Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Refrigeration Related Abstracts

10 Thermodynamic Analysis of a Vapor Absorption System Using Modified Gouy-Stodola Equation

Authors: Gulshan Sachdeva, Ram Bilash

Abstract:

In this paper, the exergy analysis of vapor absorption refrigeration system using LiBr-H2O as working fluid is carried out with the modified Gouy-Stodola approach rather than the classical Gouy-Stodola equation and effect of varying input parameters is also studied on the performance of the system. As the modified approach uses the concept of effective temperature, the mathematical expressions for effective temperature have been formulated and calculated for each component of the system. Various constraints and equations are used to develop program in EES to solve these equations. The main aim of this analysis is to determine the performance of the system and the components having major irreversible loss. Results show that exergy destruction rate is considerable in absorber and generator followed by evaporator and condenser. There is an increase in exergy destruction in generator, absorber and condenser and decrease in the evaporator by the modified approach as compared to the conventional approach. The value of exergy determined by the modified Gouy Stodola equation deviates maximum i.e. 26% in the generator as compared to the exergy calculated by the classical Gouy-Stodola method.

Keywords: Refrigeration, Exergy analysis, Gouy-Stodola, vapor absorption

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9 Effect of Evaporator Temperature on the Performance of Water Desalination/Refrigeration Adsorption System Using AQSOA-ZO2

Authors: Peter G. Youssef, Saad M. Mahmoud, Raya K. Al-Dadah

Abstract:

Many water desalination technologies have been developed but in general they are energy intensive and have high cost and adverse environmental impact. Recently, adsorption technology for water desalination has been investigated showing the potential of using low temperature waste heat (50-85oC) thus reducing energy consumption and CO2 emissions. This work mathematically compares the performance of an adsorption cycle that produces two useful effects namely, fresh water and cooling using two different adsorbents, silica-gel and an advanced zeolite material AQSOA-ZO2, produced by Mitsubishi plastics. It was found that at low chilled water temperatures, typically below 20oC, the AQSOA-Z02 is more efficient than silica-gel as the cycle can produce 5.8 m3 of fresh water per day and 50.1 Rton of cooling per tonne of AQSOA-ZO2. Above 20oC silica-gel is still better as the cycle production reaches 8.4 m3 per day and 62.4 Rton per tonne of silica-gel. These results show the potential of using the AQSOA-Z02 at low chilled water temperature for water desalination and cooling applications.

Keywords: Desalination, Refrigeration, Adsorption, Seawater

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8 Comparative Exergy Analysis of Vapor Compression Refrigeration System Using Alternative Refrigerants

Authors: Gulshan Sachdeva, Vaibhav Jain

Abstract:

In present paper, the performance of various alternative refrigerants is compared to find the substitute of R22, the widely used hydrochlorofluorocarbon refrigerant in developing countries. These include the environmentally friendly hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants such as R134A, R410A, R407C and M20. In the present study, a steady state thermodynamic model (includes both first and second law analysis) which simulates the working of an actual vapor-compression system is developed. The model predicts the performance of system with alternative refrigerants. Considering the recent trends of replacement of ozone depleting refrigerants and improvement in system efficiency, R407C is found to be potential candidate to replace R22 refrigerant in the present study.

Keywords: Modeling, Refrigeration, compression system, performance study, R407C

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7 Thermal Analysis of Adsorption Refrigeration System Using Silicagel–Methanol Pair

Authors: Bidyut Mazumdar, Palash Soni, Vivek Kumar Gaba, Shubhankar Bhowmick

Abstract:

Refrigeration technology is a fast developing field at the present era since it has very wide application in both domestic and industrial areas. It started from the usage of simple ice coolers to store food stuffs to the present sophisticated cold storages along with other air conditioning system. A variety of techniques are used to bring down the temperature below the ambient. Adsorption refrigeration technology is a novel, advanced and promising technique developed in the past few decades. It gained attention due to its attractive property of exploiting unlimited natural sources like solar energy, geothermal energy or even waste heat recovery from plants or from the exhaust of locomotives to fulfill its energy need. This will reduce the exploitation of non-renewable resources and hence reduce pollution too. This work is aimed to develop a model for a solar adsorption refrigeration system and to simulate the same for different operating conditions. In this system, the mechanical compressor is replaced by a thermal compressor. The thermal compressor uses renewable energy such as solar energy and geothermal energy which makes it useful for those areas where electricity is not available. Refrigerants normally in use like chlorofluorocarbon/perfluorocarbon have harmful effects like ozone depletion and greenhouse warming. It is another advantage of adsorption systems that it can replace these refrigerants with less harmful natural refrigerants like water, methanol, ammonia, etc. Thus the double benefit of reduction in energy consumption and pollution can be achieved. A thermodynamic model was developed for the proposed adsorber, and a universal MATLAB code was used to simulate the model. Simulations were carried out for a different operating condition for the silicagel-methanol working pair. Various graphs are plotted between regeneration temperature, adsorption capacities, the coefficient of performance, desorption rate, specific cooling power, adsorption/desorption times and mass. The results proved that adsorption system could be installed successfully for refrigeration purpose as it has saving in terms of power and reduction in carbon emission even though the efficiency is comparatively less as compared to conventional systems. The model was tested for its compliance in a cold storage refrigeration with a cooling load of 12 TR.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Refrigeration, Adsorption, silicagel-methanol

