Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

remittances Related Abstracts

10 Indian Emigration to Gulf Countries: Opportunities and Challenges

Authors: Sudhaveni Naresh

Abstract:

International migration is an important subject and gaining more significance andinterest among scholars in recent years. It is defined as crossing of the boundaries of political or administrative units for a certain minimum period for reasons such as education, employment, etc.International migration is not new for India because it has a long history with the Gulf region since ancient period. India is also one of the largest migrant-sending countries after China in the world. Migration towards the Gulf region became more prominent during early 1970s due to oil boom which led to rapid increase in the demand for foreign labour. Of 25 million Indian emigrants are living across the world, about six million Indian emigrants working in the Gulf. Most of these migrants were either unskilled or semi-skilled. Both the pull and push factors behind labour emigrate to Gulf countries. India is world’s leading receiver of remittances and the flow of remittances to India has been increasing steadily since the 1970s. In 2011-12, it was about 4 percent of GDP.Emigrants play a significant role in the economic development and growth of the country via the remittances and knowledge and skill transfer. Scholars see remittances as vital tool in the development for origin country. This paper examines the recent trend and pattern of migration from India to Gulf countries and explores impact of remittances on emigrants’ families at home country. It also highlights opportunities, challenges and the need for strengthening multilateral cooperation to transform migration into an efficient, orderly and humane process.The study propose to undertake a primary survey for this purpose. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods will be used to study the above issues.

Keywords: Development, International Migration, remittances, unskilled labour

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9 The Internal Migration in Jiangxi Province, China after the Migrating Decision

Authors: Gourida Siham

Abstract:

Chinese society has witnessed a continuing trend of nationwide rural to urban migration since the 1970's. Before that age, under restricted hukou systems, peasants were kept still and fixed in the farm land. The year 1978 and later years saw the control of migration in China was relaxed gradually, freeing peasants to start their own businesses and reach out to work also in urban areas. Since then the “floating population” (migrants without local hukou) took great momentum and drew great attention from both the media and academia. The scale of such internal migration is enormous –the floating population has reached to a number of 79 million in 2000, and as of 2010, the number of migrant workers from rural China amounts to over 221 million and according to the annual survey results projections by National Bureau of Statistics; the total migrant workers in china in 2012 amounted to 262.61 million, which refers to an increase of 9.83 million compared with the previous year with increase percentage by 3.9%. Using China’s Jiangxi Province as a case, this paper examines patterns of internal migration as a response of emigrations in the context of high emigration communities. Our findings suggest that emigration of individuals initially deterred both inter-provincial and intra- provincial migration of other family members, and yet, overtime they had an increasing propensity to migrate internally at both scales.

Keywords: remittances, internal migration, jiangxi, nanchang

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8 Linking Remittances and Household Level Development in India: An Analysis of NSSO 64th Round Data

Authors: Rajni Singh, Rakesh Mishra, Mukunda Upadhyay

Abstract:

This paper attempts to link remittances sent by internal as well as international out-migrants and its domestic preferences of usage in three different dimension of Household level development in India and its states. Investment of remittances in these sectors reveals for mixed choices of preferential among the states from where people have out-migrated. The multivariate analysis implies that among all three indicators of human development, health (Investment in Food and Health) is the one that attracts the major investment followed by capital formation and least on Education. Usage of the remittances has been found to be varying across all the states in India as far as usage in health, capital formation and education are concerned. Orissa, Nagaland, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Gujarat, D & H Haweli are some of the states and union territory that contributes highest of its international remittances on health, while most of the usage of the internal remittances has second or third preferences of investment on the health except for Uttar Pradesh, D & H Haweli, Arunachal Pradesh and A & N Is. This paper tries to access usage of international remittances as well as internal remittances on the flow of remittances at the micro level and its implications across three basic determinants of Human Development that is Health, Capital formation and Education coupled with the preferences of usage in presence of Several Socio economic and Demographic variable.

Keywords: Multivariate analysis, remittances, household development, internal and international migration

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7 Economics of Conflict: Core Economic Dimensions of the Georgian-South Ossetian Context

Authors: V. Charaia

Abstract:

This article presents SWOT analysis for Georgian - South Ossetian conflict. The research analyzes socio-economic aspects and considers future prospects for all sides including neighbor countries and regions. Also it includes the possibilities of positive intervention of neighbor countries to solve the conflict or to mitigate its negative results. The main question of the article is: What will it take to award Georgians and South Ossetians with a peace dividend?

