Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

removal Related Abstracts

12 Removal of Brilliant Green in Environmental Samples by Poly Ethylene Terephthalate Granule

Authors: Homayon Ahmad Panahi, Nika Shakerin, Farahnaz Zolriasatain, Elham Moniri


In this research, poly-ethylene terephthalate granule was prepared from Tak Corporation. The granule was characterized by fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Then the effects of various parameters on brilliant green sorption such as pH, contact time were studied. The optimum pH value for sorption of brilliant green was 6. The sorption capacity of the granule for brilliant green was 4.6 mg g−1. The profile of brilliant green uptake on this sorbent reflects a good accessibility of the chelating sites in the poly-ethylene terephthalate granule. The developed method was utilized for the determination of brilliant green in environmental water samples by UV/Vis spectrophotometry with satisfactory results.

Keywords: poly-ethylene terephthalate granule, brilliant green, environmental sample, removal

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11 Removal of Metals from Heavy Oil

Authors: Ali Noorian


Crude oil contains various compounds of hydrocarbons but low concentrations of inorganic compounds or metals. Vanadium and Nickel are the most common metals in crude oil. These metals usually exist in solution in the oil and residual fuel oil in the refining process is condensed. Deleterious effects of metals in petroleum have been known for some time. These metals do not only contaminate the product but also cause intoxication and loss of catalyst and corrosion to equipment. In this study, removal of heavy metals and petroleum residues were investigated. These methods include physical, chemical and biological treatment processes. For example, processes such as solvent extraction and hydro-catalytic and catalytic methods are effective and practical methods, but typically often have high costs and cause environmental pollution. Furthermore, biological methods that do not cause environmental pollution have been discussed in recent years, but these methods have not yet been industrialized.

Keywords: Metal, heavy oil, Nickel, removal, vanadium

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10 Comparison Methyl Orange and Malachite Green Dyes Removal by GO, rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH as Adsorbents

Authors: Omid Moradi, Mostafa Rajabi


Graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), multi-walled carbon nanotubes MWCNT), multi-walled carbon nanotube functionalized carboxyl (MWCNT-COOH), and multi-walled carbon nanotube functionalized thiol (MWCNT-SH) were used as efficient adsorbents for the rapid removal two dyes methyl orange (MO) and malachite green (MG) from the aqueous phase. The impact of several influential parameters such as initial dye concentrations, contact time, temperature, and initial solution pH was well studied and optimized. The optimize time for adsorption process of methyl orange dye on GO, rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were determined at 100, 100, 60, 25, and 60 min, respectively and The optimize time for adsorption process of malachite green dye on GO, rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were determined at 100, 100, 60, 15, and 60 min, respectively. The maximum removal efficiency for methyl orange dye by GO, rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were occurred at optimized pH 3, 3, 6, 2, and 6 of aqueous solutions, respectively and for malachite green dye were occurred at optimized pH 3, 3, 6, 9, and 6 of aqueous solutions, respectively. The effect of temperature showed that adsorption process of malachite green dye on GO, rGO, MWCNT, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were endothermic and for adsorption process of methyl orange dye on GO, rGO, MWCNT, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were endothermic but while adsorption of methyl orange and malachite green dyes on MWCNT-COOH surface were exothermic.On increasing the initial concentration of methyl orange dye adsorption capacity on GO surface was decreased and on rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were increased and with increasing the initial concentration of malachite green dye on GO, rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were increased.

Keywords: Adsorption, Graphene Oxide, removal, methyl orange, reduced graphene oxide, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, malachite green

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9 Synthesis of Mesoporous In₂O₃-TiO₂ Nanocomposites as Efficient Photocatalyst for Treatment Industrial Wastewater under Visible Light and UV Illumination

