Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Regional Development Related Abstracts

14 Growth Pattern Analysis of Khagrachari Pourashava

Authors: Kutub Uddin Chisty, Md. Ashraful Islam, Md. Kamrul Islam

Abstract:

Growth pattern is an important factor for a city because it can help to predict future growth trend and development of a city. Khagrachari District is one of the three hill tracts districts in Bangladesh. It is bordered by the Indian State of Tripura on the north, Rangamati and Chittagong districts on the south, Rangamati district on the east, Chittagong district and the Indian State of Tripura on the west. Khagrachari Pourashava is surrounded by hills and waterways. The Pourashava area is mostly inhibited by non-tribal population, while tribal population lives in hilly regions within and around the Pourashava area. The hilly area growth is different. Based on questioners and expert opinions survey, growth pattern of Khagrachari is evaluated. Different culture, history, tribal people, non-tribal people enrich the hilly heritages. In our study, we analyse the city growth pattern and identify the prominent factors that influence the city growth. Thus, it can help us to identify growth trend of the city.

Keywords: Regional Development, growth pattern, growth trend, prominent factors

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13 Understanding the Gap Between Heritage Conservation and Local Development in the Global South: Success and Failure of Strategies Applied

Authors: Mohamed Aniss El-Gamal

Abstract:

For decades, the Global South has been facing many challenges in the fields of heritage conservation and local development. These challenges continue to increase due to rapid urbanization in historical cities, thus resulting in complicated juxtaposed contexts of heritage resources and deteriorated dwellings, where slum areas are dotted with heritage structures. While the majority of cases show the incapacity of national and local governments to deal with such contexts, few others managed to demonstrate how different levels of government can play complementary roles in the cooperation with local and international institutions as well as involving local community to achieve an integrated strategy and overcome the challenge. This paper discusses heritage conservation and local development strategies in reference to a number of case studies in cities of the Global south, i.e. Porto Alegre, Agra, Cairo and Mumbai. It further investigates main key aspects of success and failure through cross case studies analysis (Matrix). This study could help create a delineation of an integrated strategy for undertaking future interventions in similar contexts. Integrated strategies are needed to overcome the gap between heritage conservation and local development, maintaining the value of heritage structures and ensuring the quality of life for communities residing in its surroundings.

Keywords: Regional Development, Heritage Conservation, Local Development, the global south

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12 Location Quotients Model in Turkey’s Provinces and Nuts II Regions

Authors: Semih Sözer

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One of the most common issues in economic systems is understanding characteristics of economic activities in cities and regions. Although there are critics to economic base models in conceptual and empirical aspects, these models are useful tools to examining the economic structure of a nation, regions or cities. This paper uses one of the methodologies of economic base models namely the location quotients model. Data for this model includes employment numbers of provinces and NUTS II regions in Turkey. Time series of data covers the years of 1990, 2000, 2003, and 2009. Aim of this study is finding which sectors are export-base and which sectors are import-base in provinces and regions. Model results show that big provinces or powerful regions (population, size etc.) mostly have basic sectors in their economic system. However, interesting facts came from different sectors in different provinces and regions in the model results.

Keywords: Regional Development, regional economics, economic base, location quotients model

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11 Indicators of Regional Development, Case Study: Bucharest-Ilfov Region

Authors: Dan Cristian Popescu

Abstract:

The new territorial identities and global dynamics have determined a change of policies of economics, social and cultural development from a vertical to a horizontal approach, which is based on cooperation networks between institutional actors, economic operators or civil society representatives. The European integration has not only generated a different patterns of competitiveness, economic growth, concentration of attractive potential, but also disparities among regions of this country, or even in the countryside within a region. To a better understanding of the dynamics of regional development and the impact of this concept on Romania, I chose as a case study the region Bucharest-Ilfov which is analyzed on the basis of predetermined indicators and of the impact of European programs.

