Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

reflection Related Abstracts

19 Professional Development in EFL Classroom: Motivation and Reflection

Authors: Iman Jabbar

Abstract:

Within the scope of professionalism and in order to compete with the modern world, teachers, are expected to develop their teaching skills and activities in addition to their professional knowledge. At the college level, the teacher should be able to face classroom challenges through his engagement with the learning situation to understand the students and their needs. In our field of TESOL, the role of the English teacher is no longer restricted to teaching English texts, but rather he should endeavor to enhance the students’ skills such as communication and critical analysis. Within the literature of professionalism, there are certain strategies and tools that an English teacher should adopt to develop his competence and performance. Reflective practice, which is an exploratory process, is one of these strategies. Another strategy contributing to classroom development is motivation. It is crucial in students’ learning as it affects the quality of learning English in the classroom in addition to determining success or failure as well as language achievement. This is a qualitative study grounded on interpretive perspectives of teachers and students regarding the process of professional development. This study aims at (a) understanding how teachers at the college level conceptualize reflective practice and motivation inside EFL classroom, and (b) exploring the methods and strategies that they implement to practice reflection and motivation. This study and is based on two questions: 1. How do EFL teachers perceive and view reflection and motivation in relation to their teaching and professional development? 2. How can reflective practice and motivation be developed into practical strategies and actions in EFL teachers’ professional context? The study is organized into two parts, theoretical and practical. The theoretical part reviews the literature on the concept of reflective practice and motivation in relation to professional development through providing certain definitions, theoretical models, and strategies. The practical part draws on the theoretical one, however; it is the core of the study since it deals with two issues. It involves the research design, methodology, and methods of data collection, sampling, and data analysis. It ends up with an overall discussion of findings and the researcher's reflections on the investigated topic. In terms of significance, the study is intended to contribute to the field of TESOL at the academic level through the selection of the topic and investigating it from theoretical and practical perspectives. Professional development is the path that leads to enhancing the quality of teaching English as a foreign or second language in a way that suits the modern trends of globalization and advanced technology.

Keywords: Learning, Professional Development, Motivation, reflection

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18 Developing a Model of Teaching Writing Based On Reading Approach through Reflection Strategy for EFL Students of STKIP YPUP

Authors: Ardiansyah, Eny Syatriana

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The purpose of recent study was to develop a learning model on writing, based on the reading texts which will be read by the students using reflection strategy. The strategy would allow the students to read the text and then they would write back the main idea and to develop the text by using their own sentences. So, the writing practice was begun by reading an interesting text, then the students would develop the text which has been read into their writing. The problem questions are (1) what kind of learning model that can develop the students writing ability? (2) what is the achievement of the students of STKIP YPUP through reflection strategy? (3) is the using of the strategy effective to develop students competence In writing? (4) in what level are the students interest toward the using of a strategy In writing subject? This development research consisted of some steps, they are (1) need analysis (2) model design (3) implementation (4) model evaluation. The need analysis was applied through discussion among the writing lecturers to create a learning model for writing subject. To see the effectiveness of the model, an experiment would be delivered for one class. The instrument and learning material would be validated by the experts. In every steps of material development, there was a learning process, where would be validated by an expert. The research used development design. These Principles and procedures or research design and development .This study, researcher would do need analysis, creating prototype, content validation, and limited empiric experiment to the sample. In each steps, there should be an assessment and revision to the drafts before continue to the next steps. The second year, the prototype would be tested empirically to four classes in STKIP YPUP for English department. Implementing the test greatly was done through the action research and followed by evaluation and validation from the experts.

Keywords: Development, Strategy, Reading, Writing, learning model, reflection

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17 Steps towards Changing Students' Attitudes to Disability

Authors: Farzaneh Yazdani, Nastaran Yazdani, Laya Nobakht

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The aim of this study was to explore the changes that may happen in students attitudes regarding disability after attending the module ‘Disability: theories, nature and experiences’ designed around reflective self-awareness exercises. Literature indicates enhanced knowledge does not automatically lead to changes in attitude. Health care professionals are the most significant people to instil hope in their clients to pursue a happy life. As an advocate for people with disability, health care professionals need to believe themselves in people with disability being able to pursue a happy life as an abled body does. Researchers aimed to explore the impact of the ‘Disability’ module using discussion and reflective exercises, on students’ way of thinking and possible changes in attitude towards disability. Students were asked to write stories from the beginning and after completing the module. A thematic analysis was applied to identify the students’ way of communicating their thoughts and feelings about disable-bodied /disability before and after the module. Three major themes were identified to represent the differences before and after attending the module as: problem /solution oriented approach towards perceived problems, separating/ integrating disable/able-bodied, passive/ active role of disable-bodied and society.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, thematic analysis, qualitative study, reflection

