Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 48

Reinforced Concrete Related Abstracts

48 Cyclic Response of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joint Strengthening by FRP

Authors: M. Chemrouk, N. Attari, S. Amziane


A large number of old buildings have been identified as having potentially critical detailing to resist earthquakes. The main reinforcement of lap-spliced columns just above the joint region, discontinuous bottom beam reinforcement, and little or no joint transverse reinforcement are the most critical details of interior beam column joints in such buildings. This structural type constitutes a large share of the building stock, both in developed and developing countries, and hence it represents a substantial exposure. Direct observation of damaged structures, following the Algiers 2003 earthquake, has shown that damage occurs usually at the beam-column joints, with failure in bending or shear, depending on geometry and reinforcement distribution and type. While substantial literature exists for the design of concrete frame joints to withstand this type of failure, after the earthquake many structures were classified as slightly damaged and, being uneconomic to replace them, at least in the short term, suitable means of repairs of the beam column joint area are being studied. Furthermore; there exists a large number of buildings that need retrofitting of the joints before the next earthquake. The paper reports the results of the experimental programme, constituted of three beam-column reinforced concrete joints at a scale of one to three (1/3) tested under the effect of a pre-stressing axial load acting over the column. The beams were subjected at their ends to an alternate cyclic loading under displacement control to simulate a seismic action. Strain and cracking fields were monitored with the help a digital recording camera. Following the analysis of the results, a comparison can be made between the performances in terms of ductility, strength and mode of failure of the different strengthening solution considered.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, fibre reinforced polymers, joints, beam columns

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47 Empirical Analytical Modelling of Average Bond Stress and Anchorage of Tensile Bars in Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Maruful H. Mazumder, Raymond I. Gilbert


The design specifications for calculating development and lapped splice lengths of reinforcement in concrete are derived from a conventional empirical modelling approach that correlates experimental test data using a single mathematical equation. This paper describes part of a recently completed experimental research program to assess the effects of different structural parameters on the development length requirements of modern high strength steel reinforcing bars, including the case of lapped splices in large-scale reinforced concrete members. The normalized average bond stresses for the different variations of anchorage lengths are assessed according to the general form of a typical empirical analytical model of bond and anchorage. Improved analytical modelling equations are developed in the paper that better correlate the normalized bond strength parameters with the structural parameters of an empirical model of bond and anchorage.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, bond stress, development length, lapped splice length

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46 Use of Regression Analysis in Determining the Length of Plastic Hinge in Reinforced Concrete Columns

Authors: Mehmet Alpaslan Köroğlu, Musa Hakan Arslan, Muslu Kazım Körez


Basic objective of this study is to create a regression analysis method that can estimate the length of a plastic hinge which is an important design parameter, by making use of the outcomes of (lateral load-lateral displacement hysteretic curves) the experimental studies conducted for the reinforced square concrete columns. For this aim, 170 different square reinforced concrete column tests results have been collected from the existing literature. The parameters which are thought affecting the plastic hinge length such as cross-section properties, features of material used, axial loading level, confinement of the column, longitudinal reinforcement bars in the columns etc. have been obtained from these 170 different square reinforced concrete column tests. In the study, when determining the length of plastic hinge, using the experimental test results, a regression analysis have been separately tested and compared with each other. In addition, the outcome of mentioned methods on determination of plastic hinge length of the reinforced concrete columns has been compared to other methods available in the literature.

Keywords: Regression analysis, Reinforced Concrete, Columns, plastic hinge length

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
45 Seismic Response of Reinforced Concrete Buildings: Field Challenges and Simplified Code Formulas

Authors: Michel Soto Chalhoub


Building code-related literature provides recommendations on normalizing approaches to the calculation of the dynamic properties of structures. Most building codes make a distinction among types of structural systems, construction material, and configuration through a numerical coefficient in the expression for the fundamental period. The period is then used in normalized response spectra to compute base shear. The typical parameter used in simplified code formulas for the fundamental period is overall building height raised to a power determined from analytical and experimental results. However, reinforced concrete buildings which constitute the majority of built space in less developed countries pose additional challenges to the ones built with homogeneous material such as steel, or with concrete under stricter quality control. In the present paper, the particularities of reinforced concrete buildings are explored and related to current methods of equivalent static analysis. A comparative study is presented between the Uniform Building Code, commonly used for buildings within and outside the USA, and data from the Middle East used to model 151 reinforced concrete buildings of varying number of bays, number of floors, overall building height, and individual story height. The fundamental period was calculated using eigenvalue matrix computation. The results were also used in a separate regression analysis where the computed period serves as dependent variable, while five building properties serve as independent variables. The statistical analysis shed light on important parameters that simplified code formulas need to account for including individual story height, overall building height, floor plan, number of bays, and concrete properties. Such inclusions are important for reinforced concrete buildings of special conditions due to the level of concrete damage, aging, or materials quality control during construction. Overall results of the present analysis show that simplified code formulas for fundamental period and base shear may be applied but they require revisions to account for multiple parameters. The conclusion above is confirmed by the analytical model where fundamental periods were computed using numerical techniques and eigenvalue solutions. This recommendation is particularly relevant to code upgrades in less developed countries where it is customary to adopt, and mildly adapt international codes. We also note the necessity of further research using empirical data from buildings in Lebanon that were subjected to severe damage due to impulse loading or accelerated aging. However, we excluded this study from the present paper and left it for future research as it has its own peculiarities and requires a different type of analysis.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, base shear, seismic behaviour, simplified code formulas, equivalent static analysis, response spectra

