Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

reduced graphene oxide Related Abstracts

11 Epitaxial Growth of Crystalline Polyaniline on Reduced Graphene Oxide

Authors: D. Majumdar, M. Baskey, S. K. Saha


Graphene has already been identified as a promising material for future carbon based electronics. To develop graphene technology, the fabrication of a high quality P-N junction is a great challenge. In the present work, we have described a simple and general technique to grow single crystalline polyaniline (PANI) films on graphene sheets using in situ polymerization via the oxidation-reduction of aniline monomer and graphene oxide, respectively, to fabricate a high quality P-N junction, which shows diode-like behavior with a remarkably low turn-on voltage (60 mV) and high rectification ratio (1880:1) up to a voltage of 0.2 Volt. The origin of these superior electronic properties is the preferential growth of a highly crystalline PANI film as well as lattice matching between the d-values [~2.48 Å] of graphene and {120} planes of PANI.

Keywords: Epitaxial Growth, PANI, reduced graphene oxide, rectification ratio

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10 Flexible Polyaniline-Based Composite Films for High-Performance Super Capacitors

Authors: A. Khosrozadeh, M. A. Darabi, M. Xing, Q. Wang


Fabrication of a high-performance supercapacitor (SC) using a flexible cellulose-based composite film of polyaniline (PANI), reduced graphene oxide (RGO), and silver nanowires (AgNWs) is reported. The flexibility, high capacitive behaviour, and cyclic stability of the entire device make it a good candidate for wearable SCs. The results show that a capacitance as high as 73.4 F/g (1.6 F/cm2) at a discharge rate of 1.1 A/g is achieved by the device. In addition, the SC demonstrates a power density up to 468.8 W/kg and an energy density up to 5.1 wh/kg. The flexibility of the composite film is attributed to the binding effect of cellulose fibers as well as reinforcing effect of AgNWs. The excellent electrochemical performance of the device is found to be owing to the synergistic effect between PANI/RGO/AgNWs ternary in a cushiony cellulose matrix and porous structure of the composite.

Keywords: Silver, Cellulose, polyaniline, super capacitor, reduced graphene oxide

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9 Nitrite Sensor Platform Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide with Thionine Dye Based

Authors: Nurulasma Zainudin, Mashitah Mohd Yusoff, Kwok Feng Chong


Functionalized reduced graphene oxide is essential importance for their end applications. Chemical functionalization of reduced graphene oxide with strange atoms is a leading strategy to modify the properties of the materials moreover maintains the inherent properties of reduced graphene oxide. A thionine functionalized reduce graphene oxide electrode was fabricated and was used to electrochemically determine nitrite. The electrochemical behaviour of thionine functionalized reduced graphene oxide towards oxidation of nitrite via cyclic voltammetry was studied and the proposed method exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic behaviour.

Keywords: Sensor, nitrite, thionine, reduced graphene oxide

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8 Electromagnetic Interface Shielding of Graphene Oxide–Carbon Nanotube Hybrid ABS Composites

Authors: Jeevan Jyoti, Bhanu Pratap Singh, S. R. Dhakate


In the present study, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition and Improved Hummer’s method, respectively and their composite with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) were prepared by twin screw co rotating extrusion technique. The electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness of graphene oxide carbon nanotube (GCNTs) hybrid composites was investigated and the results were compared with EMI shielding of carbon nanotube (CNTs) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) in the frequency range of 12.4-18 GHz (Ku-band). The experimental results indicate that the EMI shielding effectiveness of these composites is achieved up to –21 dB for 10 wt. % loading of GCNT loading. The mechanism of improvement in EMI shielding effectiveness is discussed by resolving their contribution in absorption and reflection loss. The main reason for such a high improved shielding effectiveness has been attributed to the significant improvement in the electrical conductivity of the composites. The electrical conductivity of these GCNT/ABS composites was increased from 10-13 S/cm to 10-7 S/cm showing the improvement of the 6 order of the magnitude. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) studies showed that the GCNTs were uniformly dispersed in the ABS polymer matrix. GCNTs form a network throughout the polymer matrix and promote the reinforcement.

