Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Renal Related Abstracts

4 Jelly and Beans: Appropriate Use of Ultrasound in Acute Kidney Injury

Authors: Raja Ezman Raja Shariff

Abstract:

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is commonly seen in inpatients, and places a great cost on the NHS and patients. Timely and appropriate management is both nephron sparing and potentially life-saving. Ultrasound scanning (USS) is a well-recognised method for stratifying patients. Subsequently, the NICE AKI guidance has defined groups in whom scanning is recommended within 6 hours of request (pyonephrosis), within 24 hours (obstruction/cause unknown), and in whom routine scanning isn't recommended (cause for AKI identified). The audit looks into whether Stockport NHS Trust USS practice was in line with such recommendations. The audit evaluated 92 patients with AKI who had USS, between 01/01/14 to 30/04/14. Data collection was divided into 2 parts. Firstly, radiology request cards and the online imaging software (PACS) were evaluated. Then, the electronic case notes (ADVANTIS) was evaluated further. Based on request cards, 10% of requests were for pyonephrosis. Only 33% were scanned within 6hours and a further 33% within 24hours. 75% were requested for possible obstructions and unknown cause collectively. Of those due to possible obstruction, 71% of patients were scanned within 24 hours. Of those with unknown cause, 50% were scanned within 24 hours. 15% of requests had a cause declared and so potentially did not require scanning. Evaluation of the patients’ notes suggested further interesting findings. Firstly, potentially 39% of patients had a known cause for AKI, therefore, did not need USS. Subsequently, the cohort of unknown cause and possible obstruction was collectively reduced to 45%. Alarmingly the patient cohort with possible pyonephrosis went up to 16%, suggesting an under-recognition of this life-threatening condition. We plan to highlight these findings within our institution and make changes to encourage more appropriate requesting and timely scanning. Time will tell if we manage to save or increase our costs in this cost-conscious NHS. Patient benefits, though, seem to be guaranteed.

Keywords: Renal, Kidney, AKI, ARF

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3 Chronic Renal Failure Associated with Heavy Metal Contamination of Drinking Water in Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Elsayed A. M. Shokr, A. Alhazemi, T. Naser, Talal A. Zuhair, Adel A. Zuhair, Ahmed N. Alshamary, Thamer A. Alanazi, Hosam A. Alanazi

Abstract:

The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to Pb, Cd, Cu, Mo, Zn, Ni, Mn Co and Cr. is mainly via intake of drinking water being the most important source in most populations. These metals have been extensively studied and their effects on human health regularly reviewed by international bodies such as the WHO. Heavy metals have been used by humans for thousands of years. Although several adverse health effects of heavy metals have been known for a long time, exposure to heavy metals continues, and is even increasing in some parts of the world, in particular in less developed countries, though emissions have declined in most developed countries over the last 100 years. A strong relationship between contaminated drinking water with heavy metals from some of the stations of water shopping in Hail, KSA and chronic diseases such as renal failure, liver cirrhosis, and chronic anemia has been identified in this study. These diseases are apparently related to contaminant drinking water with heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu, Mo, Zn, Ni, Mn Co and Cr. Renal failure is related to contaminate drinking water with lead and cadmium, liver cirrhosis to copper and molybdenum, and chronic anemia to copper and cadmium. Recent data indicate that adverse health effects of cadmium exposure may occur at lower exposure levels than previously anticipated, primarily in the form of kidney damage but possibly also bone effects and fractures. The general population is primarily exposed to mercury via drinking water being a major source of methyl mercury exposure, and dental amalgam. During the last century lead, cadmium, zinc, iron and arsenic is mainly via intake of drinking water being the most important source in most populations. Long-term exposure to lead, cadmium, zinc, iron and arsenic in drinking-water is mainly related to primarily in the form of kidney damage. Studies of these diseases suggest that abnormal incidence in specific areas is related to toxic materials in the groundwater and thereby led to the contamination of drinking water in these areas.