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
44 Influence of Deficient Materials on the Reliability of Reinforced Concrete Members

Authors: Sami W. Tabsh


The strength of reinforced concrete depends on the member dimensions and material properties. The properties of concrete and steel materials are not constant but random variables. The variability of concrete strength is due to batching errors, variations in mixing, cement quality uncertainties, differences in the degree of compaction and disparity in curing. Similarly, the variability of steel strength is attributed to the manufacturing process, rolling conditions, characteristics of base material, uncertainties in chemical composition, and the microstructure-property relationships. To account for such uncertainties, codes of practice for reinforced concrete design impose resistance factors to ensure structural reliability over the useful life of the structure. In this investigation, the effects of reductions in concrete and reinforcing steel strengths from the nominal values, beyond those accounted for in the structural design codes, on the structural reliability are assessed. The considered limit states are flexure, shear and axial compression based on the ACI 318-11 structural concrete building code. Structural safety is measured in terms of a reliability index. Probabilistic resistance and load models are compiled from the available literature. The study showed that there is a wide variation in the reliability index for reinforced concrete members designed for flexure, shear or axial compression, especially when the live-to-dead load ratio is low. Furthermore, variations in concrete strength have minor effect on the reliability of beams in flexure, moderate effect on the reliability of beams in shear, and sever effect on the reliability of columns in axial compression. On the other hand, changes in steel yield strength have great effect on the reliability of beams in flexure, moderate effect on the reliability of beams in shear, and mild effect on the reliability of columns in axial compression. Based on the outcome, it can be concluded that the reliability of beams is sensitive to changes in the yield strength of the steel reinforcement, whereas the reliability of columns is sensitive to variations in the concrete strength. Since the embedded target reliability in structural design codes results in lower structural safety in beams than in columns, large reductions in material strengths compromise the structural safety of beams much more than they affect columns.

Keywords: Reliability, Code, structural safety, Random variables, Reinforced Concrete, shear, reliability index, flexure, limit states

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
43 The Flexural Improvement of RC Beams Using an Inserted Plate between Concrete and FRP Bonding Surface

Authors: Bu Seog Ju, Woo Young Jung, Min Ho Kwon


The primary objective of this research is to improve the flexural capacity of FRP strengthened RC Beam structures with Aluminum and Titanium laminates. FRP rupture of flexural strengthened RC beams using FRP plates generally occurs at the interface between FRP plate and the beam. Therefore, in order to prevent brittle rupture and improve the ductility of the system, this research was performed by using Aluminum and Titanium materials between the two different structural systems. The research also aims to provide various strengthening/retrofitting methods for RC beam structures and to conduct a preliminary analysis of the demands on the structural systems. This was achieved by estimation using the experimental data from this research to identify a flexural capacity for the systems. Ultimately, the preliminary analysis of current study showed that the flexural capacity and system demand ductility was significantly improved by the systems inserted with Aluminum and Titanium anchor plates. Further verification of the experimental research is currently on its way to develop a new or reliable design guideline to retrofit/strengthen the concrete-FRP structural system can be evaluated.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, Ductility, FRP laminate, flexural capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
42 Performance of Staggered Wall Buildings Subjected to Low to Medium Earthquake Loads

Authors: Younghoo Choi, Yong Jun, Jinkoo Kim


In this study seismic performance of typical reinforced concrete staggered wall system structures was evaluated through nonlinear static and incremental dynamic analyses. To this end, and 15-story SWS structures were designed and were analyzed to obtain their nonlinear force-displacement relationships. The analysis results showed that the 5-story SWS structures failed due to yielding of columns and walls located in the lower stories, whereas in the 15-story structures plastic hinges were more widely distributed throughout the stories.