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16 Learning through Reflective Practice of Nursing Students in the Delivery Room: A Qualitative Research

Authors: Sumitta Sawangtook, Peeranan Wisanskoonwong

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Practicum in Midwifery II is the subject that affects most students to be stressed and anxious because they lack of experiences and self-confidence in delivery baby. This study is a qualitative research. That research objectives were (1) to study learning through reflective practice of nursing students (2) to explain the effects of learning through reflective practice of nursing students in the delivery room. The selected key informant method was criterion-based selection. Thirty-two of fourth-year nursing students in Kuakarun Faculty of nursing who practiced in Delivery room at Taksin Hospital in academic year 2014 were selected. Data collection was data triangulation which consisted of in-depth interview, group discussion and reading students’ reflective practice journal. The research instruments were students’ reflective practice journal, semi-structured questionnaires for in-depth interview, group discussion. Data analysis was thematic analysis. The research result found that: The learning method through reflective practice of nursing students in the delivery room were (1) reflective practice journal (2) dialogue (3) critical thinking and problem solving (4) incident analysis (5) self-criticism (6) observation and evaluation of practice. There were eight issues that students learned through their reflective practice were that (1) students' ethics and morality. (2) students' knowledge and comprehension (3) creative thinking of students (4) communications and collaboration (5) experiential learning of students (6) students’memories and impressions (7) students’experience in delivery baby (8) self-learning of students. Learning through reflective practice supported students’ awareness in improving knowledge and learning continuously and systematically. It helped to adjust the attitude to learning and leadership to be careful which help develop their skills, including critical thinking and understand themselves and understand others. Recommendation for applying research results: midwifery and nursing lecturers can apply these results to be a guide for development their clinical teaching in delivery rooms and other wards.

Keywords: Learning, Qualitative Research, birth, reflection

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15 Effect of Problem Based Learning (PBL) Activities to Thai Undergraduate Student Teachers Attitude and Their Achievement

Authors: Thanawit Tongmai, Chatchawan Saewor

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Learning management is very important for students’ development. To promote students’ potential, the teacher should design appropriate learning activity that brings their students potential out. Problem based learning has been using worldwide and it has presented numerous of success. This research aims to study third year students’ attitude and their achievement in scientific research course. To find the results, mix method was used to design research conduction. The researcher used PBL and reflection activity in the class. The students had to choose a topic, reviewed information, designed experimental, wrote academic report and presented their research by themselves. The researcher was only a facilitator. Reflection activity was used to progressing and consulting their research. The data was collected along with research conduction by questionnaire and test, including attitude, opinion and their achievement. The result of this study showed that 74.71% from all of students (n = 87) benefited from PBL and reflection activity, while 25.19% were just satisfied. 100% of students had a positive reflection toward PBL activity and they believed that PBL was the best pedagogy method for scientific research course. The achievements of these students were higher than the previous study (P < 0.05). The student’s learning achievement, A, B+ and B, was 48.28, 28.74 and 22.98% respectively. Therefore, it can conclude that PBL activity is appropriate for scientific research course and it can also promote student’s achievement.

Keywords: Learning, attitude, achievement, PBL, reflection

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14 Autonomy not Automation: Using Metacognitive Skills in ESL/EFL Classes

Authors: Marina Paula Carreira Rolim

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In order to have ELLs take responsibility for their own learning, it is important that they develop skills to work their studies strategically. The less they rely on the instructor as the content provider, the more they become active learners and have a higher sense of self-regulation and confidence in the learning process. This e-poster proposes a new teacher-student relationship that encourages learners to reflect, think critically, and act upon their realities. It also suggests the implementation of different autonomy-supportive teaching tools, such as portfolios, written journals, problem-solving activities, and strategy-based discussions in class. These teaching tools enable ELLs to develop awareness of learning strategies, learning styles, study plans, and available learning resources as means to foster their creative power of learning outside of classroom. In the role of a learning advisor, the teacher is no longer the content provider but a facilitator that introduces skills such as ‘elaborating’, ‘planning’, ‘monitoring’, and ‘evaluating’. The teacher acts as an educator and promotes the use of lifelong metacognitive skills to develop learner autonomy in the ESL/EFL context.