Keywords: Trade, investments, Conflict economics, remittances

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6 Gender Discrimination and Wellbeing in Family Sphere Due to Male Migration and Remittances: A Study of Doaba Region of Punjab

Authors: Atinder Pal Kaur

Abstract:

A central characteristic of people is their apparent movement from one station to other for their sustenance. Human migration has become one of the most challenging issues faced by the world today. Migration represents an important dimension in world-wide setting; and remittances received by families constitute a major agent in integrating societies in the all over the world, both economically and socially. This paper is an attempt to explore the impact of male migration and remittances upon the family system. This paper brings out how the women play the role of head of the household and take all the economic decisions, but still faces discrimination in the family, that bring loneliness and emotional breakdown on their personal front. For the purpose of this study, data was collected using 30 interviews and 10 case studies in the Doaba region of Punjab. The respondents were classified into two age groups 20-35 years and above 40 years aged women whose husbands migrated abroad. The findings of this study revealed that even though the women were taking some of the economic decisions, but in majority of the cases the patriarchal structure still existed and power remained in the hands of their husbands or in-laws. It was found that women of different age groups reported differently in terms of authority that they have regarding remittances and its consequences in their emotional well-being. The distinction related to their participation in public and private spheres still exists and public spheres are mostly dominated by male members of the family. It can be concluded that freedom of women to take decision on their own is still restricted and they are subjugated to follow their husband or in-law’s opinion in matters related to both public and private spheres. However, old age group women enjoyed more independence and freedom to take decision in comparison to young age women. Loneliness and depression were more common in the young age respondent’s group than in old age women.

Keywords: Migration, Gender Discrimination, remittances, patriarchal structure

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5 Analyzing the Effect of Remittances Transfer on the Socio-Economic Well-Being of Left behind Parents: A Study of Pakistan and Azad Jammu and Kashmir

Authors: Asia Ashfaq, Muhammad Saud

Abstract:

The present study aims to highlight the socio-economic aspect of international migration by analyzing the effect of remittances sent by adult male children on the well-being of left behind parents. Well-being of left behind parents was operationalized through two indicators as financial security and health-care facilities. For this purpose, quantitative research design was employed and a survey was conducted in three cities i.e. Gujrat, Jhelum and Mirpur. The data was collected from 94 respondents chosen--purposively--on the basis of certain characteristics including demographic profile of the respondents and their male children who must be living abroad. The findings of the study revealed that parents were getting money from their sons regularly. Parents were getting financial assistance from their children for managing their household expenditures, visiting good hospitals and the specialist doctors in case of illness. Lastly, the study concluded that the economic aspect of migration of male children has a significant impact on the health status of left behind parents with the value of correlation (r) =0.241 and level of significance as 0.019. The research study also gives some suggestions and provides future directions for research.

Keywords: International Migration, Well-being, Pakistan, remittances, left behind parents

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4 Determinants of Economic Growth in Pakistan: A Structural Vector Auto Regression Approach

Authors: Muhammad Ajmair

Abstract:

This empirical study followed structural vector auto regression (SVAR) approach proposed by the so-called AB-model of Amisano and Giannini (1997) to check the impact of relevant macroeconomic determinants on economic growth in Pakistan. Before that auto regressive distributive lag (ARDL) bound testing technique and time varying parametric approach along with general to specific approach was employed to find out relevant significant determinants of economic growth. To our best knowledge, no author made such a study that employed auto regressive distributive lag (ARDL) bound testing and time varying parametric approach with general to specific approach in empirical literature, but current study will bridge this gap. Annual data was taken from World Development Indicators (2014) during period 1976-2014. The widely-used Schwarz information criterion and Akaike information criterion were considered for the lag length in each estimated equation. Main findings of the study are that remittances received, gross national expenditures and inflation are found to be the best relevant positive and significant determinants of economic growth. Based on these empirical findings, we conclude that government should focus on overall economic growth augmenting factors while formulating any policy relevant to the concerned sector.

