Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Renewable Energy Sources Related Abstracts

21 Investigation on Biomass as an Alternate Source for Power Generation

Authors: Narsimhulu Sanke, D. N. Reddy


The purpose of the paper is to discuss the biomass as a renewable source of energy for power generation. The setup is designed and fabricated in the Centre for Energy Technology (CET) and four different fuels are tested in the laboratory, but here the focus is on wood blocks (fuel) combustion with temperature, gas composition percentage by volume and the heating values.

Keywords: biomass, Power Generation, Renewable Energy Sources, downdraft gasifier

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20 Smart Grid Simulator

Authors: Ursachi Andrei


The Smart Grid Simulator is a computer software based on advanced algorithms which has as the main purpose to lower the energy bill in the most optimized price efficient way as possible for private households, companies or energy providers. It combines the energy provided by a number of solar modules and wind turbines with the consumption of one household or a cluster of nearby households and information regarding weather conditions and energy prices in order to predict the amount of energy that can be produced by renewable energy sources and the amount of energy that will be bought from the distributor for the following day. The user of the system will not only be able to minimize his expenditures on energy fractures, but also he will be informed about his hourly consumption, electricity prices fluctuation and money spent for energy bought as well as how much money he saved each day and since he installed the system. The paper outlines the algorithm that supports the Smart Grid Simulator idea and presents preliminary test results that support the discussion and implementation of the system.

Keywords: Applied Science, Sustainable Energy, Smart Grid, Renewable Energy Sources

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19 The Temperature Influence for Gasification in the Advanced Biomass Gasifier

Authors: Narsimhulu Sanke, D. N. Reddy


The paper is to discuss about the influence of the temperature in the advanced biomass gasifier for gasification, when tested four different biomass fuels individually in the gasification laboratory of Centre for Energy Technology (CET). The gasifier is developed in CET to test any kind of biomass fuel for gasification without changing the gasifier. The gasifier can be used for batch operations and observed and found that there were no operational problems.

Keywords: Renewable Energy Sources, temperature, Tar, biomass fuels, advanced downdraft gasifier

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18 Modelling the Photovoltaic Pump Output Using Empirical Data from Local Conditions in the Vhembe District

Authors: C. Matasane, C. Dwarika, R. Naidoo


The mathematical analysis on radiation obtained and the development of the solar photovoltaic (PV) array groundwater pumping is needed in the rural areas of Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province for sizing and power performance subject to the climate conditions within the area. A simple methodology approach is developed for the directed coupled solar, controller and submersible ground water pump system. The system consists of a PV array, pump controller and submerged pump, battery backup and charger controller. For this reason, the theoretical solar radiation obtained for optimal predictions and system performance in order to achieve different design and operating parameters. Here the examination of the PV schematic module in a Direct Current (DC) application is used for obtainable maximum solar power energy for water pumping. In this paper, a simple efficient photovoltaic water pumping system is presented with its theoretical studies and mathematical modeling of photovoltaics (PV) system.

Keywords: Renewable Energy Sources, solar groundwater pumping, theoretical and mathematical analysis of photovoltaic (PV) system, theoretical solar radiation

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17 Technical and Economic Environment in the Polish Power System as the Basis for Distributed Generation and Renewable Energy Sources Development

Authors: Pawel Sowa, Joachim Bargiel, Bogdan Mol, Katarzyna Luszcz


The article raises the issue of the development of local renewable energy sources and the production of distributed energy in context of improving the reliability of the Polish Power System and the beneficial impact on local and national energy security. The paper refers to the current problems of local governments in the process of investment in the area of distributed energy projects, and discusses the issues of the future role and cooperation within the local power plants and distributed energy. Attention is paid to the local communities the chance to raise their own resources and management of energy fuels (biomass, wind, gas mining) and improving the local energy balance. The material presented takes the issue of the development of the energy potential of municipalities and future cooperation with professional energy. As an example, practical solutions used in one of the communes in Silesia.

