Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Regulations Related Abstracts

10 Toxicity of Bisphenol-A: Effects on Health and Regulations

Authors: Tuğba Özdal, Neşe Şahin Yeşilçubuk

Abstract:

Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the highest volume chemicals produced worldwide in the plastic industry. This compound is mostly used in producing polycarbonate plastics that are often used for food and beverage storage, and BPA is also a component of epoxy resins that are used to line food and beverage containers. Studies performed in this area indicated that BPA could be extracted from such products while they are in contact with food. Therefore, BPA exposure is presumed. In this paper, the chemical structure of BPA, factors affecting BPA migration to food and beverages, effects on health, and recent regulations will be reviewed.

Keywords: Toxicity, Health, Regulations, BPA

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9 The Environmental Damages Related to Urban Sites

Authors: Kherbache Radhwane

Abstract:

We currently live in the world pressed by technological developments necessary for the construction, where the concept of sustainable development is truly rooted in recent years. Construction or demolitions of buildings necessarily generate environmental pollution, both inside and outside the site. Depending on the size and nature of work and the context surrounding these problems can be more or less important as is the case here in Algeria. They may affect the smooth running of the site. Moreover, there are regulations exist or are under development and should be taken into account by the various players in the act of building. This is, for example, the case of new obligations in terms of sorting and recycling of construction waste. Given this situation, it appears increasingly necessary to integrate the building sites in an effort to better respect the environment and its regulation. Several operations were performed according to this principle. The success of a project is that respects its environment through the involvement of each actor of the operation of the site with a low nuisance. As such, the client assisted by his driver and its operating contractor and the company plays a central role as an initiator of the process. It must ensure the establishment of appropriate means of organizational plans and contract.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Construction, Building, Evolution, Environmental, Regulations, demolition, nuisance, tailings

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8 Economics and Management Information Systems: Institute of Management and Technology Enugu a Case Study

Authors: Cletus Agbowo

Abstract:

Standard principles, rules, regulations, norms and guides are necessities in practice especially in the Economics and management information system Institute of management of and technology (IMT) Enugu a case sturdy as presented by the presenter. Without mincing words, the fundamental bottle neck of management is economics, how to select to engage merger productivity resources to achieve uncountable objectives without tears. Management information system inevitably become bound up in organizational politics because the influence access to a key resource – namely information. Economics and management information can effect who does what to whom, when, where and how in an organization. In great institutions like the Institute of Management and Technology (IMT) Enugu a case study many new information systems require changes in personnel, individual routines that can be painful for those involved and require retraining and additional effort may or may not be compensated. In a nut shell, because management information system potentially change an organization’s structure, culture, business processes, and strategy, there is often considerable resistance to them when they are introduced. The case study have many schools, departments, divisions and units which needs research on economics and management information systems. A system can be defined as a set of interrelated components and / or elements, which reacts with input to produce output. A department in an organization is a system. The researcher is faced to itemize the practical challenges encountered and solution adopted by the Institute Management and Enugu state government.

Keywords: Economics, Management, Information, Productivity, Regulations

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7 On the Effectiveness of Electricity Market Development Strategies: A Target Model for a Developing Country

Authors: Ezgi Avci-Surucu, Doganbey Akgul

Abstract:

Turkey’s energy reforms has achieved energy security through a variety of interlinked measures including electricity, gas, renewable energy and energy efficiency legislation; the establishment of an energy sector regulatory authority; energy price reform; the creation of a functional electricity market; restructuring of state-owned energy enterprises; and private sector participation through privatization and new investment. However, current strategies, namely; “Electricity Sector Reform and Privatization Strategy” and “Electricity Market and Supply Security Strategy” has been criticized for various aspects. The present paper analyzes the implementation of the aforementioned strategies in the framework of generation scheduling, transmission constraints, bidding structure and general aspects; and argues the deficiencies of current strategies which decelerates power investments and creates uncertainties. We conclude by policy suggestions to eliminate these deficiencies in terms of price and risk management, infrastructure, customer focused regulations and systematic market development.