Authors: Ibrahim Abdelfattah, Adel Ismail, Ahmed Helal, Mohamed Faisal


Advanced oxidation technologies are an environment friendly approach for the remediation of industrial wastewaters. Here, one pot synthesis of mesoporous In₂O₃-TiO₂ nanocomposites at different In₂O₃ contents (0-3 wt%) have been synthesized through a facile sol-gel method to evaluate their photocatalytic performance for the degradation of the imazapyr herbicide and phenol under visible light and UV illumination compared with commercially available either Degussa P-25 or UV-100 Hombikat. The prepared mesoporous In₂O₃-TiO₂ nanocomposites were characterized by TEM, STEM, XRD, Raman FT-IR, Raman spectra and diffuse reflectance UV-visible. The bandgap energy of the prepared photocatalysts was derived from the diffuse reflectance spectra. XRD Raman's spectra confirmed that highly crystalline anatase TiO₂ phase was formed. TEM images show TiO₂ particles are quite uniform with 10±2 nm sizes with mesoporous structure. The mesoporous TiO₂ exhibits large pore volumes of 0.267 cm³g⁻¹ and high surface areas of 178 m²g⁻¹, but they become reduced to 0.211 cm³g⁻¹ and 112 m²g⁻¹, respectively upon In₂O₃ incorporation, with tunable mesopore diameter in the range of 5 - 7 nm. The 0.5% In₂O₃-TiO₂ nanocomposite is considered to be the optimum photocatalyst which is able to degrade 90% of imazapyr herbicide and phenol along 180 min and 60 min respectively. The proposed mechanism of this system and the role of In₂O₃ are explained by details.

Keywords: Sol-Gel Method, removal, In₂O₃-TiO₂ nanocomposites, visible light illumination, UV illumination, herbicide and phenol wastewater

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8 Assessment of Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Plants as Removal Systems of Virulent Microsporidia

Authors: M. A. Gad, A. Z. Al-Herrawy


Microsporidia comprises various pathogenic species can infect humans by means of water. Moreover, chlorine disinfection of drinking-water has limitations against this protozoan pathogen. A total of 48 water samples were collected from two drinking water treatment plants having two different filtration systems (slow sand filter and rapid sand filter) during one year period. Samples were collected from inlet and outlet of each plant. Samples were separately filtrated through nitrocellulose membrane (142 mm, 0.45 µm), then eluted and centrifuged. The obtained pellet from each sample was subjected to DNA extraction, then, amplification using genus-specific primer for microsporidia. Each microsporidia-PCR positive sample was performed by two species specific primers for Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis. The results of the present study showed that the percentage of removal for microsporidia through different treatment processes reached its highest rate in the station using slow sand filters (100%), while the removal by rapid sand filter system was 81.8%. Statistically, the two different drinking water treatment plants (slow and rapid) had significant effect for removal of microsporidia. Molecular identification of microsporidia-PCR positive samples using two different primers for Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis showed the presence of the two pervious species in the inlet water of the two stations, while Encephalitozoon intestinalis was detected in the outlet water only. In conclusion, the appearance of virulent microsporidia in treated drinking water may cause potential health threat.

Keywords: Efficacy, removal, PCR, microsporidia, drinking water treatment plants

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7 Using SNAP and RADTRAD to Establish the Analysis Model for Maanshan PWR Plant

Authors: J. R. Wang, H. C. Chen, C. Shih, S. W. Chen, J. H. Yang, Y. Chiang


In this study, we focus on the establishment of the analysis model for Maanshan PWR nuclear power plant (NPP) by using RADTRAD and SNAP codes with the FSAR, manuals, and other data. In order to evaluate the cumulative dose at the Exclusion Area Boundary (EAB) and Low Population Zone (LPZ) outer boundary, Maanshan NPP RADTRAD/SNAP model was used to perform the analysis of the DBA LOCA case. The analysis results of RADTRAD were similar to FSAR data. These analysis results were lower than the failure criteria of 10 CFR 100.11 (a total radiation dose to the whole body, 250 mSv; a total radiation dose to the thyroid from iodine exposure, 3000 mSv).

Keywords: Transport, Radionuclide, Dose, removal, PWR, and dose estimation (RADTRAD), symbolic nuclear analysis package (SNAP)

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6 The Preparation of Titanate Nano-Materials Removing Efficiently Cs-137 from Waste Water in Nuclear Power Plants

Authors: Liu De-jun, Fu Jing, Zhang Rong, Luo Tian, Ma Ning


Cs-137, the radioactive fission products of uranium, can be easily dissolved in water during the accident of nuclear power plant, such as Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, Fukushima accidents. The concentration of Cs in the groundwater around the nuclear power plant exceeded the standard value almost 10,000 times after the Fukushima accident. The adsorption capacity of Titanate nano-materials for radioactive cation (Cs+) is very strong. Moreover, the radioactive ion can be tightly contained in the nanotubes or nanofibers without reversible adsorption, and it can safely be fixed. In addition, the nano-material has good chemical stability, thermal stability and mechanical stability to minimize the environmental impact of nuclear waste and waste volume. The preparation of titanate nanotubes or nanofibers was studied by hydrothermal methods, and chemical kinetics of removal of Cs by nano-materials was obtained. The adsorption time with maximum adsorption capacity and the effects of pH, coexisting ion concentration and the optimum adsorption conditions on the removal of Cs by titanate nano-materials were also obtained. The adsorption boundary curves, adsorption isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacity of Cs-137 as tracer on the nano-materials were studied in the research. The experimental results showed that the removal rate of Cs-137 in 0.01 tons of waste water with only 1 gram nano-materials could reach above 98%, according to the optimum adsorption conditions.