Keywords: Distributed Generation, Renewable Energy Sources, mini centers energy, reliability of supply of rural commune

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16 Grid and Market Integration of Large Scale Wind Farms using Advanced Predictive Data Mining Techniques

Authors: Umit Cali


The integration of intermittent energy sources like wind farms into the electricity grid has become an important challenge for the utilization and control of electric power systems, because of the fluctuating behaviour of wind power generation. Wind power predictions improve the economic and technical integration of large amounts of wind energy into the existing electricity grid. Trading, balancing, grid operation, controllability and safety issues increase the importance of predicting power output from wind power operators. Therefore, wind power forecasting systems have to be integrated into the monitoring and control systems of the transmission system operator (TSO) and wind farm operators/traders. The wind forecasts are relatively precise for the time period of only a few hours, and, therefore, relevant with regard to Spot and Intraday markets. In this work predictive data mining techniques are applied to identify a statistical and neural network model or set of models that can be used to predict wind power output of large onshore and offshore wind farms. These advanced data analytic methods helps us to amalgamate the information in very large meteorological, oceanographic and SCADA data sets into useful information and manageable systems. Accurate wind power forecasts are beneficial for wind plant operators, utility operators, and utility customers. An accurate forecast allows grid operators to schedule economically efficient generation to meet the demand of electrical customers. This study is also dedicated to an in-depth consideration of issues such as the comparison of day ahead and the short-term wind power forecasting results, determination of the accuracy of the wind power prediction and the evaluation of the energy economic and technical benefits of wind power forecasting.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Data Mining, Forecasting, wind power, Big Data, Renewable Energy Sources, Energy Economics, Power Grids, power trading

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15 Concept, Modules and Objectives of the Syllabus Course: Small Power Plants and Renewable Energy Sources

Authors: Rade M. Ciric, Nikola L. J. Rajakovic


This paper presents a curriculum of the subject small power plants and renewable energy sources, dealing with the concept of distributed generation, renewable energy sources, hydropower, wind farms, geothermal power plants, cogeneration plants, biogas plants of agriculture and animal origin, solar power and fuel cells. The course is taught the manner of connecting small power plants to the grid, the impact of small generators on the distribution system, as well as economic, environmental and legal aspects of operation of distributed generators.

Keywords: Energy policy, Distributed Generation, Renewable Energy Sources, Curriculum

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14 EU-SOLARIS: The European Infrastructure for Concentrated Solar Thermal and Solar Chemistry Technologies

Authors: Vassiliki Drosou, Theoni Oikonomou


EU-SOLARIS will form a new legal entity to explore and implement improved rules and procedures for Research Infrastructures (RI) for Concentrated Solar Thermal (CST) and solar chemistry technologies, in order to optimize RI development and R&D coordination. It is expected to be the first of its kind, where industrial needs and private funding will play a significant role. The success of EU-SOLARIS initiative will be the establishment of a new governance body, aided by sustainable financial models. EU-SOLARIS is expected to be an important tool, which will provide the most complete, high quality scientific infrastructure portfolio at international level and to facilitate researchers' access to highly specialised research infrastructure through a single access point. This will be accomplished by linking scientific communities, industry and universities involved in the CST sector. The access to be offered by EU-SOLARIS will guarantee the direct contact of experienced scientists with newcomers and interested students. The set of RIs participating in EU-SOLARIS will offer access to state of the art infrastructures, high-quality services, and will enable users to conduct high quality research. Access to these facilities will contribute to the enhancement of the European research area by: -Opening installations to European and non-European scientists, coming from both academia and industry, thus improving co-operation. -Improving scientific critical mass in domains where knowledge is now widely dispersed. -Generating strong Europe-wide R&D project consortia, increasing the competitiveness of each member alone. EU-SOLARIS will be created in the framework of a European project, co-funded by the 7th Framework Programme of the European Union –whose initiative is to foster, contribute and promote the scientific and technological development of the CST and solar chemistry technologies. Primary objective of EU-SOLARIS is to contribute to the improvement of the state of the art of these technologies with the aim of preserving and reinforcing the European leadership in this field, in which EU-SOLARIS is expected to be a valuable instrument. EU-SOLARIS scope, activities, objectives, current status and vision will be given in the article. Moreover, the rules, processes and criteria regulating the access to the research infrastructures included in EU-SOLARIS will be presented.

