Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

relative permeability Related Abstracts

9 Effect of Wettability Alteration in Low Salt Water Injection Modeling

Authors: H. Vahdani


By the adsorption of polar compounds and/or the deposition of organic material, the wettability of originally water-wet reservoir rock can be altered. The degree of alteration is determined by the interaction of the oil constituents, the mineral surface, and the brine chemistry. Recently improving oil recovery by tuning wettability alteration is believed as a new recovery method. Various researchers have demonstrated that low salt water injection has a significant impact on oil recovery. It has been shown, for instance, that additional oil can be produced from reservoir rock by managing the injection water. Large wettability sensitivity has been observed, indicating that the oil/water capillary pressure profiles play a major role during low saline water injection simulation. Although the exact physics on how this alteration occurs is still a research topic; however, it has been reported that some of its effect can be captured by a relative permeability shift from an oil-wet system to a water-wet system. Modeling of low salt water injection mainly is based on the theory of wettability alteration and is hence strongly dependent on the wettability of the reservoir. In this article, combination of different wettabilities has been simulated and it is observed that the highest recoveries were from the cases were the reservoir initially was water-wet, and the lowest recoveries was from the cases were the reservoir initially was considered oil-wet. However for the cases where the reservoir initially was oil-wet, the effect of low-salinity waterflooding was the largest.

Keywords: Modelling, wettability alteration, low salt water injection, relative permeability

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8 Laboratory Measurement of Relative Permeability of Immiscible Fluids in Sand

Authors: Shigeo Honma, Khwaja Naweed Seddiqi


Relative permeability is the important parameter controlling the immiscible displacement of multiphase fluids flow in porous medium. The relative permeability for immiscible displacement of two-phase fluids flow (oil and water) in porous medium has been measured in this paper. As a result of the experiment, irreducible water saturation, Swi, residual oil saturation, Sor, and relative permeability curves for Kerosene, Heavy oil and Lubricant oil were determined successfully.

Keywords: porous medium, two-phase flow, relative permeability, immiscible displacement

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7 Effect of Fractional Flow Curves on the Heavy Oil and Light Oil Recoveries in Petroleum Reservoirs

Authors: Abdul Jamil Nazari, Shigeo Honma


This paper evaluates and compares the effect of fractional flow curves on the heavy oil and light oil recoveries in a petroleum reservoir. Fingering of flowing water is one of the serious problems of the oil displacement by water and another problem is the estimation of the amount of recover oil from a petroleum reservoir. To address these problems, the fractional flow of heavy oil and light oil are investigated. The fractional flow approach treats the multi-phases flow rate as a total mixed fluid and then describes the individual phases as fractional of the total flow. Laboratory experiments are implemented for two different types of oils, heavy oil, and light oil, to experimentally obtain relative permeability and fractional flow curves. Application of the light oil fractional curve, which exhibits a regular S-shape, to the water flooding method showed that a large amount of mobile oil in the reservoir is displaced by water injection. In contrast, the fractional flow curve of heavy oil does not display an S-shape because of its high viscosity. Although the advance of the injected waterfront is faster than in light oil reservoirs, a significant amount of mobile oil remains behind the waterfront.

Keywords: Oil Recovery, relative permeability, fractional flow, water fingering

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6 Oil Displacement by Water in Hauterivian Sandstone Reservoir of Kashkari Oil Field

Authors: A. J. Nazari, S. Honma


This paper evaluates oil displacement by water in Hauterivian sandstone reservoir of Kashkari oil field in North of Afghanistan. The core samples of this oil field were taken out from well No-21st, and the relative permeability and fractional flow are analyzed. Steady state flow laboratory experiments are performed to empirically obtain the fractional flow curves and relative permeability in different water saturation ratio. The relative permeability represents the simultaneous flow behavior in the reservoir. The fractional flow approach describes the individual phases as fractional of the total flow. The fractional flow curve interprets oil displacement by water, and from the tangent of fractional flow curve can find out the average saturation behind the water front flow saturation. Therefore, relative permeability and fractional flow curves are suitable for describing the displacement of oil by water in a petroleum reservoir. The effects of irreducible water saturation, residual oil saturation on the displaceable amount of oil are investigated through Buckley-Leveret analysis.