Keywords: Nuclear, Preparation, removal, Cs-137, titanate

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5 Sulfide Removal from Liquid Using Biofilm on Packed Bed of Salak Fruit Seeds

Authors: Retno Ambarwati Sigit Lestari, Wahyudi Budi Sediawan, Sarto Sarto


This study focused on the removal of sulfide from liquid solution using biofilm on packed bed of salak fruit seeds. Biofilter operation of 444 hours consists of 6 phases of operation. Each phase lasted for approximately 72 hours to 82 hours and run at various inlet concentration and flow rate. The highest removal efficiency is 92.01%, at the end of phase 7 at the inlet concentration of 60 ppm and the flow rate of 30 mL min-1. Mathematic model of sulfide removal was proposed to describe the operation of biofilter. The model proposed can be applied to describe the removal of sulfide liquid using biofilter in packed bed. The simulation results the value of the parameters in process. The value of the rate maximum spesific growth is 4.15E-8 s-1, Saturation constant is 9.1E-8 g cm-3, mass transfer coefisient of liquid is 0.5 cm s-1, Henry’s constant is 0.007, and mass of microorganisms growth to mass of sulfide comsumed is 30. The value of the rate maximum spesific growth in early process is 0.00000004 s-1.

Keywords: Biofilm, removal, packed bed, sulfide, salak fruit seeds

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4 Removal of Samarium in Environmental Water Samples by Modified Yeast Cells

Authors: Homayon Ahmad Panahi, Seyed Mehdi Seyed Nejad, Elham Moniri


A novel bio-adsorbent is fabricated by attaching a cibacron blue to yeast cells. The modified bio-sorbent has been characterized by some techniques like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and elemental analysis (CHN) and applied for the preconcentration and determination of samarium from aqueous water samples. The best pH value for adsorption of the brilliant crecyle blue by yeast cells- cibacron blue was 7. The sorption capacity of modified biosorbent was 18.5 mg. g⁻¹. A recovery of 95.3% was obtained for Sm(III) when eluted with 0.5 M nitric acid. The method was applied for Sm(III) preconcentration and determination in river water sample.

Keywords: Solid Phase Extraction, removal, samarium, water sample, yeast cells

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3 Inorganic Anion Removal from Water Using Natural Adsorbents

Authors: A. Ortuzar, I. Escondrillas, F. Mijangos


There is a need for new systems that can be attached to drinking water treatment plants and have the required treatment capacity as well as the selectivity regarding components derived from anthropogenic activities. In a context of high volumes of water and low concentration of contaminants, adsorption/interchange processes are appealing since they meet the required features. Iron oxides such as siderite and molysite, which are respectively based on FeCO3 and FeCl3, can be found in nature. In this work, their observed performance, raw or roasted at different temperatures, as adsorbents of some inorganic anions is discussed. Roasted 1:1 FeCO3: FeCl3 mixture was very selective for arsenic and allowed a 100% removal of As from a 10 mg L-1 As solution. Besides, the 1:1 FeCO3 and FeCl3 mixture roasted at 500 ºC showed good selectivity for, in order of preference, arsenate, bromate, phosphate, fluoride and nitrate anions with distribution coefficients of, respectively, 4200, 2800, 2500 0.4 and 0.03 L g-1.