Keywords: learning strategies, Autonomy, Self-regulation, reflection, metacognitive skills

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13 Assessment of E-Portfolio on Teacher Reflections on English Language Education

Authors: Hsiaoping Wu

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With the wide use of Internet, learners are exposed to the wider world. This exposure permits learners to discover new information and combine a variety of media in order to reach in-depth and broader understanding of their literacy and the world. Many paper-based teaching, learning and assessment modalities can be transferred to a digital platform. This study examines the use of e-portfolios for ESL (English as a second language) pre-service teacher. The data were collected by reviewing 100 E-portfolio from 2013 to 2015 in order to synthesize meaningful information about e-portfolios for ESL pre-service teachers. Participants were generalists, bilingual and ESL pre-service teachers. The studies were coded into two main categories: learning gains, including assessment, and technical skills. The findings showed that using e-portfolios enhanced and developed ESL pre-service teachers’ teaching and assessment skills. Also, the E-portfolio also developed the pre-service teachers’ technical stills to prepare a comprehensible portfolio to present who they are. Finally, the study and presentation suggested e-portfolios for ecological issues and educational purposes.

Keywords: Assessment, reflection, pre-service teacher, e-portfolio

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12 A Reflection on the Professional Development Journey of Science Educators

Authors: M. Shaheed Hartley

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Science and mathematics are regarded as gateway subjects in South Africa as they are the perceived route to careers in science, engineering, technology and mathematics (STEM). One of the biggest challenges that the country faces is the poor achievement of learners in these two learning areas in the external high school exit examination. To compound the problem many national and international benchmark tests paint a bleak picture of the state of science and mathematics in the country. In an attempt to address this challenge, the education department of the Eastern Cape Province invited the Science Learning Centre of the University of the Western Cape to provide training to their science teachers in the form of a structured course conducted on a part-time basis in 2010 and 2011. The course was directed at improving teachers’ content knowledge, pedagogical strategies and practical and experimental skills. A total of 41 of the original 50 science teachers completed the course and received their certificates in 2012. As part of their continuous professional development, 31 science teachers enrolled for BEd Hons in science education in 2013 and 28 of them completed the course in 2014. These students graduated in 2015. Of the 28 BEd Hons students who completed the course 23 registered in 2015 for Masters in Science Education and were joined by an additional 3 students. This paper provides a reflection by science educators on the training, supervision and mentorship provided to them as students of science education. The growth and development of students through their own reflection and understanding as well as through the eyes of the lecturers and supervisors that took part in the training provide the evaluation of the professional development process over the past few years. This study attempts to identify the merits, challenges and limitations of this project and the lessons to be learnt on such projects. It also documents some of the useful performance indicators with a view to developing a framework for good practice for such programmes.

Keywords: Science Education, Professional Development, reflection, rural schools

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11 Engaging Teacher Inquiry via New Media in Traditional and E-Learning Environments

Authors: Daniel A. Walzer

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As the options for course delivery and development expand, plenty of misconceptions still exist concerning e-learning and online course delivery. Classroom instructors often discuss pedagogy, methodologies, and best practices regarding teaching from a singular, traditional in-class perspective. As more professors integrate online, blended, and hybrid courses into their dossier, a clearly defined rubric for gauging online course delivery is essential. The transition from a traditional learning structure towards an updated distance-based format requires careful planning, evaluation, and revision. This paper examines how new media stimulates reflective practice and guided inquiry to improve pedagogy, engage interdisciplinary collaboration, and supply rich qualitative data for future research projects in media arts disciplines.