Keywords: Renewable Energy Sources, Solar Chemistry, Research Infrastructures, concentrated solar thermal (CST) technology

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13 Investigation into Micro-Grids with Renewable Energy Sources for Use as High Reliability Electrical Power Supply in a Nuclear Facility

Authors: Gerard R. Lekhema, Willie A Cronje, Ian Korir


The objective of this research work is to investigate the use of a micro-grid system to improve the reliability and availability of emergency electrical power in a nuclear facility. The nuclear facility is a safety-critical application that requires reliable electrical power for safe startup, operation and normal or emergency shutdown conditions. The majority of the nuclear facilities around the world utilize diesel generators as emergency power supply during loss of offsite power events. This study proposes the micro-grid system with distributed energy sources and energy storage systems for use as emergency power supply. The systems analyzed include renewable energy sources, decay heat recovery system and large scale energy storage system. The configuration of the micro-grid system is realized with guidelines of nuclear safety standards and requirements. The investigation results presented include performance analysis of the micro-grid system in terms of reliability and availability.

Keywords: Renewable Energy Sources, Nuclear Facility, Micro-Grid, emergency power supply

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12 Estimation and Utilization of Landfill Gas from Egyptian Municipal Waste: A Case Study

Authors: Ali A. Hashim Habib, Ahmed A. Abdel-Rehim


Assuredly, massive amounts of wastes that are not utilized and dumped in uncontrolled dumpsites will be one of the major sources of diseases, fires, and emissions. With easy steps and minimum effort, energy can be produced from these gases. The present work introduces an experimental and theoretical analysis to estimate the amount of landfill gas and the corresponding energy which can be produced based on actual Egyptian municipal wastes composition. Two models were utilized and compared, EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) model and CDM (Clean Development Mechanisms) model to estimate methane generation rates and total CH4 emissions based on a particular landfill. The results showed that for every ton of municipal waste, 140 m3 of landfill gas can be produced. About 800 kW of electricity for a minimum of 24 years can be generated form one million ton of municipal waste. A total amount of 549,025 ton of carbon emission can be avoided during these 24 years.

Keywords: Renewable Energy Sources, municipal solid waste, energy from landfill gases, landfill biogas, methane emission

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11 Investigation on Development of Pv and Wind Power with Hydro Pumped Storage to Increase Renewable Energy Penetration: A Parallel Analysis of Taiwan and Greece

Authors: Robel Habtemariam


Globally, wind energy and photovoltaics (PV) solar energy are among the leading renewable energy sources (RES) in terms of installed capacity. In order to increase the contribution of RES to the power supply system, large scale energy integration is required, mainly due to wind energy and PV. In this paper, an investigation has been made on the electrical power supply systems of Taiwan and Greece in order to integrate high level of wind and photovoltaic (PV) to increase the penetration of renewable energy resources. Currently, both countries heavily depend on fossil fuels to meet the demand and to generate adequate electricity. Therefore, this study is carried out to look into the two cases power supply system by developing a methodology that includes major power units. To address the analysis, an approach for simulation of power systems is formulated and applied. The simulation is based on the non-dynamic analysis of the electrical system. This simulation results in calculating the energy contribution of different types of power units; namely the wind, PV, non-flexible and flexible power units. The calculation is done for three different scenarios (2020, 2030, & 2050), where the first two scenarios are based on national targets and scenario 2050 is a reflection of ambitious global targets. By 2030 in Taiwan, the input of the power units is evaluated as 4.3% (wind), 3.7% (PV), 65.2 (non-flexible), 25.3% (flexible), and 1.5% belongs to hydropower plants. In Greece, much higher renewable energy contribution is observed for the same scenario with 21.7% (wind), 14.3% (PV), 38.7% (non-flexible), 14.9% (flexible), and 10.3% (hydro). Moreover, it examines the ability of the power systems to deal with the variable nature of the wind and PV generation. For this reason, an investigation has also been done on the use of the combined wind power with pumped storage systems (WPS) to enable the system to exploit the curtailed wind energy & surplus PV and thus increase the wind and PV installed capacity and replace the peak supply by conventional power units. Results show that the feasibility of pumped storage can be justified in the high scenario (that is the scenario of 2050) of RES integration especially in the case of Greece.