Keywords: Seismic Performance, Reinforced Concrete, staggered wall systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
41 Seismic Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joint by Reversible Mixed Technologies of FRP

Authors: Nasser-Eddine Attari


After the earthquake many structures were classified as slightly damaged and, being uneconomic to replace them, at least in the short term, suitable means of repairs of the beam column joint area are being studied. Furthermore, there exist a large number of buildings that need retrofitting of the joints before the next earthquake. The paper reports the results of the experimental programme, constituted of three beam-column reinforced concrete joints at a scale of one to three (1/3) tested under the effect of a pre-stressing axial load acting over the column. The beams were subjected at their ends to an alternate cyclic loading under displacement control to simulate a seismic action. Strain and cracking fields were monitored with the help a digital recording camera. Following the analysis of the results, a comparison can be made between the performances in terms of ductility, strength, and mode of failure of the different strengthening solution considered.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, fibre reinforced polymers, joints, beam columns

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
40 Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joint by Reversible Mixed Technologies of FRP

Authors: Nasser-Eddine Attari


After the earthquake many structures were classified as slightly damaged and, being uneconomic to replace them, at least in the short term, suitable means of repairs of the beam column joint area are being studied. Furthermore there exist a large number of buildings that need retrofitting of the joints before the next earthquake. The paper reports the results of the experimental programme, constituted of three beam-column reinforced concrete joints at a scale of one to three (1/3) tested under the effect of a pre-stressed axial load acting over the column. The beams were subjected at their ends to an alternate cyclic loading under displacement control to simulate a seismic action. Strain and cracking fields were monitored with the help a digital recording camera. Following the analysis of the results, a comparison can be made between the performances in terms of ductility, strength and mode of failure of the different strengthening solution considered.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, joints, beam columns, fibrereinforced polymers

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
39 Progressive Collapse of Cooling Towers

Authors: Esmaeil Asadzadeh, Mehtab Alam


Well documented records of the past failures of the structures reveals that the progressive collapse of structures is one of the major reasons for dramatic human loss and economical consequences. Progressive collapse is the failure mechanism in which the structure fails gradually due to the sudden removal of the structural elements. The sudden removal of some structural elements results in the excessive redistributed loads on the others. This sudden removal may be caused by any sudden loading resulted from local explosion, impact loading and terrorist attacks. Hyperbolic thin walled concrete shell structures being an important part of nuclear and thermal power plants are always prone to such terrorist attacks. In concrete structures, the gradual failure would take place by generation of initial cracks and its propagation in the supporting columns along with the tower shell leading to the collapse of the entire structure. In this study the mechanism of progressive collapse for such high raised towers would be simulated employing the finite element method. The aim of this study would be providing clear conceptual step-by-step descriptions of various procedures for progressive collapse analysis using commercially available finite element structural analysis software’s, with the aim that the explanations would be clear enough that they will be readily understandable and will be used by practicing engineers. The study would be carried out in the following procedures: 1. Provide explanations of modeling, simulation and analysis procedures including input screen snapshots; 2. Interpretation of the results and discussions; 3. Conclusions and recommendations.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Reinforced Concrete, Cooling Towers, Crack Generation, progressive collapse

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
38 Influence of the Reliability Index on the Safety Factor of the Concrete Contribution to Shear Strength of HSC Beams

Authors: Guray Arslan, Ali Sagiroglu, Sema Noyan Alacali


This paper presents a study on the influence of the safety factor in the concrete contribution to shear strength of high-strength concrete (HSC) beams according to TS500. In TS500, the contribution of concrete to shear strength is obtained by reducing diagonal cracking strength with a safety factor of 0.8. It was investigated that the coefficient of 0.8 considered in determining the contribution of concrete to the shear strength corresponds to which value of failure probability. Also, the changes in the reduction factor depending on different coefficients of variation of concrete were examined.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, Shear Strength, safety factor, beam, failure probability

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
37 Role of Spatial Variability in the Service Life Prediction of Reinforced Concrete Bridges Affected by Corrosion

Authors: Omran M. Kenshel, Alan J. O'Connor


Estimating the service life of Reinforced Concrete (RC) bridge structures located in corrosive marine environments of a great importance to their owners/engineers. Traditionally, bridge owners/engineers relied more on subjective engineering judgment, e.g. visual inspection, in their estimation approach. However, because financial resources are often limited, rational calculation methods of estimation are needed to aid in making reliable and more accurate predictions for the service life of RC structures. This is in order to direct funds to bridges found to be the most critical. Criticality of the structure can be considered either form the Structural Capacity (i.e. Ultimate Limit State) or from Serviceability viewpoint whichever is adopted. This paper considers the service life of the structure only from the Structural Capacity viewpoint. Considering the great variability associated with the parameters involved in the estimation process, the probabilistic approach is most suited. The probabilistic modelling adopted here used Monte Carlo simulation technique to estimate the Reliability (i.e. Probability of Failure) of the structure under consideration. In this paper the authors used their own experimental data for the Correlation Length (CL) for the most important deterioration parameters. The CL is a parameter of the Correlation Function (CF) by which the spatial fluctuation of a certain deterioration parameter is described. The CL data used here were produced by analyzing 45 chloride profiles obtained from a 30 years old RC bridge located in a marine environment. The service life of the structure were predicted in terms of the load carrying capacity of an RC bridge beam girder. The analysis showed that the influence of SV is only evident if the reliability of the structure is governed by the Flexure failure rather than by the Shear failure.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, spatial variability, Chloride-induced corrosion, Monte-Carlo simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
36 An Experimental Investigation of Rehabilitation and Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete T-Beams Under Static Monotonic Increasing Loading