Keywords: New Media, action research, reflection, inquiry

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10 An Attempt to Get Communication Design Students to Reflect: A Content Analysis of Students’ Learning Journals

Authors: C. K. Peter Chuah

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Essentially, the intention of reflective journal is meant for students to develop higher-order thinking skills and to provide a 'space' to make their learning experience and thinking, making and feeling visible, i.e., it provides students an opportunity to evaluate their learning critically by focusing on the rationale behind their thinking, making and feeling. In addition, reflective journal also gets the students to focus on how could things be done differently—the possibility, alternative point of views, and opportunities for change. It is hoped that by getting communication design students to reflect at various intervals, they could move away from mere working on the design project and pay more attention to what they thought they have learned in relation to the development of their design ability. Unfortunately, a closer examination—through content analysis—of the learning journals submitted by a group of design students revealed that most of the reflections were descriptive and tended to be a summary of what occurred in the learning experience. While many students were able to describe what they did, very few were able to explain how they were able to do something critically. It can be concluded that to get design students to reflect is a fairly easy task, but to get them to reflect critically could be very challenging. To ensure that design students could benefit from the use of reflective journal as a tool to develop their critical thinking skills, a more systematic and structured approach to the introduction of critical thinking and reflective journal should be built into the design curriculum to provide as much practice and sufficient feedback as other studio subjects.

Keywords: Critical thinking, reflection, communication design education, reflective journal

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9 Pali-Sanskrit Terms and Their Uses in Reflecting Political Society of Thailand

Authors: Kowit Pimpuang

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Through analysis of the Pali-Sanskrit (PL-SKT) terms and their uses in reflecting political society of Thailand, the objectives of this study were to explore PL-SKT word formation and its semantic changes employed in the political society of Thailand and to explore the political reflection of Thai society through their uses. Conceptual framework of this study consists of (1) use of PL-SKT word formation namely, primary derivative (Kitaka), secondary derivative (Tathita), compound (Samasa) and prefix (Upasagga), (2) semantic changes namely; widening, narrowing and transferring of meaning, and (3) political reflection of Thai society. Qualitative method was employed in this study and data were collected from Thai Newspapers. It was found that there were uses of the four kinds of word formation in formatting the new political terms concerned namely, primary derivative, secondary derivative, compound and prefix leading by compound through the following three semantic changes; widening, narrowing and transferring, in order to make clear in understanding. Furthermore, PL-SKT terms were employed in reflecting Thai politics caused by democratic conflicts through the bureaucracy, plutocracy, businessocracy and juristocracy respectively. Later, there have been political business groups and their corruption problems in political society of Thailand.

Keywords: Politics, Thailand, reflection, Pali, Sanskrit

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8 Self-Awareness on Social Work Courses: A Study of Students Perceptions of Teaching Methods in an English University

Authors: Deborah Amas

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Global accreditation standards require Higher Education Institutions to ensure social work students develop self-awareness by reflecting on their personal values and critically evaluating how these influence their thinking for professional practice. The knowledge base indicates there are benefits and vulnerabilities for students when they self-reflect and more needs to be understood about the learning environments that nurture self-awareness. The connection between teaching methods and self-awareness is of interest in this paper which reports findings from an on-line survey with students on BA and MA qualifying social work programs in an English university (n=120). Students were asked about the importance of self-awareness and their experiences of teaching methods for self-reflection. Generally, students thought that self-awareness is of high importance in their education. Students also shared stories that illuminated deeper feelings about the potential risks associated with self-disclosure. The findings indicate that students appreciate safe opportunities for self-reflection, but can be wary of associated assessments or feeling judged. The research supports arguments to qualitatively improve facilitation of self-awareness through the curriculum.

Keywords: Social work Education, Self-Awareness, Self-Reflection, reflection

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7 Views of South African Academic Instructors to the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Anatomy Education