Keywords: Renewable Energy Sources, large scale energy integration, photovoltaics solar energy, pumped storage systems

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10 Micropower Composite Nanomaterials Based on Porous Silicon for Renewable Energy Sources

Authors: Alexey P. Antropov, Alexander V. Ragutkin, Nicolay A. Yashtulov


The original controlled technology for power active nanocomposite membrane-electrode assembly engineering on the basis of porous silicon is presented. The functional nanocomposites were studied by electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry methods. The application possibility of the obtained nanocomposites as high performance renewable energy sources for micro-power electronic devices is demonstrated.

Keywords: Nanotechnology, Renewable Energy Sources, Electron Microscopy, Cyclic Voltammetry, porous silicon, platinum-palladium nanocomposites, power activity

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9 Effective Scheduling of Hybrid Reconfigurable Microgrids Considering High Penetration of Renewable Sources

Authors: Abdollah Kavousi Fard


This paper addresses the optimal scheduling of hybrid reconfigurable microgrids considering hybrid electric vehicle charging demands. A stochastic framework based on unscented transform to model the high uncertainties of renewable energy sources including wind turbine and photovoltaic panels, as well as the hybrid electric vehicles’ charging demand. In order to get to the optimal scheduling, the network reconfiguration is employed as an effective tool for changing the power supply path and avoiding possible congestions. The simulation results are analyzed and discussed in three different scenarios including coordinated, uncoordinated and smart charging demand of hybrid electric vehicles. A typical grid-connected microgrid is employed to show the satisfying performance of the proposed method.

Keywords: Optimization, Renewable Energy Sources, Microgrid, reconfiguration

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8 Assessment of On-Site Solar and Wind Energy at a Manufacturing Facility in Ireland

Authors: A. Sgobba, C. Meskell


The feasibility of on-site electricity production from solar and wind and the resulting load management for a specific manufacturing plant in Ireland are assessed. The industry sector accounts directly and indirectly for a high percentage of electricity consumption and global greenhouse gas emissions; therefore, it will play a key role in emission reduction and control. Manufacturing plants, in particular, are often located in non-residential areas since they require open spaces for production machinery, parking facilities for the employees, appropriate routes for supply and delivery, special connections to the national grid and other environmental impacts. Since they have larger spaces compared to commercial sites in urban areas, they represent an appropriate case study for evaluating the technical and economic viability of energy system integration with low power density technologies, such as solar and wind, for on-site electricity generation. The available open space surrounding the analysed manufacturing plant can be efficiently used to produce a discrete quantity of energy, instantaneously and locally consumed. Therefore, transmission and distribution losses can be reduced. The usage of storage is not required due to the high and almost constant electricity consumption profile. The energy load of the plant is identified through the analysis of gas and electricity consumption, both internally monitored and reported on the bills. These data are not often recorded and available to third parties since manufacturing companies usually keep track only of the overall energy expenditures. The solar potential is modelled for a period of 21 years based on global horizontal irradiation data; the hourly direct and diffuse radiation and the energy produced by the system at the optimum pitch angle are calculated. The model is validated using PVWatts and SAM tools. Wind speed data are available for the same period within one-hour step at a height of 10m. Since the hub of a typical wind turbine reaches a higher altitude, complementary data for a different location at 50m have been compared, and a model for the estimate of wind speed at the required height in the right location is defined. Weibull Statistical Distribution is used to evaluate the wind energy potential of the site. The results show that solar and wind energy are, as expected, generally decoupled. Based on the real case study, the percentage of load covered every hour by on-site generation (Level of Autonomy LA) and the resulting electricity bought from the grid (Expected Energy Not Supplied EENS) are calculated. The economic viability of the project is assessed through Net Present Value, and the influence the main technical and economic parameters have on NPV is presented. Since the results show that the analysed renewable sources can not provide enough electricity, the integration with a cogeneration technology is studied. Finally, the benefit to energy system integration of wind, solar and a cogeneration technology is evaluated and discussed.

