritizing the IKCO machinery suggested that at the mode where there is need for inspection, the assembly machines took the top priority while paining machines took the third priority. As for the mode where there is need for minor repairs, the assembly machines took the top priority while the third priority belonged to the shaving machines. As for the mode where there is need for parts replacement, the assembly machines took the top priority while the third belonged to the paining machinery. Finally, as for the mode where there is need for major repair, the assembly machines took the top priority while the third belonged to the paining machinery.

Keywords: Maintenance, Fuzzy Logic, repair, TOPSIS, AHP, overhaul, MRO, prioritization of machinery

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9 Repair of Thermoplastic Composites for Structural Applications

Authors: Philippe Castaing, Thomas Jollivet

Abstract:

As a result of their advantages, i.e. recyclability, weld-ability, environmental compatibility, long (continuous) fiber thermoplastic composites (LFTPC) are increasingly used in many industrial sectors (mainly automotive and aeronautic) for structural applications. Indeed, in the next ten years, the environmental rules will put the pressure on the use of new structural materials like composites. In aerospace, more than 50% of the damage are due to stress impact and 85% of damage are repaired on the fuselage (fuselage skin panels and around doors). With the arrival of airplanes mainly of composite materials, replacement of sections or panels seems difficult economically speaking and repair becomes essential. The objective of the present study is to propose a solution of repair to prevent the replacement the damaged part in thermoplastic composites in order to recover the initial mechanical properties. The classification of impact damage is not so not easy : talking about low energy impact (less than 35 J) can be totally wrong when high speed or weak thicknesses as well as thermoplastic resins are considered. Crash and perforation with higher energy create important damages and the structures are replaced without repairing, so we just consider here damages due to impacts at low energy that are as follows for laminates : − Transverse cracking; − Delamination; − Fiber rupture. At low energy, the damages are barely visible but can nevertheless reduce significantly the mechanical strength of the part due to resin cracks while few fiber rupture is observed. The patch repair solution remains the standard one but may lead to the rupture of fibers and consequently creates more damages. That is the reason why we investigate the repair of thermoplastic composites impacted at low energy. Indeed, thermoplastic resins are interesting as they absorb impact energy through plastic strain. The methodology is as follows: - impact tests at low energy on thermoplastic composites; - identification of the damage by micrographic observations; - evaluation of the harmfulness of the damage; - repair by reconsolidation according to the extent of the damage ; -validation of the repair by mechanical characterization (compression). In this study, the impacts tests are performed at various levels of energy on thermoplastic composites (PA/C, PEEK/C and PPS/C woven 50/50 and unidirectional) to determine the level of impact energy creating damages in the resin without fiber rupture. We identify the extent of the damage by US inspection and micrographic observations in the plane part thickness. The samples were in addition characterized in compression to evaluate the loss of mechanical properties. Then the strategy of repair consists in reconsolidating the damaged parts by thermoforming, and after reconsolidation the laminates are characterized in compression for validation. To conclude, the study demonstrates the feasibility of the repair for low energy impact on thermoplastic composites as the samples recover their properties. At a first step of the study, the “repair” is made by reconsolidation on a thermoforming press but we could imagine a process in situ to reconsolidate the damaged parts.

Keywords: Aerospace, Automotive, Composites, Damages, Compression, repair, Structural Applications, thermoplastic

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8 Retrofitting of Historical Structures in Van City

Authors: Eylem Güzel, Mustafa Gulen

Abstract:

Historical structures are the most important symbols of a country that link the past with the future. In order to transfer them in their present conditions to the next generations, maintaining these historical structures are one of our main tasks. Seismic performance of historical structures damaged by the earthquake effects can be enhanced by repair and retrofitting applications. However, repair and retrofitting applications of historical structures are more complicated compared with the traditional structures. For this reason, they need much more attention in repair and retrofitting applications to preserve the spirit of historical structures. In this study, the present condition of selected historical structures built up in Van city that has a very rich historical heritage is given and the necessity of repair and retrofitting applications of historical structures are debated in detail.