Authors: Salem Alsanusi, Abdulla Alakad


An experimental investigation to study the behaviour of under flexure reinforced concrete T-Beams. Those Beams were loaded to pre-designated stress levels as percentage of calculated collapse loads. Repairing these beans by either reinforced concrete jacket, or by externally bolted steel plates were utilized. Twelve full scale beams were tested in this experimental program scheme. Eight out of the twelve beams were loaded under different loading levels. Tests were performed for the beams before and after repair with Reinforced Concrete Jacket (RCJ). The applied Load levels were 60%, 77% and 100% of the calculated collapse loads. The remaining four beams were tested before and after repair with Bolted Steel Plate (BSP). Furthermore, out previously mentioned four beams two beams were loaded to the calculated failure load 100% and the remaining two beams were not subjected to any load. The eight beams recorded for the RCJ test were repaired using reinforced concrete jacket. The four beams recorded for the BSP test were all repaired using steel plate at the bottom. All the strengthened beams were gradually loaded until failure occurs. However, in each loading case, the beams behaviour, before and after strengthening, were studied through close inspection of the cracking propagation, and by carrying out an extensive measurement of deformations and strength. The stress-strain curve for reinforcing steel and the failure strains measured in the tests were utilized in the calculation of failure load for the beams before and after strengthening. As a result, the calculated failure loads were close to the actual failure tests in case of beams before repair, ranging from 85% to 90% and also in case of beams repaired by reinforced concrete jacket ranging from 70% to 85%. The results were in case of beams repaired by bolted steel plates ranging from (50% to 85%). It was observed that both jacketing and bolted steel plate methods could effectively restore the full flexure capacity of the damaged beams. However, the reinforced jacket has increased the failure load by about 67%, whereas the bolted steel plates recovered the failure load.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Strengthening, Reinforced Concrete, beams deflection, bending stresses

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
35 Determining Earthquake Performances of Existing Reinforced Concrete Buildings by Using ANN

Authors: Musa H. Arslan, Murat Ceylan, Tayfun Koyuncu


In this study, an artificial intelligence-based (ANN based) analytical method has been developed for analyzing earthquake performances of the reinforced concrete (RC) buildings. 66 RC buildings with four to ten storeys were subjected to performance analysis according to the parameters which are the existing material, loading and geometrical characteristics of the buildings. The selected parameters have been thought to be effective on the performance of RC buildings. In the performance analyses stage of the study, level of performance possible to be shown by these buildings in case of an earthquake was determined on the basis of the 4-grade performance levels specified in Turkish Earthquake Code- 2007 (TEC-2007). After obtaining the 4-grade performance level, selected 23 parameters of each building have been matched with the performance level. In this stage, ANN-based fast evaluation algorithm mentioned above made an economic and rapid evaluation of four to ten storey RC buildings. According to the study, the prediction accuracy of ANN has been found about 74%.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Earthquake, Performance, Reinforced Concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
34 Reinforced Concrete Slab under Static and Dynamic Loading

Authors: Aaron Aboshio, Jianqiao Ye


In this study, static and dynamic responses of a typical reinforced concrete flat slab, designed to British Standard (BS 8110, 1997) and under self and live loadings for dance halls are reported. Linear perturbation analysis using finite element method was employed for modal, impulse loading and frequency response analyses of the slab under the aforementioned loading condition. Results from the static and dynamic analyses, comprising of the slab fundamental frequencies and mode shapes, dynamic amplification factor, maximum deflection, stress distributions among other valuable outcomes are presented and discussed. These were gauged with the limiting provisions in the design code with a view to optimise the structure and ensure both adequate strength and economical section for large clear span slabs. This is necessary owing to the continued increase in cost of erecting building structures and the squeeze on public finance globally.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, Finite Element Method, slab, economical design, modal dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
33 Research the Causes of Defects and Injuries of Reinforced Concrete and Stone Construction

Authors: Akaki Qatamidze


Implementation of the project will be a step forward in terms of reliability in Georgia and the improvement of the construction and the development of construction. Completion of the project is expected to result in a complete knowledge, which is expressed in concrete and stone structures of assessing the technical condition of the processing. This method is based on a detailed examination of the structure, in order to establish the injuries and the elimination of the possibility of changing the structural scheme of the new requirements and architectural preservationists. Reinforced concrete and stone structures research project carried out in a systematic analysis of the important approach is to optimize the process of research and development of new knowledge in the neighboring areas. In addition, the problem of physical and mathematical models of rational consent, the main pillar of the physical (in-situ) data and mathematical calculation models and physical experiments are used only for the calculation model specification and verification. Reinforced concrete and stone construction defects and failures the causes of the proposed research to enhance the effectiveness of their maximum automation capabilities and expenditure of resources to reduce the recommended system analysis of the methodological concept-based approach, as modern science and technology major particularity of one, it will allow all family structures to be identified for the same work stages and procedures, which makes it possible to exclude subjectivity and addresses the problem of the optimal direction. It discussed the methodology of the project and to establish a major step forward in the construction trades and practical assistance to engineers, supervisors, and technical experts in the construction of the settlement of the problem.