Keywords: Manufacturing, Renewable Energy Sources, Demand, load, energy system integration, national grid

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7 Cascaded Multi-Level Single-Phase Switched Boost Inverter

Authors: Van-Thuan Tran, Minh-Khai Nguyen, Geum-Bae Cho


Recently, multilevel inverters have become more attractive for researchers due to low total harmonic distortion (THD) in the output voltage and low electromagnetic interference (EMI). This paper proposes a single-phase cascaded H-bridge quasi switched boost inverter (CHB-qSBI) for renewable energy sources applications. The proposed inverter has the advantage over the cascaded H-bridge quasi-Z-source inverter (CHB-qZSI) in reducing two capacitors and two inductors. As a result, cost, weight, and size are reduced. Furthermore, the dc-link voltage of each module is controlled by individual shoot-through duty cycle to get the same values. Therefore, the proposed inverter solves the imbalance problem of dc-link voltage in traditional CHB inverter. This paper shows the operating principles and analysis of the single-phase cascaded H-bridge quasi switched boost inverter. Also, a control strategy for the proposed inverter is shown. Experimental and simulation results are shown to verify the operating principle of the proposed inverter.

Keywords: Renewable Energy Sources, Multilevel Inverter, cascaded h-bridge inverter, quasi switched boost inverter, quasi z-source inverter

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6 Central Energy Management for Optimizing Utility Grid Power Exchange with a Network of Smart Homes

Authors: Sima Aznavi, Poria Fajri, Hanif Livani


Smart homes are small energy systems which may be equipped with renewable energy sources, storage devices, and loads. Energy management strategy plays a main role in the efficient operation of smart homes. Effective energy scheduling of the renewable energy sources and storage devices guarantees efficient energy management in households while reducing the energy imports from the grid. Nevertheless, despite such strategies, independently day ahead energy schedules for multiple households can cause undesired effects such as high power exchange with the grid at certain times of the day. Therefore, the interactions between multiple smart home day ahead energy projections is a challenging issue in a smart grid system and if not managed appropriately, the imported energy from the power network can impose additional burden on the distribution grid. In this paper, a central energy management strategy for a network consisting of multiple households each equipped with renewable energy sources, storage devices, and Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) is proposed. The decision-making strategy alongside the smart home energy management system, minimizes the energy purchase cost of the end users, while at the same time reducing the stress on the utility grid. In this approach, the smart home energy management system determines different operating scenarios based on the forecasted household daily load and the components connected to the household with the objective of minimizing the end user overall cost. Then, selected projections for each household that are within the same cost range are sent to the central decision-making system. The central controller then organizes the schedules to reduce the overall peak to average ratio of the total imported energy from the grid. To validate this approach simulations are carried out for a network of five smart homes with different load requirements and the results confirm that by applying the proposed central energy management strategy, the overall power demand from the grid can be significantly flattened. This is an effective approach to alleviate the stress on the network by distributing its energy to a network of multiple households over a 24- hour period.

Keywords: Energy Management, Smart Grid, Renewable Energy Sources, Smart Home

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5 Renovate to nZEB of an Existing Building in the Mediterranean Area: Analysis of the Use of Renewable Energy Sources for the HVAC System

Authors: M. Baratieri, M. Beccali, S. Corradino, B. Di Pietra, C. La Grassa, F. Monteleone, G. Morosinotto, G. Puglisi


The energy renovation of existing buildings represents an important opportunity to increase the decarbonization and the sustainability of urban environments. In this context, the work carried out has the objective of demonstrating the technical and economic feasibility of an energy renovate of a public building destined for offices located on the island of Lampedusa in the Mediterranean Sea. By applying the Italian transpositions of European Directives 2010/31/EU and 2009/28/EC, the building has been renovated from the current energy requirements of 111.7 kWh/m² to 16.4 kWh/m². The result achieved classifies the building as nZEB (nearly Zero Energy Building) according to the Italian national definition. The analysis was carried out using in parallel a quasi-stationary software, normally used in the professional field, and a dynamic simulation model often used in the academic world. The proposed interventions cover the components of the building’s envelope, the heating-cooling system and the supply of energy from renewable sources. In these latter points, the analysis has focused more on assessing two aspects that affect the supply of renewable energy. The first concerns the use of advanced logic control systems for air conditioning units in order to increase photovoltaic self-consumption. With these adjustments, a considerable increase in photovoltaic self-consumption and a decrease in the electricity exported to the Island's electricity grid have been obtained. The second point concerned the evaluation of the building's energy classification considering the real efficiency of the heating-cooling plant. Normally the energy plants have lower operational efficiency than the designed one due to multiple reasons; the decrease in the energy classification of the building for this factor has been quantified. This study represents an important example for the evaluation of the best interventions for the energy renovation of buildings in the Mediterranean Climate and a good description of the correct methodology to evaluate the resulting improvements.