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6 Performance Analysis of Air Conditioning System Working on the Vapour Compression Refrigeration Cycle under Magnetohydrodynamic Influence

Authors: Nikhil S. Mane, Mukund L. Harugade, Narayan V. Hargude, Vishal P. Patil

Abstract:

The fluids exposed to magnetic field can enhance the convective heat transfer by inducing secondary convection currents due to Lorentz force. The use of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) forces in power generation and mass transfer is increasing steadily but its application to enhance the convective currents in fluids needed to be explored. The enhancement in convective heat transfer using MHD forces can be employed in heat exchangers, cooling of molten metal, vapour compression refrigeration (VCR) systems etc. The effective increase in the convective heat transfer without any additional energy consumption will lead to the energy efficient heat exchanging devices. In this work, the effect of MHD forces on the performance of air conditioning system working on the VCR system is studied. The refrigerant in VCR system is exposed to the magnetic field which influenced the flow of refrigerant. The different intensities of magnets are used on the different liquid refrigerants and investigation on performance of split air conditioning system is done under different loading conditions. The results of this research work show that the application of magnet on refrigerant flow has positive influence on the coefficient of performance (COP) of split air conditioning system. It is also observed that with increasing intensity of magnetic force the COP of split air conditioning system also increases.

Keywords: Air Conditioning, Magnetohydrodynamics, Refrigeration, Heat Transfer Enhancement, VCRS

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5 Study of Two Adsorbent-Refrigerant Pairs for the Application of Solar-Powered Adsorption Refrigeration System

Authors: Mohammed Ali Hadj Ammar, Fethi Bouras, Kamel Sahlaoui

Abstract:

This article presents a detailed study of two working pairs intended for use in solar adsorption refrigeration (SAR) system. The study was based on two indicators: the daily production and coefficient of performance (COP). The thermodynamic cycle of the system is based on the adsorption phenomena at a constant temperature. A computer simulation program has been developed for modeling and performance evaluation for the solar-powered adsorption refrigeration cycle. It was found that maximal cycled mass is obtained by S40/water (0.280kg/kg) followed by CarboTech C40/1/methanol (0.260kg/kg). At a condenser temperature of 30°C, with an adsorbent mass of 38.59 kg, and an integrated collector/bed configuration, the couple CarboTech C40/1/methanol for the ice-maker purpose can reach cycle COP of 0.63 and can produce about 13.6kg ice per day, while the couple S40/water for the air-conditioning can reach cycle COP of 0.66 and 212kg as daily cold-water production. Additionally, adequate indicators are evaluated addressing the economic and environmental associated with each working pair.

Keywords: Refrigeration, activated carbon, silica gel, solar adsorption

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4 A Conceptual Design of Freeze Desalination Using Low Cost Refrigeration

Authors: Parul Sahu

Abstract:

In recent years, seawater desalination has been emerged as a potential resource to circumvent water scarcity, especially in coastal regions. Among the various methods, thermal evaporation or distillation and membrane operations like Reverse Osmosis (RO) has been exploited at commercial scale. However, the energy cost and maintenance expenses associated with these processes remain high. In this context Freeze Desalination (FD), subjected to the availability of low cost refrigeration, offers an exciting alternative. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) regasification terminals provide an opportunity to utilize the refrigeration available with regasification of LNG. This work presents the conceptualization and development of a process scheme integrating the ice and hydrate based FD to the LNG regasification process. This integration overcomes the high energy demand associated with FD processes by utilizing the refrigeration associated with LNG regasification. An optimal process scheme was obtained by performing process simulation using ASPEN PLUS simulator. The results indicated the new proposed process requires only 1 kWh/m³ of energy with the utilization of maximum refrigeration. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was also performed to study the effect of various process parameters on water recovery and energy consumption for the proposed process. The results show that the energy consumption decreases by 30% with an increase in water recovery from 30% to 60%. However, due to operational limitations associated with ice and hydrate handling in seawater, the water recovery cannot be maximized but optimized. The proposed process can be potentially used to desalinate seawater in integration with LNG regasification terminal.