Keywords: Building, expertise, Reinforced Concrete, stone structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
32 Finite Element Simulation of RC Exterior Beam-Column Joints Using Damage Plasticity Model

Authors: M. N. Akhtar, A. M. Halahla, M. H. Baluch, M. K. Rahman, A. H. Al-Gadhib


In the present study, 3D simulation of a typical exterior (RC) beam–column joint (BCJ) strengthened with carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) sheet are carried out. Numerical investigations are performed using a nonlinear finite element ( FE) analysis by incorporating damage plasticity model (CDP), for material behaviour the concrete response in compression, tension softening were used, linear plastic with isotropic hardening for reinforcing steel, and linear elastic lamina material model for CFRP sheets using the commercial FE software ABAQUS. The numerical models developed in the present study are validated with the results obtained from the experiment under monotonic loading using the hydraulic Jack in displacement control mode. The experimental program includes casting of deficient BCJ loaded to failure load for both un-strengthened and strengthened BCJ. The failure mode, and deformation response of CFRP strengthened and un-strengthened joints and propagation of damage in the components of BCJ are discussed. Finite element simulations are compared with the experimental result and are noted to yield reasonable comparisons. The damage plasticity model was able to capture with good accuracy of the ultimate load and the mode of failure in the beam column joint.

Keywords: Computational Simulation, Reinforced Concrete, exterior beam-column joints, concrete damage plasticity model

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
31 Study on Seismic Assessment of Earthquake-Damaged Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Authors: Chien-Kuo Chiu, Fu-Pei Hsiao, Fung-Chung Tu


In this work, to develop a method for detailed assesses of post-earthquake seismic performance for RC buildings in Taiwan, experimental data for several column specimens with various failure modes (flexural failure, flexural-shear failure, and shear failure) are used to derive reduction factors of seismic capacity for specified damage states. According to the damage states of RC columns and their corresponding seismic reduction factors suggested by experimental data, this work applies the detailed seismic performance assessment method to identify the seismic capacity of earthquake-damaged RC buildings. Additionally, a post-earthquake emergent assessment procedure is proposed that can provide the data needed for decision about earthquake-damaged buildings in a region with high seismic hazard. Finally, three actual earthquake-damaged school buildings in Taiwan are used as a case study to demonstrate application of the proposed assessment method.

Keywords: Building, Reinforced Concrete, Seismic Assessment, post-earthquake, seismic reduction factor, residual seismic ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
30 Parametric Study of the Structures: Influence of the Shells

Authors: Serikma Mourad, Mezidi Amar


The conception (design) of an earthquake-resistant structure is a complex problem seen the necessity of meeting the requirements of security been imperative by the regulations, and of economy been imperative by the increasing costs of the structures. The resistance of a building in the horizontal actions (shares) is mainly ensured by a mixed brace system; for a concrete building, this system is constituted by frame or shells; or both at the same time. After the earthquake of Boumerdes (May 23; 2003) in Algeria, the studies made by experts, ended in modifications of the Algerian Earthquake-resistant Regulation (AER 99). One of these modifications was to widen the use of shells for the brace system. This modification has create a conflict on the quantities, the positions and the type of the shells at adopt. In the present project, we suggest seeing the effect of the variation of the dimensions, the localization and the conditions of rigidity in extremities of shells. The study will be led on a building (F+5) implanted in zone of seismicity average. To do it, we shall proceed to a classic dynamic study of a structure by using 4 alternatives for shells by varying the lengths and number in order to compare the cost of the structure for 4 dispositions of the shells with a technical-economic study of the brace system by the use of different dispositions of shells and to estimate the quantities of necessary materials (concrete and steel).