Keywords: Renewable Energy Sources, Heat pumps, HVAC Systems, nZEB renovation

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4 Evaluation of Energy Upgrade Measures and Connection of Renewable Energy Sources Using Software Tools: Case Study of an Academic Library Building in Larissa, Greece

Authors: Giwrgos S. Gkarmpounis, Aikaterini G. Rokkou, Marios N. Moschakis


Increased energy consumption in the academic buildings, creates the need to implement energy saving measures and to take advantage of the renewable energy sources to cover the electrical needs of those buildings. An Academic Library will be used as a case study. With the aid of RETScreen software that takes into account the energy consumptions and characteristics of the Library Building, it is proved that measures such as the replacement of fluorescent lights with led lights, the installation of outdoor shading, the replacement of the openings and Building Management System installation, provide a high level of energy savings. Moreover, given the available space of the building and the climatic data, the installation of a photovoltaic system of 100 kW can also cover a serious amount of the building energy consumption, unlike a wind system that seems uncompromising. Lastly, HOMER software is used to compare the use of a photovoltaic system against a wind system in order to verify the results that came up from the RETScreen software concerning the renewable energy sources.

Keywords: Renewable Energy Sources, building sector, energy saving measures, energy upgrading, homer software, RETScreen software

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3 Design, Control and Implementation of 3.5 kW Bi-Directional Energy Harvester for Intelligent Green Energy Management System

Authors: P. Ramesh, Aby Joseph, Arya G. Lal, U. S. Aji


Integration of distributed green renewable energy sources in addition with battery energy storage is an inevitable requirement in a smart grid environment. To achieve this, an Intelligent Green Energy Management System (i-GEMS) needs to be incorporated to ensure coordinated operation between supply and load demand based on the hierarchy of Renewable Energy Sources (RES), battery energy storage and distribution grid. A bi-directional energy harvester is an integral component facilitating Intelligent Green Energy Management System (i-GEMS) and it is required to meet the technical challenges mentioned as follows: (1) capability for bi-directional mode of operation (buck/boost) (2) reduction of circuit parasitic to suppress voltage spikes (3) converter startup problem (4) high frequency magnetics (5) higher power density (6) mode transition issues during battery charging and discharging. This paper is focused to address the above mentioned issues and targeted to design, develop and implement a bi-directional energy harvester with galvanic isolation. In this work, the hardware architecture for bi-directional energy harvester rated 3.5 kW is developed with Isolated Full Bridge Boost Converter (IFBBC) as well as Dual Active Bridge (DAB) Converter configuration using modular power electronics hardware which is identical for both solar PV array and battery energy storage. In IFBBC converter, the current fed full bridge circuit is enabled and voltage fed full bridge circuit is disabled through Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) pulses for boost mode of operation and vice-versa for buck mode of operation. In DAB converter, all the switches are in active state so as to adjust the phase shift angle between primary full bridge and secondary full bridge which in turn decides the power flow directions depending on modes (boost/buck) of operation. Here, the control algorithm is developed to ensure the regulation of the common DC link voltage and maximum power extraction from the renewable energy sources depending on the selected mode (buck/boost) of operation. The circuit analysis and simulation study are conducted using PSIM 9.0 in three scenarios which are - 1.IFBBC with passive clamp, 2. IFBBC with active clamp, 3. DAB converter. In this work, a common hardware prototype for bi-directional energy harvester with 3.5 kW rating is built for IFBBC and DAB converter configurations. The power circuit is equipped with right choice of MOSFETs, gate drivers with galvanic isolation, high frequency transformer, filter capacitors, and filter boost inductor. The experiment was conducted for IFBBC converter with passive clamp under boost mode and the prototype confirmed the simulation results showing the measured efficiency as 88% at 2.5 kW output power. The digital controller hardware platform is developed using floating point microcontroller TMS320F2806x from Texas Instruments. The firmware governing the operation of the bi-directional energy harvester is written in C language and developed using code composer studio. The comprehensive analyses of the power circuit design, control strategy for battery charging/discharging under buck/boost modes and comparative performance evaluation using simulation and experimental results will be presented.