Authors: Lelika Lazarus, Reshma Sookrajh, Kapil S. Satyapal

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Reflecting on teaching is commonly cited as a fundamental practice for personal and professional development. Educational research into the scholarship of teaching and learning anatomy includes engaging in discipline specific literature on teaching, reflecting on individual teaching methods and communicating these findings to peers. The aim of this paper is to formally assess the opinions of senior anatomy instructors regarding the state of anatomical knowledge at their respective institutions. The context of the paper derives from ongoing debates about the perceived decline in standards of anatomical knowledge of medical students and postgraduate learners. An open ended questionnaire was devised consisting of eight direct questions seeking opinions on anatomy teaching, knowledge, and potential educational developments and general thoughts on the teaching of anatomy to medical students. These were distributed to senior anatomy Faculty (identified by the author by their affiliation with the Anatomical Society of Southern Africa) based at the eight national medical schools within the country. A number of key themes emerged. Most senior faculty felt that the standard of medical education at their respective institutions was ‘good.’. However, emphasis was also placed on the ‘quality of teaching’ incorporating clinical scenarios. There were also indications that staff are split into those that are keen to do research and those that are happy to provide teaching to medical students as their primary function. Several challenges were also highlighted such as time constraints within the medical curriculum, the lack of cadavers to reinforce knowledge and gain depth perception and lack of appropriately qualified staff. Recommendations included fostering partnerships with both clinicians and medical scientists into the anatomy curriculum thus improving teaching and research.

Keywords: Education, Teaching, Anatomy, reflection

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6 The Reflection on Pre-Service Teacher Training Program in Science Education

Authors: Sumalee Tientongdee

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The pre-service teacher training program at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bankgok Thailand has been provided for undergraduate students for more than 80 years. It was established as the first teacher college in the country. The pre-service teacher program in science education is considered as one of the new training programs to prepare pre-service teacher to teach science in secondary school level. The need of program assessment is strongly important. Therefore, this study was conducted to gain the opinions and recommendations from the principals, in-service teachers, and mentoring teachers from the partnership schools of Bangkok. The invited 120 participants for the annual meeting was hold in May 2017. The focus group discussion and questionnaires were used to collect the data during the reflection session. The content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. The results showed that the pre-service teacher training program in science education should improve students’ creative thinking skill, service mind, personality, and attitudes toward teaching science career. Also, the future science teachers must be able to teach in English to have more opportunities to teach science in Southeast Asian countries.

Keywords: Science Education, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, reflection, pre-service teacher training program

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5 Development of R³ UV Exposure for the UV Dose-Insensitive and Cost-Effective Fabrication of Biodegradable Polymer Microneedles

Authors: Sungmin Park, Gyungmok Nam, Seungpyo Woo, Young Choi, Sangheon Park, Sang-Hee Yoon

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Puncturing human skin with microneedles is critically important for microneedle-mediate drug delivery. Despite of extensive efforts in the past decades, the scale-up fabrication of sharp-tipped and high-aspect-ratio microneedles, especially made of biodegradable polymers, is still a long way off. Here, we present a UV dose insensitive and cost-effective microfabrication method for the biodegradable polymer microneedles with sharp tips and long lengths which can pierce human skin with low insertion force. The biodegradable polymer microneedles are fabricated with the polymer solution casting where a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA, 50:50) solution is coated onto a SU-8 mold prepared with a reverse, ramped, and rotational (R3) UV exposure. The R3 UV exposure is modified from the multidirectional UV exposure both to suppress UV reflection from the bottom surface without anti-reflection layers and to optimize solvent concentration in the SU-8 photoresist, therefore achieving robust (i.e., highly insensitive to UV dose) and cost-effective fabrication of biodegradable polymer microneedles. An optical model for describing the spatial distribution of UV irradiation dose of the R3 UV exposure is also developed to theoretically predict the microneedle geometry fabricated with the R3 UV exposure and also to demonstrate the insensitiveness of microneedle geometry to UV dose. In the experimental characterization, the microneedles fabricated with the R3 UV exposure are compared with those fabricated with a conventional method (i.e., multidirectional UV exposure). The R3 UV exposure-based microfabrication reduces the end-tip radius by a factor of 5.8 and the deviation from ideal aspect ratio by 74.8%, compared with conventional method-based microfabrication. The PLGA microneedles fabricated with the R3 UV exposure pierce full-thickness porcine skins successfully and are demonstrated to completely dissolve in PBS (phosphate-buffered saline). The findings of this study will lead to an explosive growth of the microneedle-mediated drug delivery market.

Keywords: optical model, reflection, R³ UV exposure, UV dose, solvent concentration, biodegradable polymer microneedle

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4 Utilizing Reflection as a Tool for Experiential Learning through a Simulated Activity

Authors: Nadira Zaidi

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The aim of this study is to gain direct feedback of interviewees in a simulated interview process. Reflection based on qualitative data analysis has been utilized through the Gibbs Reflective Cycle, with 30 students as respondents at the Undergraduate level. The respondents reflected on the positive and negative aspects of this active learning process in order to increase their performance in actual job interviews. Results indicate that students engaged in the process successfully imbibed the feedback that they received from the interviewers and also identified the areas that needed improvement.