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, Beams, Dynamic Analysis, Shells, mixed brace system

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
29 Analytical and Experimental Evaluation of Effects of Nonstructural Brick Walls on Earthquake Response of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Authors: Hasan Husnu Korkmaz, Serra Zerrin Korkmaz


The reinforced concrete (RC) framed structures composed of beams, columns, shear walls and the slabs. The other members are assumed to be nonstructural. Especially the brick infill walls which are used to separate the rooms or spaces are just handled as dead loads. On the other hand, if these infills are constructed within the frame bays, they also have higher shear and compression capacities. It is a well-known fact that, brick infills increase the lateral rigidity of the structure and thought to be a reserve capacity in the design. But, brick infills can create unfavorable failure or damage modes in the earthquake action such as soft story or short columns. The increase in the lateral rigidity also causes an over estimation of natural period of the structure and the corresponding earthquake loads in the design are less than the actual ones. In order to obtain accurate and realistic design results, the infills must be modelled in the structural design and their capacities must be included. Unfortunately, in Turkish Earthquake Code, there is no design methodology for the engineers. In this paper, finite element modelling of infilled reinforced concrete structures are studied. The proposed or used method is compared with the experimental results of a previous study. The effect of infills on the structural response is expressed within the paper.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Reinforced Concrete, Seismic Loading, brick infills, earthquake code

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
28 Application Problems of Anchor Dowels in Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall and Frame Connections

Authors: Musa H. Arslan


Strengthening of the existing seismically deficient reinforced concrete (RC) buildings is an important issue in earthquake prone regions. Addition of RC shear wall as infill or external walls into the structural system has been a commonly preferred strengthening technique since the Big Erzincan Earthquake occurred in Turkey, 1992. The newly added rigid infill walls act primarily as shear walls and relieve the non-ductile existing frames from being subjected to large shear demands providing that new RC inner or external walls are adequately anchored to the existing weak RC frame. The performance of the RC shear walls-RC weak frame connections by steel anchor dowels depends on some parameters such as compressive strength of the existing RC frame concrete, diameter and embedment length of anchored rebar, type of rebar, yielding stress of bar, properties of used chemicals, position of the anchor bars in RC. In this study, application problems of the steel anchor dowels have been checked with some field studies such as tensile test. Two different RC buildings which will be strengthened were selected, and before strengthening, some tests have been performed in the existing RC buildings. According to the field observation and experimental studies, if the concrete compressive strength is lower than 10 MPa, the performance of the anchors is reduced by 70%.

Keywords: Concrete, Reinforced Concrete, Damage, shear wall, frame, anchor dowel

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
27 Reliability of Slender Reinforced Concrete Columns: Part 1

Authors: Metwally Abdel Aziz Ahmed, Ahmed Shaban Abdel Hay Gabr, Inas Mohamed Saleh


The main objective of structural design is to ensure safety and functional performance requirements of a structural system for its target reliability levels. In this study, the reliability index for the reinforcement concrete slender columns with rectangular cross section is studied. The variable parameters studied include the loads, the concrete compressive strength, the steel yield strength, the dimensions of concrete cross-section, the reinforcement ratio, and the location of steel placement. Risk analysis program was used to perform the analytical study. The effect of load eccentricity on the reliability index of reinforced concrete slender column was studied and presented. The results of this study indicate that the good quality control improve the performance of slender reinforced columns through increasing the reliability index β.

Keywords: Reliability, Safety, Reinforced Concrete, slender column

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
26 Investigation of Crack Formation in Ordinary Reinforced Concrete Beams and in Beams Strengthened with Carbon Fiber Sheet: Theory and Experiment

Authors: Anton A. Bykov, Irina O. Glot, Igor N. Shardakov, Alexey P. Shestakov


This paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical investigations of the mechanisms of crack formation in reinforced concrete beams subjected to quasi-static bending. The boundary-value problem has been formulated in the framework of brittle fracture mechanics and has been solved by using the finite-element method. Numerical simulation of the vibrations of an uncracked beam and a beam with cracks of different size serves to determine the pattern of changes in the spectrum of eigenfrequencies observed during crack evolution. Experiments were performed on the sequential quasistatic four-point bending of the beam leading to the formation of cracks in concrete. At each loading stage, the beam was subjected to an impulse load to induce vibrations. Two stages of cracking were detected. At the first stage the conservative process of deformation is realized. The second stage is an active cracking, which is marked by a sharp change in eingenfrequencies. The boundary of a transition from one stage to another is well registered. The vibration behavior was examined for the beams strengthened by carbon-fiber sheet before loading and at the intermediate stage of loading after the grouting of initial cracks. The obtained results show that the vibrodiagnostic approach is an effective tool for monitoring of cracking and for assessing the quality of measures aimed at strengthening concrete structures.