Keywords: Renewable Energy Sources, maximum power point tracking, bi-directional energy harvester, dual active bridge, isolated full bridge boost converter, intelligent green energy management system

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2 Technical and Economic Analysis of Smart Micro-Grid Renewable Energy Systems: An Applicable Case Study

Authors: M. A. Fouad, M. A. Badr, Z. S. Abd El-Rehim, Taher Halawa, Mahmoud Bayoumi, M. M. Ibrahim


Renewable energy-based micro-grids are presently attracting significant consideration. The smart grid system is presently considered a reliable solution for the expected deficiency in the power required from future power systems. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal components sizes of a micro-grid, investigating technical and economic performance with the environmental impacts. The micro grid load is divided into two small factories with electricity, both on-grid and off-grid modes are considered. The micro-grid includes photovoltaic cells, back-up diesel generator wind turbines, and battery bank. The estimated load pattern is 76 kW peak. The system is modeled and simulated by MATLAB/Simulink tool to identify the technical issues based on renewable power generation units. To evaluate system economy, two criteria are used: the net present cost and the cost of generated electricity. The most feasible system components for the selected application are obtained, based on required parameters, using HOMER simulation package. The results showed that a Wind/Photovoltaic (W/PV) on-grid system is more economical than a Wind/Photovoltaic/Diesel/Battery (W/PV/D/B) off-grid system as the cost of generated electricity (COE) is 0.266 $/kWh and 0.316 $/kWh, respectively. Considering the cost of carbon dioxide emissions, the off-grid will be competitive to the on-grid system as COE is found to be (0.256 $/kWh, 0.266 $/kWh), for on and off grid systems.

Keywords: Modeling and simulation, Renewable Energy Sources, Environmental Impacts, micro-grid system, on/off grid system

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1 Establishing Forecasts Pointing Towards the Hungarian Energy Change Based on the Results of Local Municipal Renewable Energy Production and Energy Export

Authors: Balazs Kulcsar


Professional energy organizations perform analyses mainly on the global and national levels about the expected development of the share of renewables in electric power generation, heating, and cooling, as well as the transport sectors. There are just a few publications, research institutions, non-profit organizations, and national initiatives with a focus on studies in the individual towns, settlements. Issues concerning the self-supply of energy on the settlement level have not become too wide-spread. The goal of our energy geographic studies is to determine the share of local renewable energy sources in the settlement-based electricity supply across Hungary. The Hungarian energy supply system defines four categories based on the installed capacities of electric power generating units. From these categories, the theoretical annual electricity production of small-sized household power plants (SSHPP) featuring installed capacities under 50 kW and small power plants with under 0.5 MW capacities have been taken into consideration. In the above-mentioned power plant categories, the Hungarian Electricity Act has allowed the establishment of power plants primarily for the utilization of renewable energy sources since 2008. Though with certain restrictions, these small power plants utilizing renewable energies have the closest links to individual settlements and can be regarded as the achievements of the host settlements in the shift of energy use. Based on the 2017 data, we have ranked settlements to reflect the level of self-sufficiency in electricity production from renewable energy sources. The results show that the supply of all the energy demanded by settlements from local renewables is within reach now in small settlements, e.g., in the form of the small power plant categories discussed in the study, and is not at all impossible even in small towns and cities. In Hungary, 30 settlements produce more renewable electricity than their own annual electricity consumption. If these overproductive settlements export their excess electricity towards neighboring settlements, then full electricity supply can be realized on further 29 settlements from renewable sources by local small power plants. These results provide an opportunity for governmental planning of the realization of energy shift (legislative background, support system, environmental education), as well as framing developmental forecasts and scenarios until 2030.

Keywords: Renewable Energy Sources, Hungary, energy geography, local small power plants, self-sufficiency settlements

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