Keywords: repair, retrofitting, Historical Structures, Van city

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7 A Case Study of Building Behavior Damaged during 26th Oct, 2015 Earthquake in Northern Areas of Pakistan

Authors: Rahmat Ali, Amjad Naseer, Abid A. Shah

Abstract:

This paper is an attempt to presents the performance of building observed during 26th Oct, 2015 earthquake in District Swat and Shangla region. Most of the buildings in the earthquake hit areas were built with Rubble stone masonry, dress Stone Masonry, brick masonry with and without RC column, Brick masonry with RC beams and column, Block Masonry with and without RC column. It was found that most of the buildings were built without proper supervision and without following any codes. A majority of load bearing masonry walls were highly affected during the earthquake. The load bearing walls built with rubble stone masonry were collapsed resulting huge damages and loss of property and life. Load bearing bricks masonry walls were also affected in most of the region. In some residential buildings the bricks were crushed in a single brick walls. Severe cracks were also found in double brick masonry walls. In RC frame structure beams and columns were also seriously affected. A majority of building structures were non-engineered. Some buildings designed by unskilled local consultants were also affected during the earthquake. Several architectural and structural mistakes were also found in various buildings designed by local consultant. It was found that the structures were collapsed prematurely either because of unskillful labor and using substandard materials or avoiding delicate repair, maintenance, and health monitoring activities because of lack of available sophisticated technology in our country.

Keywords: Earthquake, Masonry, Collapse, repair, Cracks

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6 Fabric-Reinforced Cementitious Matrix (FRCM)-Repaired Corroded Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beams under Monotonic and Fatigue Loads

Authors: Mohammed Elghazy, Ahmed El Refai, Usama Ebead, Antonio Nanni

Abstract:

Rehabilitating corrosion-damaged reinforced concrete (RC) structures has been accomplished using various techniques such as steel plating, external post-tensioning, and external bonding of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. This paper reports on the use of an innovative technique to strengthen corrosion-damaged RC structures using fabric-reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM) composites. FRCM consists of dry-fiber fabric embedded in cement-based matrix. Twelve large-scale RC beams were constructed and tested in flexural monotonic and fatigue loads. Prior to testing, ten specimens were subjected to accelerated corrosion process for 140 days leading to an average mass loss in the tensile steel bars of 18.8 %. Corrosion was restricted to the main reinforcement located in the middle third of the beam span. Eight corroded specimens were repaired and strengthened while two virgin and two corroded-unrepaired/unstrengthened beams were used as benchmarks for comparison purpose. The test parameters included the FRCM materials (Carbon-FRCM, PBO-FRCM), the number of FRCM plies, the strengthening scheme, and the type of loading (monotonic and fatigue). The effects of the pervious parameters on the flexural response, the mode of failure, and the fatigue life were reported. Test results showed that corrosion reduced the yield and ultimate strength of the beams. The corroded-unrepaired specimen failed to meet the provisions of the ACI-318 code for crack width criteria. The use of FRCM significantly increased the ultimate strength of the corroded specimen by 21% and 65% more than that of the corroded-unrepaired specimen. Corrosion significantly decreased the fatigue life of the corroded-unrepaired beam by 77% of that of the virgin beam. The fatigue life of the FRCM repaired-corroded beams increased to 1.5 to 3.8 times that of the corroded-unrepaired beam but was lower than that of the virgin specimen. The specimens repaired with U-wrapped PBO-FRCM strips showed higher fatigue life than those repaired with the end-anchored bottom strips having similar number of PBO-FRCM-layers. PBO-FRCM was more effective than Carbon-FRCM in restoring the fatigue life of the corroded specimens.