Keywords: Mathematical Modeling, Experiment, Reinforced Concrete, Crack Formation, vibrodiagnostics

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
25 Effect of Water Hyacinth on Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Ahmed Shaban Abdel Hay Gabr


Water hyacinth (W-H) has an adverse effect on Nile river in Egypt, it absorbs high quantities of water, it needs to serve these quantities especially at this time, so by burning W-H, it can be used in concrete mix to reduce the permeability of concrete and increase both the compressive and splitting strength. The effect of W-H on non-structural concrete properties was studied, but there is a lack of studies about the behavior of structural concrete containing W-H. Therefore, in the present study, the behavior of 15 RC beams with 100 x 150 mm cross section, 1250 mm span, different reinforcement ratios and different W-H ratios were studied by testing the beams under two-point bending test. The test results showed that Water Hyacinth is compatible with RC which yields promising results.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, Beams, water hyacinth, reinforcement ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
24 Simple Finite-Element Procedure for Modeling Crack Propagation in Reinforced Concrete Bridge Deck under Repetitive Moving Truck Wheel Loads

Authors: Rajwanlop Kumpoopong, Sukit Yindeesuk, Pornchai Silarom


Modeling cracks in concrete is complicated by its strain-softening behavior which requires the use of sophisticated energy criteria of fracture mechanics to assure stable and convergent solutions in the finite-element (FE) analysis particularly for relatively large structures. However, for small-scale structures such as beams and slabs, a simpler approach relies on retaining some shear stiffness in the cracking plane has been adopted in literature to model the strain-softening behavior of concrete under monotonically increased loading. According to the shear retaining approach, each element is assumed to be an isotropic material prior to cracking of concrete. Once an element is cracked, the isotropic element is replaced with an orthotropic element in which the new orthotropic stiffness matrix is formulated with respect to the crack orientation. The shear transfer factor of 0.5 is used in parallel to the crack plane. The shear retaining approach is adopted in this research to model cracks in RC bridge deck with some modifications to take into account the effect of repetitive moving truck wheel loads as they cause fatigue cracking of concrete. First modification is the introduction of fatigue tests of concrete and reinforcing steel and the Palmgren-Miner linear criterion of cumulative damage in the conventional FE analysis. For a certain loading, the number of cycles to failure of each concrete or RC element can be calculated from the fatigue or S-N curves of concrete and reinforcing steel. The elements with the minimum number of cycles to failure are the failed elements. For the elements that do not fail, the damage is accumulated according to Palmgren-Miner linear criterion of cumulative damage. The stiffness of the failed element is modified and the procedure is repeated until the deck slab fails. The total number of load cycles to failure of the deck slab can then be obtained from which the S-N curve of the deck slab can be simulated. Second modification is the modification in shear transfer factor. Moving loading causes continuous rubbing of crack interfaces which greatly reduces shear transfer mechanism. It is therefore conservatively assumed in this study that the analysis is conducted with shear transfer factor of zero for the case of moving loading. A customized FE program has been developed using the MATLAB software to accomodate such modifications. The developed procedure has been validated with the fatigue test of the 1/6.6-scale AASHTO bridge deck under the applications of both fixed-point repetitive loading and moving loading presented in the literature. Results are in good agreement both experimental vs. simulated S-N curves and observed vs. simulated crack patterns. Significant contribution of the developed procedure is a series of S-N relations which can now be simulated at any desired levels of cracking in addition to the experimentally derived S-N relation at the failure of the deck slab. This permits the systematic investigation of crack propagation or deterioration of RC bridge deck which is appeared to be useful information for highway agencies to prolong the life of their bridge decks.

Keywords: Fatigue, cracking, Reinforced Concrete, deterioration, bridge deck, finite-element, moving truck

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23 Failure Mechanism in Fixed-Ended Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams under Cyclic Load

Authors: A. Aarabzadeh, R. Hizaji


Reinforced Concrete (RC) deep beams are a special type of beams due to their geometry, boundary conditions, and behavior compared to ordinary shallow beams. For example, assumption of a linear strain-stress distribution in the cross section is not valid. Little study has been dedicated to fixed-end RC deep beams. Also, most experimental studies are carried out on simply supported deep beams. Regarding recent tendency for application of deep beams, possibility of using fixed-ended deep beams has been widely increased in structures. Therefore, it seems necessary to investigate the aforementioned structural element in more details. In addition to experimental investigation of a concrete deep beam under cyclic load, different failure mechanisms of fixed-ended deep beams under this type of loading have been evaluated in the present study. The results show that failure mechanisms of deep beams under cyclic loads are quite different from monotonic loads.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, cyclic load, deep beam, fixed-ended

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22 Investigation on Behavior of Fixed-Ended Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams

Authors: R. Hizaji, Y. Heyrani Birak, J. Shahkarami


Reinforced Concrete (RC) deep beams are special structural elements because of their geometry and behavior under loads. For example, assumption of strain- stress distribution is not linear in the cross section. These types of beams may have simple supports or fixed supports. A lot of research works have been conducted on simply supported deep beams, but little study has been done in the fixed-end RC deep beams behavior. Recently, using of fixed-ended deep beams has been widely increased in structures. In this study, the behavior of fixed-ended deep beams is investigated, and the important parameters in capacity of this type of beams are mentioned.