Keywords: Experiential Learning, reflection, positive and negative impact, simulated

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3 Harnessing the Power of Feedback to Assist Progress: A Process-Based Approach of Providing Feedback to L2 Composition Students in the United Arab Emirates

Authors: Brad Curabba

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Utilising active, process-based learning methods to improve critical thinking and writing skills of second language (L2) writers brings unique challenges. To comprehensively satisfy different learners' needs, when commenting on student work, instructors can embed multiple feedback methods so that the capstone of their abilities as writers can be achieved. This research project assesses faculty and student perceptions regarding the effectiveness of various feedback practices used in process-based writing classrooms with L2 students at the American University of Sharjah (AUS). In addition, the research explores the challenges encountered by faculty during the provision of feedback practices. The quantitative research findings are based on two concurrent electronically distributed anonymous surveys; one aimed at students who have just completed a process-based writing course, and the other at instructors who delivered these courses. The student sample is drawn from multiple sections of Academic Writing I and II, and the faculty survey was distributed among the Department of Writing Studies (DWS) faculty. Our findings strongly suggest that all methods of feedback are deemed equally important by both students and faculty. Students, in particular, find process writing and its feedback practices to have greatly contributed to their writing proficiency.

Keywords: Composition, Feedback, process writing, reflection, formative feedback

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2 Dialogue Meetings as an Arena for Collaboration and Reflection among Researchers and Practitioners

Authors: Kerstin Grunden, Ann Svensson, Berit Forsman, Christina Karlsson, Ayman Obeid

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The research question of the article is to explore whether the method dialogue meetings could be relevant for reflective learning among researchers and practitioners when welfare technology should be implemented in municipalities, or not. A testbed was planned to be implemented in a retirement home in a Swedish municipality, and the practitioners worked with a pre-study of that testbed. In the article, the dialogue between the researchers and the practitioners in the dialogue meetings is described and analyzed. The potential of dialogue meetings as an arena for learning and reflection among researchers and practitioners is discussed. The research methodology approach is participatory action research with mixed methods (dialogue meetings, focus groups, participant observations). The main findings from the dialogue meetings were that the researchers learned more about the use of traditional research methods, and the practitioners learned more about how they could improve their use of the methods to facilitate change processes in their organization. These findings have the potential both for the researchers and the practitioners to result in more relevant use of research methods in change processes in organizations. It is concluded that dialogue meetings could be relevant for reflective learning among researchers and practitioners when welfare technology should be implemented in a health care organization.

Keywords: Implementation, Welfare Technology, reflection, participatory action research, dialogue meetings, test bed

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1 Nano-Texturing of Single Crystalline Silicon via Cu-Catalyzed Chemical Etching

Authors: W. Liu, S. Li, J. Yu, A. A. Abaker Omer, H. B. Mohamed Balh, A. Abas, W. Ma, W. El Kolaly, Y. Y. Ahmed Abuker

Abstract:

We have discovered an important technical solution that could make new approaches in the processing of wet silicon etching, especially in the production of photovoltaic cells. During its inferior light-trapping and structural properties, the inverted pyramid structure outperforms the conventional pyramid textures and black silicone. The traditional pyramid textures and black silicon can only be accomplished with more advanced lithography, laser processing, etc. Importantly, our data demonstrate the feasibility of an inverted pyramidal structure of silicon via one-step Cu-catalyzed chemical etching (CCCE) in Cu (NO3)2/HF/H2O2/H2O solutions. The effects of etching time and reaction temperature on surface geometry and light trapping were systematically investigated. The conclusion shows that the inverted pyramid structure has ultra-low reflectivity of ~4.2% in the wavelength of 300~1000 nm; introduce of Cu particles can significantly accelerate the dissolution of the silicon wafer. The etching and the inverted pyramid structure formation mechanism are discussed. Inverted pyramid structure with outstanding anti-reflectivity includes useful applications throughout the manufacture of semi-conductive industry-compatible solar cells, and can have significant impacts on industry colleagues and populations.

Keywords: Solar Cells, reflection, Cu-catalyzed chemical etching, inverted pyramid nanostructured

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