Keywords: Economic growth, Inflation, remittances, gross national expenditures

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3 Remittances, Unemployement and Demographic Changes between Tunisia and Europe

Authors: Hajer Habib, Ghazi Boulila

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to present our contribution to the theoretical literature through a simple theoretical model dealing with the effect of transferring funds on the labor market of the countries of origin and on the other hand to test this relationship empirically in the case of Tunisia. The methodology used consists of estimating a panel of the nine main destinations of the Tunisian diaspora in Europe between 1994 and 2014 in order to better value the net effect of these migratory financial flows on unemployment through population growth. The empirical results show that the main factors explaining the decision to emigrate are the economic factors related mainly to the income differential, the demographic factors related to the differential age structure of the origin and host populations, and the cultural factors linked basically to the mastery of the language. Indeed, the stock of migrants is one of the main determinants of the transfer of migratory funds to Tunisia. But there are other variables that do not lack importance such as the economic conditions linked by the host countries. This shows that Tunisian migrants react more to economic conditions in European countries than in Tunisia. The economic situation of European countries dominates the numbers of emigrants as an explanatory factor for the amount of transfers from Tunisian emigrants to their country of origin. Similarly, it is clear that there is an indirect effect of transfers on unemployment in Tunisia. This suggests that the demographic transition conditions the effects of transferring funds on the level of unemployment.

Keywords: International Migration, Labor Market, remittances, demographic changes

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2 Remittances and Water Access: A Cross-Sectional Study of Sub Saharan Africa Countries

Authors: Hugo Melgar-Quiñonez, Davod Ahmadi, Narges Ebadi, Hiliary Monteith

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Migration cannot necessarily relieve pressure on water resources in origin communities, and male out-migration can increase the water management burden of women. However, inflows of financial remittances seem to offer possibilities of investing in improving drinking-water access. Therefore, remittances may be an important pathway for migrants to support water security. This paper explores the association between water access and the receipt of remittances in households in sub-Saharan Africa. Data from round 6 of the 'Afrobarometer' surveys in 2016 were used (n= 49,137). Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses were carried out in this study. Regardless of country, findings from descriptive analyses showed that approximately 80% of the respondents never received remittance, and 52% had enough clean water. Only one-fifth of the respondents had piped water supply inside the house (19.9%), and approximately 25% had access to a toilet inside the house. Bivariate analyses revealed that even though receiving remittances was significantly associated with water supply, the strength of association was very weak. However, other factors such as the area of residence (rural vs. urban), cash income frequencies, electricity access, and asset ownership were strongly associated with water access. Results from unadjusted multinomial logistic regression revealed that the probability of having no access to piped water increased among remittance recipients who received financial support at least once a month (OR=1.324) (p < 0.001). In contrast, those not receiving remittances were more likely to regularly have a water access concern (OR=1.294) (p < 0.001), and not have access to a latrine (OR=1.665) (p < 0.001). In conclusion, receiving remittances is significantly related to water access as the strength of odds ratios for socio-demographic factors was stronger.

Keywords: Migration, remittances, SSA, water access

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1 Exploring Causes of Irregular Migration: Evidence from Rural Punjab, India

Authors: Kulwinder Singh

Abstract:

Punjab is one of the major labour exporting states of India. Every year more than 20,000 youths from Punjab attempt irregular migration. About 84 irregular migrants are from rural areas and 16 per cent from urban areas. Irregular migration could only be achieved if be organized through highly efficient international networks with the countries of origin, transit, and destination. A good number of Punjabis continue to immigrate into the UK for work through unauthorized means entering the country on visit visas and overstaying or getting ‘smuggled into’ the country with the help of transnational networks of agents. Although, the efforts are being made by the government to curb irregular migration through The Punjab Prevention of Human Smuggling Rules (2012, 2014) and Punjab Travel Regulation Act (2012), but yet it exists parallel to regular migration. Despite unprecedented miseries of irregular migrants and strict laws implemented by the state government to check this phenomenon, ‘why do Punjabis migrate abroad irregularly’ is the important question to answer. This study addresses this question through the comparison of irregular migration with regular one. In other words, this analysis reveals major causes, specifically economic ones, of irregular migration from rural Punjab. This study is unique by presenting economics of irregular migration, given previous studies emphasize the role of sociological and psychological factors. Addressing important question “why do Punjabis migrate abroad irregularly?”, the present study reveals that Punjabi, being far-sighted, endeavor irregular migration as it is, though, economically nonviable in short run, but offers lucrative economic gains as gets older. Despite its considerably higher cost viz-a-viz regular migration, it is the better employment option to irregular migrants with higher permanent income than local low paid jobs for which risking life has become the mindset of the rural Punjabis. Although, it carries considerably lower economic benefits as compared to regular migration, but provides the opportunity of migrating abroad to less educated, semi-skilled and language-test ineligible Punjabis who cannot migrate through regular channels. As its positive impacts on source and destination countries are evident, it might not be restricted, rather its effective management, through liberalising restrictive migration policies by destination nations, can protect the interests of all involved stakeholders.

Keywords: Migration, Cost, Income, remittances, irregular, regular

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