Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Relative Entropy Related Abstracts

3 Relative Entropy Used to Determine the Divergence of Cells in Single Cell RNA Sequence Data Analysis

Authors: An Chengrui, Yin Zi, Wu Bingbing, Ma Yuanzhu, Jin Kaixiu, Chen Xiao, Ouyang Hongwei

Abstract:

Single cell RNA sequence (scRNA-seq) is one of the effective tools to study transcriptomics of biological processes. Recently, similarity measurement of cells is Euclidian distance or its derivatives. However, the process of scRNA-seq is a multi-variate Bernoulli event model, thus we hypothesize that it would be more efficient when the divergence between cells is valued with relative entropy than Euclidian distance. In this study, we compared the performances of Euclidian distance, Spearman correlation distance and Relative Entropy using scRNA-seq data of the early, medial and late stage of limb development generated in our lab. Relative Entropy is better than other methods according to cluster potential test. Furthermore, we developed KL-SNE, an algorithm modifying t-SNE whose definition of divergence between cells Euclidian distance to Kullback–Leibler divergence. Results showed that KL-SNE was more effective to dissect cell heterogeneity than t-SNE, indicating the better performance of relative entropy than Euclidian distance. Specifically, the chondrocyte expressing Comp was clustered together with KL-SNE but not with t-SNE. Surprisingly, cells in early stage were surrounded by cells in medial stage in the processing of KL-SNE while medial cells neighbored to late stage with the process of t-SNE. This results parallel to Heatmap which showed cells in medial stage were more heterogenic than cells in other stages. In addition, we also found that results of KL-SNE tend to follow Gaussian distribution compared with those of the t-SNE, which could also be verified with the analysis of scRNA-seq data from another study on human embryo development. Therefore, it is also an effective way to convert non-Gaussian distribution to Gaussian distribution and facilitate the subsequent statistic possesses. Thus, relative entropy is potentially a better way to determine the divergence of cells in scRNA-seq data analysis.

Keywords: Single cell RNA sequence, Similarity measurement, Relative Entropy, KL-SNE, t-SNE

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2 An Earth Mover’s Distance Algorithm Based DDoS Detection Mechanism in SDN

Authors: Yang Zhou, Kangfeng Zheng, Wei Ni, Ren Ping Liu

Abstract:

Software-defined networking (SDN) provides a solution for scalable network framework with decoupled control and data plane. However, this architecture also induces a particular distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack that can affect or even overwhelm the SDN network. DDoS attack detection problem has to date been mostly researched as entropy comparison problem. However, this problem lacks the utilization of SDN, and the results are not accurate. In this paper, we propose a DDoS attack detection method, which interprets DDoS detection as a signature matching problem and is formulated as Earth Mover’s Distance (EMD) model. Considering the feasibility and accuracy, we further propose to define the cost function of EMD to be a generalized Kullback-Leibler divergence. Simulation results show that our proposed method can detect DDoS attacks by comparing EMD values with the ones computed in the case without attacks. Moreover, our method can significantly increase the true positive rate of detection.

Keywords: SDN, Relative Entropy, EMD, DDoS detection

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1 A Relative Entropy Regularization Approach for Fuzzy C-Means Clustering Problem

Authors: Ouafa Amira, Jiangshe Zhang

Abstract:

Clustering is an unsupervised machine learning technique; its aim is to extract the data structures, in which similar data objects are grouped in the same cluster, whereas dissimilar objects are grouped in different clusters. Clustering methods are widely utilized in different fields, such as: image processing, computer vision , and pattern recognition, etc. Fuzzy c-means clustering (fcm) is one of the most well known fuzzy clustering methods. It is based on solving an optimization problem, in which a minimization of a given cost function has been studied. This minimization aims to decrease the dissimilarity inside clusters, where the dissimilarity here is measured by the distances between data objects and cluster centers. The degree of belonging of a data point in a cluster is measured by a membership function which is included in the interval [0, 1]. In fcm clustering, the membership degree is constrained with the condition that the sum of a data object’s memberships in all clusters must be equal to one. This constraint can cause several problems, specially when our data objects are included in a noisy space. Regularization approach took a part in fuzzy c-means clustering technique. This process introduces an additional information in order to solve an ill-posed optimization problem. In this study, we focus on regularization by relative entropy approach, where in our optimization problem we aim to minimize the dissimilarity inside clusters. Finding an appropriate membership degree to each data object is our objective, because an appropriate membership degree leads to an accurate clustering result. Our clustering results in synthetic data sets, gaussian based data sets, and real world data sets show that our proposed model achieves a good accuracy.

Keywords: Clustering, fuzzy c-means, regularization, Relative Entropy

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