Keywords: Regional Development, Rural, Urban, regional competition

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10 Tourism Policy Challenges in Post-Soviet Georgia

Authors: Merab Khokhobaia

Abstract:

The research of Georgian tourism policy challenges is important, as the tourism can play an increasing role for the economic growth and improvement of standard of living of the country even with scanty resources, at the expense of improved creative approaches. It is also important to make correct decisions at macroeconomic level, which will be accordingly reflected in the successful functioning of the travel companies and finally, in the improvement of economic indicators of the country. In order to correctly orient sectoral policy, it is important to precisely determine its role in the economy. Development of travel industry has been considered as one of the priorities in Georgia; the country has unique cultural heritage and traditions, as well as plenty of natural resources, which are a significant precondition for the development of tourism. Despite the factors mentioned above, the existing resources are not completely utilized and exploited. This work represents a study of subjective, as well as objective reasons of ineffective functioning of the sector. During the years of transformation experienced by Georgia, the role of travel industry in economic development of the country represented the subject of continual discussions. Such assessments were often biased and they did not rest on specific calculations. This topic became especially popular on the ground of market economy, because reliable statistical data have a particular significance in the designing of tourism policy. In order to deeply study the aforementioned issue, this paper analyzes monetary, as well as non-monetary indicators. The research widely included the tourism indicators system; we analyzed the flaws in reporting of the results of tourism sector in Georgia. Existing defects are identified and recommendations for their improvement are offered. For stable development tourism, similarly to other economic sectors, needs a well-designed policy from the perspective of national, as well as local, regional development. The tourism policy must be drawn up in order to efficiently achieve our goals, which were established in short-term and long-term dynamics on the national or regional scale of specific country. The article focuses on the role and responsibility of the state institutes in planning and implementation of the tourism policy. The government has various tools and levers, which may positively influence the processes. These levers are especially important in terms of international, as well as internal tourism development. Within the framework of this research, the regulatory documents, which are in force in relation to this industry, were also analyzed. The main attention is turned to their modernization and necessity of their compliance with European standards. It is a current issue to direct the efforts of state policy on support of business by implementing infrastructural projects, as well as by development of human resources, which may be possible by supporting the relevant higher and vocational studying-educational programs.

Keywords: Regional Development, Transition, Tourism Industry, Tourism Policy

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9 Household Size and Poverty Rate: Evidence from Nepal

Authors: Basan Shrestha

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The relationship between the household size and the poverty is not well understood. Malthus followers advocate that the increasing population add pressure to the dwindling resource base due to increasing demand that would lead to poverty. Others claim that bigger households are richer due to availability of household labour for income generation activities. Facts from Nepal were analyzed to examine the relationship between the household size and poverty rate. The analysis of data from 3,968 Village Development Committee (VDC)/ municipality (MP) located in 75 districts of all five development regions revealed that the average household size had moderate positive correlation with the poverty rate (Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.44). In a regression analysis, the household size determined 20% of the variation in the poverty rate. Higher positive correlation was observed in eastern Nepal (Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.66). The regression analysis showed that the household size determined 43% of the variation in the poverty rate in east. The relation was poor in far-west. It could be because higher incidence of poverty was there irrespective of household size. Overall, the facts revealed that the bigger households were relatively poorer. With the increasing level of awareness and interventions for family planning, it is anticipated that the household size will decrease leading to the decreased poverty rate. In addition, the government needs to devise a mechanism to create employment opportunities for the household labour force to reduce poverty.

Keywords: Regional Development, Nepal, household size, poverty rate

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8 Key Factors for a Smart City

Authors: Marta Christina Suciu, Cristina Andreea Florea

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The purpose of this paper is to highlight the relevance of building smart cities in the context of regional development and to analyze the important factors that make a city smart. These cities could be analyzed through the perspective of environment quality, the socio-cultural condition, technological applications and innovations, the vitality of the economic environment and public policies. Starting with these five sustainability domains, we will demonstrate the hypothesis that smart cities are the engine of the regional development. The aim of this paper is to assess the implications of smart cities, in the context of sustainable development, analyzing the benefits of developing creative and innovative cities. Regarding the methodology, it is used the systemic, logical and comparative analysis of important literature and data, also descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. In conclusion, we will define a direction on the regional development and competitiveness increasing.

Keywords: Innovation, Sustainability, Regional Development, Creativity, Smart City, triple helix

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7 The Investment Decision-Making Principles in Regional Tourism

Authors: Giorgi Sulashvili, Malkhaz Sulashvili, Evgeni Baratashvili, Irma Makharashvili, Bela Khotenashvili