Keywords: Water, Renal, Heavy Metals, hail, liver functions, kidney functions and chronic renal failure

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2 Anomalous Origin of Bilateral Testicular Arteries: A Case Report

Authors: Arthi Ganapathy, Arithra Banerjee, Saroj Kaler

Abstract:

Abdominal aorta is the sole purveyor of all organs in the abdomen. Anomalies of its main trunk or its branches are to be meticulously observed as it effects the perfusion of an organ. Varying patterns of the testicular artery is one of them. The origin and course of testicular arteries have to be identified carefully during various surgical procedures like renal transplant, intra abdominal surgeries and even in orthopedic surgery like spine surgery. With the advent of new intra-abdominal therapeutic and diagnostic techniques, the anatomy of testicular arteries has assumed much more significance. Though the variations of the testicular vein are well documented, the variations of the testicular artery are not so frequent in incidence. We report a case of the bilateral aberrant origin of the testicular artery from polar renal arteries. We also discuss its developmental basis. Such anomalies if left unnoticed will lead to serious intraoperative complications during procedures on retroperitoneal organs. Any damage to testicular arteries will compromise the function of the gonads.

Keywords: Surgery, Renal, gonadal, cadaver

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1 The Effect of Acute Rejection and Delayed Graft Function on Renal Transplant Fibrosis in Live Donor Renal Transplantation

Authors: Wisam Ismail, Sarah Hosgood, Michael Nicholson

Abstract:

The research hypothesis is that early post-transplant allograft fibrosis will be linked to donor factors and that acute rejection and/or delayed graft function in the recipient will be independent risk factors for the development of fibrosis. This research hypothesis is to explore whether acute rejection/delay graft function has an effect on the renal transplant fibrosis within the first year post live donor kidney transplant between 1998 and 2009. Methods: The study has been designed to identify five time points of the renal transplant biopsies [0 (pre-transplant), 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months] for 300 live donor renal transplant patients over 12 years period between March 1997 – August 2009. Paraffin fixed slides were collected from Leicester General Hospital and Leicester Royal Infirmary. These were routinely sectioned at a thickness of 4 Micro millimetres for standardization. Conclusions: Fibrosis at 1 month after the transplant was found significantly associated with baseline fibrosis (p<0.001) and HTN in the transplant recipient (p<0.001). Dialysis after the transplant showed a weak association with fibrosis at 1 month (p=0.07). The negative coefficient for HTN (-0.05) suggests a reduction in fibrosis in the absence of HTN. Fibrosis at 1 month was significantly associated with fibrosis at baseline (p 0.01 and 95%CI 0.11 to 0.67). Fibrosis at 3, 6 or 12 months was not found to be associated with fibrosis at baseline (p=0.70. 0.65 and 0.50 respectively). The amount of fibrosis at 1 month is significantly associated with graft survival (p=0.01 and 95%CI 0.02 to 0.14). Rejection and severity of rejection were not found to be associated with fibrosis at 1 month. The amount of fibrosis at 1 month was significantly associated with graft survival (p=0.02) after adjusting for baseline fibrosis (p=0.01). Both baseline fibrosis and graft survival were significant predictive factors. The amount of fibrosis at 1 month was not found to be significantly associated with rejection (p=0.64) after adjusting for baseline fibrosis (p=0.01). The amount of fibrosis at 1 month was not found to be significantly associated with rejection severity (p=0.29) after adjusting for baseline fibrosis (p=0.04). Fibrosis at baseline and HTN in the recipient were found to be predictive factors of fibrosis at 1 month. (p 0.02, p <0.001 respectively). Age of the donor, their relation to the patient, the pre-op Creatinine, artery, kidney weight and warm time were not found to be significantly associated with fibrosis at 1 month. In this complex model baseline fibrosis, HTN in the recipient and cold time were found to be predictive factors of fibrosis at 1 month (p=0.01,<0.001 and 0.03 respectively). Donor age was found to be a predictive factor of fibrosis at 6 months. The above analysis was repeated for 3, 6 and 12 months. No associations were detected between fibrosis and any of the explanatory variables with the exception of the donor age which was found to be a predictive factor of fibrosis at 6 months.

Keywords: Renal, Rejection, Fibrosis, transplant

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