Keywords: Risk management, Regulations, electricity markets, balancing and settlement, bilateral trading, generation scheduling, bidding structure

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6 Small Entrepreneurship Supporting Economic Policy in Georgia

Authors: G. Erkomaishvili

Abstract:

This paper discusses small entrepreneurship development strategy in Georgia and the tools and regulations that will encourage development of small entrepreneurship. The current situation in the small entrepreneurship sector, as well as factors affecting growth and decline in the sector and the priorities of state support, are studied and analyzed. The objective of this research is to assess the current situation of the sector to highlight opportunities and reveal the gaps. State support of small entrepreneurship should become a key priority in the country’s economic policy, as development of the sector will ensure social, economic and political stability. Based on the research, a small entrepreneurship development strategy is presented; corresponding conclusions are made and recommendations are developed.

Keywords: Regulations, economic policy for small entrepreneurship development, small entrepreneurship, small entrepreneurship development strategy

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5 The Influence of the Laws of Ergonomics on the Design of High-Rise Buildings

Authors: Valery A. Aurov, Maria D. Bausheva, Elena V. Uliyanova

Abstract:

The problems of sustainability of contemporary high-rise buildings now demand an altogether new approach, which corresponds with the laws of dialectics. We should imply the principle “going from mega-object to the so called mezzo-object.” So the scientists have arrived at the conclusion that a contemporary “skyscraper” must not increase in height but develop horizontal space axes which unite a complex of high-rise buildings into a single composition. This is necessary both for safety issues and increasing skyscrapers’ functioning qualities. As a result, architects single out a quality unit in a dominating group of high-rise constructions and make a conclusion about the influence of visual fields on the designing parameters of this group.

Keywords: Design, Sustainability, Regulations, High-rise Buildings, Skyscrapers, visual fields, dominating group, design recommendations

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4 Importance of Standards in Engineering and Technology Education

Authors: Ahmed S. Khan, Amin Karim

Abstract:

During the past several decades, the economy of each nation has been significantly affected by globalization and technology. Government regulations and private sector standards affect a majority of world trade. Countries have been working together to establish international standards in almost every field. As a result, workers in all sectors need to have an understanding of standards. Engineering and technology students must not only possess an understanding of engineering standards and applicable government codes, but also learn to apply them in designing, developing, testing and servicing products, processes and systems. Accreditation Board for Engineering & Technology (ABET) criteria for engineering and technology education require students to learn and apply standards in their class projects. This paper is a follow-up of a 2006-2009 NSF initiative awarded to IEEE to help develop tutorials and case study modules for students and encourage standards education at college campuses. It presents the findings of a faculty/institution survey conducted through various U.S.-based listservs representing the major engineering and technology disciplines. The intent of the survey was to the gauge the status of use of standards and regulations in engineering and technology coursework and to identify benchmark practices. In light of survey findings, recommendations are made to standards development organizations, industry, and academia to help enhance the use of standards in engineering and technology curricula.

Keywords: Engineering, Standards, Regulations, IEEE, ABET, technology curricula

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3 The Impact of Regulatory Changes on the Development of Mobile Medical Apps

Authors: M. McHugh, D. Lillis

Abstract:

Mobile applications are being used to perform a wide variety of tasks in day-to-day life, ranging from checking email to controlling your home heating. Application developers have recognized the potential to transform a smart device into a medical device, by using a mobile medical application i.e. a mobile phone or a tablet. When initially conceived these mobile medical applications performed basic functions e.g. BMI calculator, accessing reference material etc.; however, increasing complexity offers clinicians and patients a range of functionality. As this complexity and functionality increases, so too does the potential risk associated with using such an application. Examples include any applications that provide the ability to inflate and deflate blood pressure cuffs, as well as applications that use patient-specific parameters and calculate dosage or create a dosage plan for radiation therapy. If an unapproved mobile medical application is marketed by a medical device organization, then they face significant penalties such as receiving an FDA warning letter to cease the prohibited activity, fines and possibility of facing a criminal conviction. Regulatory bodies have finalized guidance intended for mobile application developers to establish if their applications are subject to regulatory scrutiny. However, regulatory controls appear contradictory with the approaches taken by mobile application developers who generally work with short development cycles and very little documentation and as such, there is the potential to stifle further improvements due to these regulations. The research presented as part of this paper details how by adopting development techniques, such as agile software development, mobile medical application developers can meet regulatory requirements whilst still fostering innovation.

Keywords: Software Engineering, Mobile, Medical, Standards, Applications, Agile, Regulations, FDA

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2 Pesticides Regulations: An Urgent Need for Legal Reform in India

Authors: D. Pranav

Abstract:

Pesticides are a class of Biocide, whose use in agriculture has led to a momentous increase in the yield of crops, fruits and vegetables all over the word and its effective use has also been the pillars of success for the Green Revolution. However, the incessant use of pesticides has now reached alarming levels. In 2007 alone, the world used an estimated 2.4 million tons of pesticides. Despite its tremendous benefits for agriculture, pesticide has been one of the major reasons for degradation of the natural environment and undesirable effects on human beings. It has not only caused damage to human health, but has also threatened the survival of few birds and animal species. In India, the sale and usage of banned pesticide, increased usage of pesticides and its inadequate labeling has caused Bio magnification, which is causing deleterious effects on child development, resulting in stunted mental and physical growth. This paper aims to bring to shed light on major loopholes in the current pesticide regulations such as the Insecticide Act of 1968. It further discusses loopholes in the yet to be tabled Pesticides Management Bill of 2008. It discusses and arrives at potential amendments to the laws and regulations concerning pesticides; that cannot only be applied to the Indian subcontinent but other developing countries as well.

Keywords: Environment, Reform, Pesticides, Human Health, Regulations, India

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1 A Decade of Creating an Alternative Banking System in Tanzania: The Current State of Affairs of Islamic Banks

Authors: Pradeep Kulshrestha, Maulana Ayoub Ali

Abstract:

The concept of financial inclusion has been tabled in the whole world where practitioners, academicians, policy makers and economists are working hard to look for the best possible opportunities in order to enable the whole society to be in the banking cycle. The Islamic banking system is considered to be one of the said opportunities. Countries like the United Kingdom, United States of America, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, the whole of the United Arab Emirates and many African countries have accommodated the aspect of Islamic banking in the conventional banking system as one of the financial inclusion strategies. This paper tries to analyse the current state of affairs of the Islamic Banking system in Tanzania in order to understand the improvement of the provision of Islamic banking products and services in the said country. The paper discusses the historical background of the banking system in Tanzania, the level of penetration of banking products and services and the coming of the Islamic banking system in the country. Furthermore, the paper discusses banking regulatory bodies, legal instruments governing banking operations as well as number of legal challenges facing Islamic banking operations in the country. Following a critical literature review, the paper discovered that there is no legal instrument which talks about the introduction and provision of Islamic banking system in Tanzania. Furthermore, the Islamic banking system was considered as a banking product which is absolutely incorrect because Islamic banking is considered to be as a banking system of its own. In addition to that, it has been discovered that lack of a proper regulatory system and legal instruments to harmonize the conventional and Islamic banking systems has resulted in the closure of one Islamic window in the country, which in the end affects the credibility of the newly introduced banking system. In its conclusive remarks, the paper suggests that Tanzania should work on all legal challenges affecting the smooth operations of the Islamic banking system. This can be in a way of adopting various Islamic banking legal models which are used in countries like Malaysia and others, or a borrowing legal harmonization process which has been adopted by the UK, Uganda, Nigeria and Kenya.

Keywords: Islamic Banking, Regulations, banks, islamic windows

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