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The most investment decision-making principle of regional travel firm's management and its partner is the formulation of the aims of investment programs. The investments can be targeted in order to reduce the firm's production costs and to purchase good transport equipment. In attractive region, in order to develop firm’s activities, the investment program can be targeted for increasing of provided services. That is the case where the sales already have been used in the market. The investment can be directed to establish the affiliate firms, branches, to construct new hotels, to create food and trade enterprises, to develop entertainment enterprises, etc. Economic development is of great importance to regional development. International experience shows that inclusive economic growth largely depends on not only the national, but also regional development planning and implementation of a strong and competitive regions. Regional development is considered as the key factor in achieving national success. Establishing a modern institute separate entities if the pilot centers will constitute a promotion, international best practice-based public-private partnership to encourage the use of models. Regional policy directions and strategies adopted in accordance with the successful implementation of major importance in the near future specific action plans for inclusive development and implementation, which will be provided in accordance with the effective monitoring and evaluation tools and measurable indicators combined. All of these above-mentioned investments are characterized by different levels, which are related to the following fact: How successful tourism marketing service is, whether it is able to determine the proper market's reaction according to the particular firm's actions. In the sphere of regional tourism industry and in the investment decision possible variants it can be developed the some specter of models. Each of the models can be modified and specified according to the situation, and characteristic skills of the existing problem that must be solved. Besides, while choosing the proper model, the process is affected by the regulation system of economic processes. Also, it is influenced by liberalization quality and by the level of state participation.

Keywords: Regional Development, Tourism Development, Economic growth, net income of travel firm, Investment profitability, tourist product

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6 Impacts on Regional Economy by the Upgrade of Railway Infrastructure

Authors: Dimitrios J. Dimitriou, Maria F. Sartzetaki

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Transport is often the key driver for growth, especially for regions providing key opportunities for connectivity between busy areas and mature markets. Even though the benefits of transports are essential, limited research is published regarding the linkage of inland transport systems and other business sectors, the spillover effects on regional economy and the overall contribution to regional development. This paper deals with the determination of the key socioeconomic benefits on regions caused by the upgrade and the modernization of a railway corridor. The analysis framework is following a four-step analysis, providing key messages to planners, managers and decision makers. The provided case study is the upgrade of the railway corridor in North Greece, which is a very sensitive region suffering long time from economic stress. The application results are essential for comparisons with other destinations and provide key messages regarding the relationship of railway and economic development.

Keywords: Regional Development, Strategic Planning, economic impact assessment variables, railway infrastructure

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5 Resourcing Remote Rural Social Enterprises to Foster Resilience and Regional Development

Authors: Heather Fulford, Melanie Liddell

Abstract:

The recruitment and retention of high quality employees can prove to be challenging for social enterprises, particularly in some of the core business support functions such as marketing, communications, IT and finance. This holds true for social enterprises in urban contexts, where roles with more attractive remuneration in these business functions can often be found quite readily in the private sector. For social enterprises situated in rural locations, the challenges of staff recruitment and retention are even more acute. Such challenges can lead to a skills deficit in rural social enterprises, which can, at best, hinder their growth potential, and worse, jeopardise their chances of survival. This in turn, can have a negative impact on the sustainability and resilience of the surrounding rural community in which the social enterprise is located. The purpose of this paper is to report on aspects of a collaborative initiative established to stimulate innovation and business growth in remote rural businesses in Scotland. Launched in 2010, this initiative was designed to attract young students and graduates from the region to stay in the region upon completion of their studies, and to attract others from outside the region to re-locate there post-university. To facilitate this, SMEs in the region were offered wage subsidies to encourage them to recruit a student or graduate on a work placement for up to one year to participate in an innovation or business growth-oriented project. A number of the employers offering work placements were social enterprises. Through analysis of the placement project and role specifications devised by the participating social enterprises, an overview is provided of their business development needs and the skills they require to stimulate innovation and growth. Scrutiny of the reflective accounts compiled by the students and graduates at the close of their work placements highlights the benefits they derived from being able to put their academic knowledge and skills into action within a social enterprise. Examination of interviews conducted with a sample of placement employers reveals the contribution the students and graduates made during the business development projects with the social enterprises. The challenges of hosting such placements are also discussed. The paper concludes with indications of the lessons learned and an outline of the wider implications for other remote rural locations in which social enterprises play an important role in the local economy and life of the community.