Keywords: Refrigeration, Process Simulation, freeze desalination, liquefied natural gas regasification

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3 A Theoretical Analysis of Air Cooling System Using Thermal Ejector under Variable Generator Pressure

Authors: Mohamed Ouzzane, Mahmoud Bady

Abstract:

Due to energy and environment context, research is looking for the use of clean and energy efficient system in cooling industry. In this regard, the ejector represents one of the promising solutions. The thermal ejector is a passive component used for thermal compression in refrigeration and cooling systems, usually activated by heat either waste or solar. The present study introduces a theoretical analysis of the cooling system which uses a gas ejector thermal compression. A theoretical model is developed and applied for the design and simulation of the ejector, as well as the whole cooling system. Besides the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum, the gas dynamic equations, state equations, isentropic relations as well as some appropriate assumptions are applied to simulate the flow and mixing in the ejector. This model coupled with the equations of the other components (condenser, evaporator, pump, and generator) is used to analyze profiles of pressure and velocity (Mach number), as well as evaluation of the cycle cooling capacity. A FORTRAN program is developed to carry out the investigation. Properties of refrigerant R134a are calculated using real gas equations. Among many parameters, it is thought that the generator pressure is the cornerstone in the cycle, and hence considered as the key parameter in this investigation. Results show that the generator pressure has a great effect on the ejector and on the whole cooling system. At high generator pressures, strong shock waves inside the ejector are created, which lead to significant condenser pressure at the ejector exit. Additionally, at higher generator pressures, the designed system can deliver cooling capacity for high condensing pressure (hot season).

Keywords: Refrigeration, air cooling system, thermal ejector, thermal compression

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2 Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Air Distribution System of Larder Type Refrigerator

Authors: Funda Erdem Şahnali, Ş. Özgür Atayılmaz, Tolga N. Aynur

Abstract:

Almost all of the domestic refrigerators operate on the principle of the vapor compression refrigeration cycle and removal of heat from the refrigerator cabinets is done via one of the two methods: natural convection or forced convection. In this study, airflow and temperature distributions inside a 375L no-frost type larder cabinet, in which cooling is provided by forced convection, are evaluated both experimentally and numerically. Airflow rate, compressor capacity and temperature distribution in the cooling chamber are known to be some of the most important factors that affect the cooling performance and energy consumption of a refrigerator. The objective of this study is to evaluate the original temperature distribution in the larder cabinet, and investigate for better temperature distribution solutions throughout the refrigerator domain via system optimizations that could provide uniform temperature distribution. The flow visualization and airflow velocity measurements inside the original refrigerator are performed via Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV). In addition, airflow and temperature distributions are investigated numerically with Ansys Fluent. In order to study the heat transfer inside the aforementioned refrigerator, forced convection theories covering the following cases are applied: closed rectangular cavity representing heat transfer inside the refrigerating compartment. The cavity volume has been represented with finite volume elements and is solved computationally with appropriate momentum and energy equations (Navier-Stokes equations). The 3D model is analyzed as transient, with k-ε turbulence model and SIMPLE pressure-velocity coupling for turbulent flow situation. The results obtained with the 3D numerical simulations are in quite good agreement with the experimental airflow measurements using the SPIV technique. After Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of the baseline case, the effects of three parameters: compressor capacity, fan rotational speed and type of shelf (glass or wire) are studied on the energy consumption; pull down time, temperature distributions in the cabinet. For each case, energy consumption based on experimental results is calculated. After the analysis, the main effective parameters for temperature distribution inside a cabin and energy consumption based on CFD simulation are determined and simulation results are supplied for Design of Experiments (DOE) as input data for optimization. The best configuration with minimum energy consumption that provides minimum temperature difference between the shelves inside the cabinet is determined.

Keywords: Experimental, CFD, Energy Consumption, Refrigeration, Air Distribution, DOE, larder cabinet, uniform temperature

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1 Exergy Analysis of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System Using R507A, R134a, R114, R22 and R717

Authors: Ali Dinarveis

Abstract:

This paper compares the energy and exergy efficiency of a vapour compression refrigeration system using refrigerants of different groups. In this study, five different refrigerants including R507A, R134a, R114, R22 and R717 have been studied. EES Program is used to solve the thermodynamic equations. The results of this analysis are shown graphically. Based on the results, energy and exergy efficiencies for R717 are higher than the other refrigerants. Also, the energy and exergy efficiencies will be decreased with increasing the condensing temperature and decreasing the evaporating temperature.

Keywords: Energy, thermodynamic, Exergy, Refrigeration, vapour

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