Keywords: Capacity, Reinforced Concrete, deep beam, fixed-ended

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21 A Parametric Study on Effects of Internal Factors on Carbonation of Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Abhishek Mangal, Kunal Tongaria, S. Mandal, Devendra Mohan


The carbonation of concrete is a phenomenon which is a function of various interdependent parameters. Therefore, in spite of numerous literature and database, the useful generalization is not an easy task. These interdependent parameters can be grouped under the category of internal and external factors. This paper focuses on the internal parameters which govern and increase the probability of the ingress of deleterious substances into concrete. The mechanism of effects of internal parameters such as microstructure for with and without supplementary cementing materials (SCM), water/binder ratio, the age of concrete etc. has been discussed. This is followed by the comparison of various proposed mathematical models for the deterioration of concrete. Based on existing laboratory experiments as well as field results, this paper concludes the present understanding of mechanism, modeling and future research needs in this field.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, carbonation, diffusion coefficient, microstructure of concrete

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20 Development of Interaction Diagram for Eccentrically Loaded Reinforced Concrete Sandwich Walls with Different Design Parameters

Authors: May Haggag, Ezzat Fahmy, Mohamed Abdel-Mooty, Sherif Safar


Sandwich sections have a very complex nature due to variability of behavior of different materials within the section. Cracking, crushing and yielding capacity of constituent materials enforces high complexity of the section. Furthermore, slippage between the different layers adds to the section complex behavior. Conventional methods implemented in current industrial guidelines do not account for the above complexities. Thus, a throughout study is needed to understand the true behavior of the sandwich panels thus, increase the ability to use them effectively and efficiently. The purpose of this paper is to conduct numerical investigation using ANSYS software for the structural behavior of sandwich wall section under eccentric loading. Sandwich walls studied herein are composed of two RC faces, a foam core and linking shear connectors. Faces are modeled using solid elements and reinforcement together with connectors are modeled using link elements. The analysis conducted herein is nonlinear static analysis incorporating material nonlinearity, crashing and crushing of concrete and yielding of steel. The model is validated by comparing it to test results in literature. After validation, the model is used to establish extensive parametric analysis to investigate the effect of three key parameters on the axial force bending moment interaction diagram of the walls. These parameters are the concrete compressive strength, face thickness and number of shear connectors. Furthermore, the results of the parametric study are used to predict a coefficient that links the interaction diagram of a solid wall to that of a sandwich wall. The equation is predicted using the parametric study data and regression analysis. The predicted α was used to construct the interaction diagram of the investigated wall and the results were compared with ANSYS results and showed good agreement.

Keywords: numerical modeling, Reinforced Concrete, eccentricity, sandwich walls, interaction diagrams

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19 Seismic Behavior of Existing Reinforced Concrete Buildings in California under Mainshock-Aftershock Scenarios

Authors: Ahmed Mantawy, James C. Anderson


Numerous cases of earthquakes (main-shocks) that were followed by aftershocks have been recorded in California. In 1992 a pair of strong earthquakes occurred within three hours of each other in Southern California. The first shock occurred near the community of Landers and was assigned a magnitude of 7.3 then the second shock occurred near the city of Big Bear about 20 miles west of the initial shock and was assigned a magnitude of 6.2. In the same year, a series of three earthquakes occurred over two days in the Cape-Mendocino area of Northern California. The main-shock was assigned a magnitude of 7.0 while the second and the third shocks were both assigned a value of 6.6. This paper investigates the effect of a main-shock accompanied with aftershocks of significant intensity on reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings to indicate nonlinear behavior using PERFORM-3D software. A 6-story building in San Bruno and a 20-story building in North Hollywood were selected for the study as both of them have RC moment resisting frame systems. The buildings are also instrumented at multiple floor levels as a part of the California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP). Both buildings have recorded responses during past events such as Loma-Prieta and Northridge earthquakes which were used in verifying the response parameters of the numerical models in PERFORM-3D. The verification of the numerical models shows good agreement between the calculated and the recorded response values. Then, different scenarios of a main-shock followed by a series of aftershocks from real cases in California were applied to the building models in order to investigate the structural behavior of the moment-resisting frame system. The behavior was evaluated in terms of the lateral floor displacements, the ductility demands, and the inelastic behavior at critical locations. The analysis results showed that permanent displacements may have happened due to the plastic deformation during the main-shock that can lead to higher displacements during after-shocks. Also, the inelastic response at plastic hinges during the main-shock can change the hysteretic behavior during the aftershocks. Higher ductility demands can also occur when buildings are subjected to trains of ground motions compared to the case of individual ground motions. A general conclusion is that the occurrence of aftershocks following an earthquake can lead to increased damage within the elements of an RC frame buildings. Current code provisions for seismic design do not consider the probability of significant aftershocks when designing a new building in zones of high seismic activity.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, Damage Accumulation, existing buildings, aftershocks

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