Keywords: Resource Management, Regional Development, Resilience, Rural development, Regeneration, Retention, recruitment, remuneration

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4 Developing a Cultural Policy Framework for Small Towns and Cities

Authors: Raymond Ndhlovu, Jen Snowball

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It has long been known that the Cultural and Creative Industries (CCIs) have the potential to aid in physical, social and economic renewal and regeneration of towns and cities, hence their importance when dealing with regional development. The CCIs can act as a catalyst for activity and investment in an area because the ‘consumption’ of cultural activities will lead to the activities and use of other non-cultural activities, for example, hospitality development including restaurants and bars, as well as public transport. ‘Consumption’ of cultural activities also leads to employment creation, and diversification. However, CCIs tend to be clustered, especially around large cities. There is, moreover, a case for development of CCIs around smaller towns and cities, because they do not rely on high technology inputs, and long supply chains, and, their direct link to rural and isolated places makes them vital in regional development. However, there is currently little research on how to craft cultural policy for regions with smaller towns and cities. Using the Sarah Baartman District (SBDM) in South Africa as an example, this paper describes the process of developing cultural policy for a region that has potential, and existing, cultural clusters, but currently no one, coherent policy relating to CCI development. The SBDM was chosen as a case study because it has no large cities, but has some CCI clusters, and has identified them as potential drivers of local economic development. The process of developing cultural policy is discussed in stages: Identification of what resources are present; including human resources, soft and hard infrastructure; Identification of clusters; Analysis of CCI labour markets and ownership patterns; Opportunities and challenges from the point of view of CCIs and other key stakeholders; Alignment of regional policy aims with provincial and national policy objectives; and finally, design and implementation of a regional cultural policy.

Keywords: Regional Development, Intrinsic Value, Economic impact, cultural and creative industries

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3 Reassembling a Fragmented Border Landscape at Crossroads: Indigenous Rights, Rural Sustainability, Regional Integration and Post-Colonial Justice in Hong Kong

Authors: Chiu-Yin Leung

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This research investigates a complex assemblage among indigenous identities, socio-political organization and national apparatus in the border landscape of post-colonial Hong Kong. This former British colony had designated a transient mode of governance in its New Territories and particularly the northernmost borderland in 1951-2012. With a discriminated system of land provisions for the indigenous villagers, the place has been inherited with distinctive village-based culture, historic monuments and agrarian practices until its sovereignty return into the People’s Republic of China. In its latest development imperatives by the national strategic planning, the frontier area of Hong Kong has been identified as a strategy site for regional economic integration in South China, with cross-border projects of innovation and technology zones, mega-transport infrastructure and inter-jurisdictional arrangement. Contemporary literature theorizes borders as the material and discursive production of territoriality, which manifest in state apparatus and the daily lives of its citizens and condense in the contested articulations of power, security and citizenship. Drawing on the concept of assemblage, this paper attempts to tract how the border regime and infrastructure in Hong Kong as a city are deeply ingrained in the everyday lived spaces of the local communities but also the changing urban and regional strategies across different longitudinal moments. Through an intensive ethnographic fieldwork among the borderland villages since 2008 and the extensive analysis of colonial archives, new development plans and spatial planning frameworks, the author navigates the genealogy of the border landscape in Ta Kwu Ling frontier area and its implications as the milieu for new state space, covering heterogeneous fields particularly in indigenous rights, heritage preservation, rural sustainability and regional economy. Empirical evidence suggests an apparent bias towards indigenous power and colonial representation in classifying landscape values and conserving historical monuments. Squatter and farm tenants are often deprived of property rights, statutory participation and livelihood option in the planning process. The postcolonial bureaucracies have great difficulties in mobilizing resources to catch up with the swift, political-first approach of the mainland counterparts. Meanwhile, the cultural heritage, lineage network and memory landscape are not protected altogether with any holistic view or collaborative effort across the border. The enactment of land resumption and compensation scheme is furthermore disturbed by lineage-based customary law, technocratic bureaucracy, intra-community conflicts and multi-scalar political mobilization. As many traces of colonial misfortune and tyranny have been whitewashed without proper management, the author argues that postcolonial justice is yet reconciled in this fragmented border landscape. The assemblage of border in mainstream representation has tended to oversimplify local struggles as a collective mist and setup a wider production of schizophrenia experiences in the discussion of further economic integration among Hong Kong and other mainland cities in the Pearl River Delta Region. The research is expected to shed new light on the theorizing of border regions and postcolonialism beyond Eurocentric perspectives. In reassembling the borderland experiences with other arrays in state governance, village organization and indigenous identities, the author also suggests an alternative epistemology in reconciling socio-spatial differences and opening up imaginaries for positive interventions.