Keywords: drinking water, removal, selectivity, natural adsorbent materials

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2 Studies of Heavy Metal Ions Removal Efficiency in the Presence of Anionic Surfactant Using Ion Exchangers

Authors: Anna Wolowicz, Katarzyna Staszak, Zbigniew Hubicki


Nowadays heavy metal ions as well as surfactants are widely used throughout the world due to their useful properties. The consequence of such widespread use is their significant production. On the other hand, the increasing demand for surfactants and heavy metal ions results in production of large amounts of wastewaters which are discharged to the environment from mining, metal plating, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, fertilizer, paper, pesticide and electronic industries, pigments producing, petroleum refining and from autocatalyst, fibers, food, polymer industries etc. Heavy metal ions are non-biodegradable in the environment, cable of accumulation in living organisms and organs, toxic and carcinogenic. On the other hand, not only heavy metal ions but also surfactants affect the purity of water and soils. Some of surfactants are also toxic, harmful and dangerous because they are able to penetrate into surface waters causing foaming, blocked diffusion of oxygen from the atmosphere and act as emulsifiers of hydrophobic substances and increase solubility of many the dangerous pollutants. Among surfactants the anionic ones dominate and their share in the global production of surfactants is around 50 ÷ 60%. Due to the negative impact of heavy metals and surfactants on aquatic ecosystems and living organisms, removal and monitoring of their concentration in the environment is extremely important. Surfactants and heavy metal ions removal can be achieved by different biological and physicochemical methods. The adsorption as well as the ion-exchange methods play here a significant role. The aim of this study was heavy metal ions removal from aqueous solutions using different types of ion exchangers in the presence of anionic surfactants. Preliminary studies of copper(II), nickel(II), zinc(II) and cobalt(II) removal from acidic solutions using ion exchangers (Lewatit MonoPlus TP 220, Lewatit MonoPlus SR 7, Purolite A 400 TL, Purolite A 830, Purolite S 984, Dowex PSR 2, Dowex PSR3, Lewatit AF-5) allowed to select the most effective ones for the above mentioned sorbates and then to checking their removal efficiency in the presence of anionic surfactants. As it was found out Lewatit MonoPlus TP 220 of the chelating type, show the highest sorption capacities for copper(II) ions in comparison with the other ion exchangers under discussion, e.g. 9.98 mg/g (0.1 M HCl); 9.12 mg/g (6 M HCl). Moreover, cobalt(II) removal efficiency was the highest in 0.1 M HCl using also Lewatit MonoPlus TP 220 (6.9 mg/g) similar to zinc(II) (9.1 mg/g) and nickiel(II) (6.2 mg/g). As the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was used and surfactant parameters such as viscosity (η), density (ρ) and critical micelle concentration (CMC) were obtained: η = 1.13 ± 0,01 mPa·s; ρ = 999.76 mg/cm3; CMC = 2.26 g/cm3. The studies of copper(II) removal from acidic solutions in the presence of SDS of different concentration show negligible effects on copper(II) removal efficiency. The sorption capacity of Cu(II) from 0.1 M acidic solution of 500 mg/L initial concentration was equal to 46.8 mg/g whereas in the presence of SDS 45.3 mg/g (0.1 mg SDS/L), 47.1 mg/g (0.5 mg SDS/L), 46.6 mg/g (1 mg SDS/L).

Keywords: Heavy Metal Ions, removal, anionic surfactant, ion exchanger

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1 Removal of Basic Yellow 28 Dye from Aqueous Solutions Using Plastic Wastes

Authors: Nadjib Dahdouh, Samira Amokrane, Elhadj Mekatel, Djamel Nibou


The removal of Basic Yellow 28 (BY28) from aqueous solutions by plastic wastes PMMA was investigated. The characteristics of plastic wastes PMMA were determined by SEM, FTIR and chemical composition analysis. The effects of solution pH, initial Basic Yellow 28 (BY28) concentration C, solid/liquid ratio R, and temperature T were studied in batch experiments. The Freundlich and the Langmuir models have been applied to the adsorption process, and it was found that the equilibrium followed well Langmuir adsorption isotherm. A comparison of kinetic models applied to the adsorption of BY28 on the PMMA was evaluated for the pseudo-first-order and the pseudo-second-order kinetic models. It was found that used models were correlated with the experimental data. Intraparticle diffusion model was also used in these experiments. The thermodynamic parameters namely the enthalpy ∆H°, entropy ∆S° and free energy ∆G° of adsorption of BY28 on PMMA were determined. From the obtained results, the negative values of Gibbs free energy ∆G° indicated the spontaneity of the adsorption of BY28 by PMMA. The negative values of ∆H° revealed the exothermic nature of the process and the negative values of ∆S° suggest the stability of BY28 on the surface of SW PMMA.

Keywords: Equilibrium, removal, kinetic study, Waste PMMA, BY28 dye, thermodynamic study

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