Keywords: relative permeability, fractional flow, oil displacement, simultaneously flow

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5 Experimental and Graphical Investigation on Oil Recovery by Buckley-Leveret Theory

Authors: Shigeo Honma, Khwaja Naweed Seddiqi, Zabihullah Mahdi


Recently increasing oil production from petroleum reservoirs is one of the most important issues in the global energy sector. So, in this paper, the recovery of oil by the waterflooding technique from petroleum reservoir are considered. To investigate the aforementioned phenomena, the relative permeability of two immiscible fluids in sand is measured in the laboratory based on the steady-state method. Two sorts of oils, kerosene and heavy oil, and water are pumped simultaneously into a vertical sand column with different pumping ratio. From the change in fractional discharge measured at the outlet, a method for determining the relative permeability is developed focusing on the displacement mechanism in sand. Then, displacement mechanism of two immiscible fluids in the sand is investigated under the Buckley-Leveret frontal displacement theory and laboratory experiment. Two sorts of experiments, one is the displacement of pore water by oil, the other is the displacement of pore oil by water, are carried out. It is revealed that the relative permeability curves display tolerably different shape owing to the properties of oils, and produce different amount of residual oils and irreducible water saturation.

Keywords: two-phase flow, relative permeability, petroleum reservoir engineering, immiscible displacement in porous media, steady-state method, waterflooding

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4 Effect of Oil Viscosity and Brine Salinity/Viscosity on Water/Oil Relative Permeability and Residual Saturations

Authors: Sami Aboujafar


Oil recovery in petroleum reservoirs is greatly affected by fluid-rock and fluid-fluid interactions. These interactions directly control rock wettability, capillary pressure and relative permeability curves. Laboratory core-floods and centrifuge experiments were conducted on sandstone and carbonate cores to study the effect of low and high brine salinity and viscosity and oil viscosity on residual saturations and relative permeability. Drainage and imbibition relative permeability in two phase system were measured, refined lab oils with different viscosities, heavy and light, and several brine salinities were used. Sensitivity analysis with different values for the salinity and viscosity of the fluids,, oil and water, were done to investigate the effect of these properties on water/oil relative permeability, residual oil saturation and oil recovery. Experiments were conducted on core material from viscous/heavy and light oil fields. History matching core flood simulator was used to study how the relative permeability curves and end point saturations were affected by different fluid properties using several correlations. Results were compared with field data and literature data. The results indicate that there is a correlation between the oil viscosity and/or brine salinity and residual oil saturation and water relative permeability end point. Increasing oil viscosity reduces the [email protected] and increases Sor. The remaining oil saturation from laboratory measurements might be too high due to experimental procedures, capillary end effect and early termination of the experiment, especially when using heavy/viscous oil. Similarly the [email protected] may be too low. The effect of wettability on the observed results is also discussed. A consistent relationship has been drawn between the fluid parameters, water/oil relative permeability and residual saturations, and a descriptor may be derived to define different flow behaviors. The results of this work will have application to producing fields and the methodologies developed could have wider application to sandstone and carbonate reservoirs worldwide.

Keywords: Oil Recovery, relative permeability, history matching core flood simulator, residual saturations

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3 Effect of Wettability Alteration on Production Performance in Unconventional Tight Oil Reservoirs