Keywords: Regional Development, Heritage Conservation, Indigenous Communities, post-colonial borderland, rural sustainability

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2 Roads and Agriculture: Impacts of Connectivity in Peru

Authors: Julio Aguirre, Yohnny Campana, Elmer Guerrero, Daniel De La Torre Ugarte

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A well-developed transportation network is a necessary condition for a country to derive full benefits from good trade and macroeconomic policies. Road infrastructure plays a key role in the economic development of rural areas of developing countries; where agriculture is the main economic activity. The ability to move agricultural production from the place of production to the market, and then to the place of consumption, greatly influence the economic value of farming activities, and of the resources involved in the production process, i.e., labor and land. Consequently, investment in transportation networks contributes to enhance or overcome the natural advantages or disadvantages that topography and location have imposed over the agricultural sector. This is of particular importance when dealing with countries, like Peru, with a great topographic diversity. The objective of this research is to estimate the impacts of road infrastructure on the performance of the agricultural sector. Specific variables of interest are changes in travel time, shifts of production for self-consumption to production for the market, changes in farmers income, and impacts on the diversification of the agricultural sector. In the study, a cross-section model with instrumental variables is the central methodological instrument. The data is obtained from agricultural and transport geo-referenced databases, and the instrumental variable specification utilized is based on the Kruskal algorithm. The results show that the expansion of road connectivity reduced farmers' travel time by an average of 3.1 hours and the proportion of output sold in the market increases by up to 40 percentage points. The increase in connectivity has an unexpected increase in the districts index of diversification of agricultural production. The results are robust to the inclusion of year and region fixed-effects, and to control for geography (i.e., slope and altitude), population variables, and mining activity. Other results are also very eloquent. For example, a clear positive impact can be seen in access to local markets, but this does not necessarily correlate with an increase in the production of the sector. This can be explained by the fact that agricultural development not only requires provision of roads but additional complementary infrastructure and investments intended to provide the necessary conditions so that producers can offer quality products (improved management practices, timely maintenance of irrigation infrastructure, transparent management of water rights, among other factors). Therefore, complementary public goods are needed to enhance the effects of roads on the welfare of the population, beyond enabling them to increase their access to markets.

Keywords: Regional Development, agriculture devolepment, market access, road connectivity

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1 The Implementation of Science Park Policy and Their Impacts on Regional Economic Development in Emerging Economy Country: Case of Thailand

Authors: Muttamas Wongwanich, John R. Bryson, Catherine E. Harris

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Science parks are an essential component of localized innovation ecosystems. Science Parks have played a critical role in enhancing local innovation ecosystems in developed market economies. Attempts have been made to replicate best practice in other national contexts. To our best knowledge, the study about the development of Science Parks has not been undertaken on the economic impact on the developing countries. Further research is required to understand the adoption of Science Park policies in developing and emerging economies. This study explores the implementation of Science Park policy and its impacts on economic growth and development in Thailand, focusing on the relationship between universities and businesses. The Thailand context is essential. Thailand’s economy is dominated by agriculture and tourism. The Science Park policy is trying to develop an agriculturally orientated innovative ecosystem. Thailand established four Science Parks based on a policy that highlighted the importance of cooperation between government, HEIs, and businesses. These Science Parks are intended to increase small and medium enterprises’ (SMEs) innovativeness, employment, and regional economic growth by promoting collaboration and knowledge transfer between HEIs and the private sector. This study explores one regional Science Park in Thailand with an emphasis on understanding the implementation and operation of a triple helix innovation policy. The analysis explores the establishment of the Science Park and its impacts on firms and the regional economy through interviews with Science Parks directors, firms, academics, universities, and government officials. The analysis will inform Science Park policy development in Thailand to support the national objective to develop an innovation ecosystem based on the integration of technology with innovation policy, supporting technology-based SMEs in the creation of local jobs. The finding shows that the implementation of the Science Park policy in Thailand requires support and promotion from the government. The regional development plan must be related to the regional industry development strategy, considering the strengths and weaknesses of local entrepreneurs. The long time in granting a patent is the major obstacle in achieving the government’s aim in encouraging local economic activity. The regional Science Parks in Thailand are at the early stage of the operation plan. Thus, the impact on the regional economy cannot be measured and need further investigation in a more extended period. However, local businesses realize the vital of research and development (R&D). There have been more requests for funding support in doing R&D. Furthermore, there is the creation of linkages between businesses, HEIs, and government authorities as expected.

Keywords: Regional Development, Thailand, developing country, emerging economy, triple helix, science park

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