Keywords: Concrete, Corrosion, Fatigue, repair, flexure, fabric-reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM)

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5 A Method to Identify the Critical Delay Factors for Building Maintenance Projects of Institutional Buildings: Case Study of Eastern India

Authors: Shankha Pratim Bhattacharya

Abstract:

In general building repair and renovation projects are minor in nature. It requires less attention as the primary cost involvement is relatively small. Although the building repair and maintenance projects look simple, it involves much complexity during execution. Many of the present research indicate that few uncertain situations are usually linked with maintenance projects. Those may not be read properly in the planning stage of the projects, and finally, lead to time overrun. Building repair and maintenance become essential and periodical after commissioning of the building. In Institutional buildings, the regular maintenance projects also include addition –alteration, modification activities. Increase in the student admission, new departments, and sections, new laboratories and workshops, up gradation of existing laboratories are very common in the institutional buildings in the developing nations like India. The project becomes very critical because it undergoes space problem, architectural design issues, structural modification, etc. One of the prime factors in the institutional building maintenance and modification project is the time constraint. Mostly it required being executed a specific non-work time period. The present research considered only the institutional buildings of the Eastern part of India to analyse the repair and maintenance project delay. A general survey was conducted among the technical institutes to find the causes and corresponding nature of construction delay factors. Five technical institutes are considered in the present study with repair, renovation, modification and extension type of projects. Construction delay factors are categorically subdivided into four groups namely, material, manpower (works), Contract and Site. The survey data are collected for the nature of delay responsible for a specific project and the absolute amount of delay through proposed and actual duration of work. In the first stage of the paper, a relative importance index (RII) is proposed for the delay factors. The occurrence of the delay factors is also judged by its frequency-severity nature. Finally, the delay factors are then rated and linked with the type of work. In the second stage, a regression analysis is executed to establish an empirical relationship between the actual time of a project and the percentage of delay. It also indicates the impact of the factors for delay responsibility. Ultimately, the present paper makes an effort to identify the critical delay factors for the repair and renovation type project in the Eastern Indian Institutional building.

Keywords: Maintenance, Regression analysis, repair, relative importance index, delay factor, institutional building

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4 Experimental Study on Strengthening Systems of Reinforced Concrete Cantilever Slabs

Authors: Ashraf M. Heniegal, Aymen H. Khalil, Bassam A. Abdelsalam

Abstract:

There are many problems related to cantilever slabs such as the time-dependent deformation, corrosion problems of steel reinforcement, and lack of experimental studies on the strength of strengthened cantilever slabs. This paper presents an investigation to evaluate the behavior of reinforced concrete cantilever slabs after strengthening with different techniques. Six medium scale specimens, divided into three groups, were tested along with a control slab. The first group consists of two specimens which were repaired and strengthened using reinforced concrete jacket above with and without shear connector bars, whereas the second group contained two slabs which were strengthened using two strips of two layers of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) covering 60% and 90% from the cantilever length. The last group involves two specimens strengthened with two steel plates. In one specimen, the steel plates were glued to the surface using epoxy resin. The second specimen, the steel plates were affixed to the concrete surface using expansion bolts. The loading was conducted in two phases. Firstly, the samples were subjected to 40% of the ultimate load of the control slab. Secondly, the specimens reloaded after being strengthened up to failure. The load-deflection, steel strain, concrete strain, failure mode, toughness, and ductility index are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: repair, jacketing, strengthened, GFRP layers, reloaded, cantilever slabs

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3 A Finite Element Model to Study the Behaviour of Corroded Reinforced Concrete Beams Repaired with near Surface Mounted Technique

Authors: B. Almassri, F. Almahmoud, R. Francois

Abstract:

Near surface mounted reinforcement (NSM) technique is one of the promising techniques used nowadays to strengthen reinforced concrete (RC) structures. In the NSM technique, the Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) rods are placed inside pre-cut grooves and are bonded to the concrete with epoxy adhesive. This paper studies the non-classical mode of failure ‘the separation of concrete cover’ according to experimental and numerical FE modelling results. Experimental results and numerical modelling results of a 3D finite element (FE) model using the commercial software Abaqus and 2D FE model FEMIX were obtained on two beams, one corroded (25 years of corrosion procedure) and one control (A1CL3-R and A1T-R) were each repaired in bending using NSM CFRP rod and were then tested up to failure. The results showed that the NSM technique increased the overall capacity of control and corroded beams despite a non-classical mode of failure with separation of the concrete cover occurring in the corroded beam due to damage induced by corrosion. Another FE model used external steel stirrups around the repaired corroded beam A1CL3-R which failed with the separation of concrete cover, this model showed a change in the mode of failure form a non-classical mode of failure by the separation of concrete cover to the same mode of failure of the repaired control beam by the crushing of compressed concrete.

Keywords: Corrosion, repair, Reinforced Concrete, FEM, CFRP, FEMIX

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2 'I Mean' in Teacher Questioning Sequences in Post-Task Discussions: A Conversation Analytic Study

Authors: Derya Duran, Christine Jacknick

Abstract:

Despite a growing body of research on classroom, especially language classroom interactions, much more is yet to be discovered on how interaction is organized in higher education settings. This study investigates how the discourse marker 'I mean' in teacher questioning turns functions as a resource to promote student participation as well as to enhance collective understanding in whole-class discussions. This paper takes a conversation analytic perspective, drawing on 30-hour video recordings of classroom interaction in an English as a medium of instruction university in Turkey. Two content classrooms (i.e., Guidance) were observed during an academic term. The course was offered to 4th year students (n=78) in the Faculty of Education; students were majoring in different subjects (i.e., Early Childhood Education, Foreign Language Education, Mathematics Education). Results of the study demonstrate the multi-functionality of discourse marker 'I mean' in teacher questioning turns. In the context of English as a medium of instruction classrooms where possible sources of confusion may occur, we found that 'I mean' is primarily used to indicate upcoming adjustments. More specifically, it is employed for a variety of interactional purposes such as elaboration, clarification, specification, reformulation, and reference to the instructional activity. The study sheds light on the multiplicity of functions of the discourse marker in academic interactions and it uncovers how certain linguistic resources serve functions to the organization of repair such as the maintenance of understanding in classroom interaction. In doing so, it also shows the ways in which participation is routinely enacted in shared interactional events through linguistic resources.

Keywords: Conversation Analysis, repair, English as a medium of instruction, discourse marker

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1 Examination of State of Repair of Buildings in Private Housing Estates in Enugu Metropolis, Enugu State Nigeria

Authors: Umeora Chukwunonso Obiefuna

Abstract:

The private sector in housing provision continually take steps towards addressing part of the problem of cushioning the effect of the housing shortage in Nigeria by establishing housing estates since the government alone cannot provide housing for everyone. This research examined and reported findings from research conducted on the state of repair of buildings in private housing estates in Enugu metropolis, Enugu state Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to examine the physical conditions of the building fabrics and appraise the performance of infrastructural services provided in the buildings. The questionnaire was used as a research instrument to elicit data from respondents. Stratified sampling of the estates based on building type was adopted as a sampling method for this study. Findings from the research show that the state of repair of most buildings require minor repairs to make them fit for habitation and sound to ensure the well-being of the residents. In addition, four independent variables from the nine independent variables investigated significantly explained residual variation in the dependent variable - state of repair of the buildings in the study area. These variables are: Average Monthly Income of Residents (AMIR), Length of Stay of the Residents in the estates (LSY), Type of Wall Finishes on the buildings (TWF), and Time Taken to Respond to Resident’s complaints by the estate managers (TTRC). With this, the linear model was established for predicting the state of repair of buildings in private housing estates in the study area. This would assist in identifying variables that are lucid in predicting the state of repair of the buildings.

Keywords: Building, repair, housing estate, private

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