Authors: Rashid S. Mohammad, Shicheng Zhang, Xinzhe Zhao


In tight oil reservoirs, wettability alteration has generally been considered as an effective way to remove fracturing fluid retention on the surface of the fracture and consequently improved oil production. However, there is a lack of a reliable productivity prediction model to show the relationship between the wettability and oil production in tight oil well. In this paper, a new oil productivity prediction model of immiscible oil-water flow and miscible CO₂-oil flow accounting for wettability is developed. This mathematical model is established by considering two different length scales: nonporous network and propped fractures. CO₂ flow diffuses in the nonporous network and high velocity non-Darcy flow in propped fractures are considered by taking into account the effect of wettability alteration on capillary pressure and relative permeability. A laboratory experiment is also conducted here to validate this model. Laboratory experiments have been designed to compare the water saturation profiles for different contact angle, revealing the fluid retention in rock pores that affects capillary force and relative permeability. Four kinds of brines with different concentrations are selected here to create different contact angles. In water-wet porous media, as the system becomes more oil-wet, water saturation decreases. As a result, oil relative permeability increases. On the other hand, capillary pressure which is the resistance for the oil flow increases as well. The oil production change due to wettability alteration is the result of the comprehensive changes of oil relative permeability and capillary pressure. The results indicate that wettability is a key factor for fracturing fluid retention removal and oil enhancement in tight reservoirs. By incorporating laboratory test into a mathematical model, this work shows the relationship between wettability and oil production is not a simple linear pattern but a parabolic one. Additionally, it can be used for a better understanding of optimization design of fracturing fluids.

Keywords: Wettability, relative permeability, oil production, fluid retention, unconventional and tight reservoirs

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2 Improving Enhanced Oil Recovery by Using Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Injection and Nanotechnology

Authors: Babak Moradi, Amir Gerayeli


The continuously declining oil reservoirs and reservoirs aging have created a huge demand for utilization of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods recently. Primary and secondary oil recovery methods have various limitations and are not practical for all reservoirs. Therefore, it is necessary to use chemical methods to improve oil recovery efficiency by reducing oil and water surface tension, increasing sweeping efficiency, and reducing displacer phase viscosity. One of the well-known methods of oil recovery is Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) flooding that shown to have significant impact on enhancing oil recovery. As some of the biggest oil reservoirs including those of Iran’s are fractional reservoirs with substantial amount of trapped oil in their fractures, the use of Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) flooding method is increasingly growing, the method in which the impact of several parameters including type and concentration of the Alkaline, Surfactant, and polymer are particularly important. This study investigated the use of Nano particles to improve Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The study methodology included performing several laboratory tests on drill cores extracted from Karanj Oil field Asmary Formation in Khuzestan, Iran. In the experiments performed, Sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) and 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C12mim] [Cl])) were used as surfactant, hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) and guar gum were used as polymer, Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as alkaline, and Silicon dioxide (SiO2) and Magnesium oxide (MgO) were used as Nano particles. The experiment findings suggest that water viscosity increased from 1 centipoise to 5 centipoise when hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) and guar gum were used as polymer. The surface tension between oil and water was initially measured as 25.808 (mN/m). The optimum surfactant concentration was found to be 500 p, at which the oil and water tension surface was measured to be 2.90 (mN/m) when [C12mim] [Cl] was used, and 3.28 (mN/m) when SDBS was used. The Nano particles concentration ranged from 100 ppm to 1500 ppm in this study. The optimum Nano particle concentration was found to be 1000 ppm for MgO and 500 ppm for SiO2.

Keywords: Ionic Liquids, relative permeability, alkaline-surfactant-polymer, reduced surface tension, tertiary enhanced oil recovery, wettability change

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1 Application of Waterflooding to the Kashkari Oil Field in Northern Afghanistan

Authors: Zabihullah Mahdi, Mahdi Nayab, Sadaf Jalal, Navid Seddiqi


Hydrocarbons represent an important natural resource for the rehabilitation and sustainable development of Afghanistan. In this paper, the use of waterflooding is demonstrated for the petroleum reservoirs of the Kashkari oil field in northern Afghanistan. The technique is based on the Buckley–Leverett frontal-displacement theory, which enables computation of the progress of the waterfront in the reservoir. The relative permeabilities of oil and water, the residual oil saturation, and the irreducible water saturation are obtained from a laboratory experiment. The technique is applied to the laboratory plane-reservoir model to investigate the displacement mechanism and is then compared with the theoretical calculation. Lastly, the technique is applied to the Kashkari oil field to predict the feasible amount of oil that could be produced from this reservoir.

Keywords: Porous Media, two-phase flow, relative permeability, immiscible displacement, petroleum reservoir engineering, waterflooding, Buckley–Leverett

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