Keywords: Graphene, Electrical Conductivity, reduced graphene oxide, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, ABS, EMI shielding, oxide-carbon nanotube (GCNTs), twin screw extruder, multiwall carbon nanotube

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7 Comparison Methyl Orange and Malachite Green Dyes Removal by GO, rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH as Adsorbents

Authors: Omid Moradi, Mostafa Rajabi


Graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), multi-walled carbon nanotubes MWCNT), multi-walled carbon nanotube functionalized carboxyl (MWCNT-COOH), and multi-walled carbon nanotube functionalized thiol (MWCNT-SH) were used as efficient adsorbents for the rapid removal two dyes methyl orange (MO) and malachite green (MG) from the aqueous phase. The impact of several influential parameters such as initial dye concentrations, contact time, temperature, and initial solution pH was well studied and optimized. The optimize time for adsorption process of methyl orange dye on GO, rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were determined at 100, 100, 60, 25, and 60 min, respectively and The optimize time for adsorption process of malachite green dye on GO, rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were determined at 100, 100, 60, 15, and 60 min, respectively. The maximum removal efficiency for methyl orange dye by GO, rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were occurred at optimized pH 3, 3, 6, 2, and 6 of aqueous solutions, respectively and for malachite green dye were occurred at optimized pH 3, 3, 6, 9, and 6 of aqueous solutions, respectively. The effect of temperature showed that adsorption process of malachite green dye on GO, rGO, MWCNT, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were endothermic and for adsorption process of methyl orange dye on GO, rGO, MWCNT, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were endothermic but while adsorption of methyl orange and malachite green dyes on MWCNT-COOH surface were exothermic.On increasing the initial concentration of methyl orange dye adsorption capacity on GO surface was decreased and on rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were increased and with increasing the initial concentration of malachite green dye on GO, rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were increased.

Keywords: Adsorption, Graphene Oxide, removal, methyl orange, reduced graphene oxide, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, malachite green

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6 Investigation on Morphologies, Forming Mechanism, Photocatalytic and Electronic Properties of Co-Zn Ferrite Nanostructure Grown on the Reduced Graphene Oxide Support

Authors: Qinglei Liu, Ali Charkhesht, Tiva Sharifi, Ashkan Bahadoran


Graphene sheets are promising nanoscale building blocks as a support material for the dispersion of nanoparticles. In this work, a solvothermal method employed to directly grow Co1-xZnxFe2O4 ferrite nanospheres on graphene oxide support that is subsequently reduced to graphene. The samples morphology, structure and crystallography were investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The influences of the Zn2+ content on photocatalytic activity, electrical conductivity and magnetic property of the samples are also investigated. The results showed that Co1-x Znx Fe2 O4 nanoparticles are dispersed on graphene sheets and obtained nanocomposites are soft magnetic materials. In addition the samples showed excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation.

Keywords: Photocatalytic Activity, ferrite, reduced graphene oxide, magnetic nanocomposite, solvothermal method

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5 Enhanced Performance of an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Employing Graphene Modified Carbon Paper Electrodes

Authors: Barun Chakrabarti, Dan Nir, Vladimir Yufit, P. V. Aravind, Nigel Brandon


Fuel cell grade gas-diffusion layer carbon paper (CP) electrodes are subjected to electrophoresis in N,N’-dimethylformamide (DMF) consisting of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The rGO modified electrodes are compared with CP in a single asymmetric all-vanadium redox battery system (employing a double serpentine flow channel for each half-cell). Peak power densities improved by 4% when the rGO deposits were facing the ion-exchange membrane (cell performance was poorer when the rGO was facing the flow field). Cycling of the cells showed least degradation of the CP electrodes that were coated with rGO in comparison to pristine samples.

Keywords: reduced graphene oxide, electrophoretic deposition, all-vanadium redox flow batteries, carbon paper electrodes

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4 Infra Red Laser Induced Ablation of Graphene Based Polymer Nanocomposites

Authors: Jadranka Blazhevska Gilev


IR laser-induced ablation of poly(butylacrylate-methylmethacrylate/hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate)/reduced graphene oxide (p(BA/MMA/HEMA)/rGO) was examined with 0.5, 0.75 and 1 wt% reduced graphene oxide content in relation to polymer. The irradiation was performed with TEA (transversely excited atmosphere) CO₂ laser using incident fluence of 15-20 J/cm², repetition frequency of 1 Hz, in an evacuated (10-3 Pa) Pyrex spherical vessel. Thin deposited nanocomposites films with large specific area were obtained using different substrates. The properties of the films deposited on these substrates were evaluated by TGA, FTIR, (Thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier Transformation Infrared) Raman spectroscopy and SEM microscopy. Homogeneous distribution of graphene sheets was observed from the SEM images, making polymer/rGO deposit an ideal candidate for SERS application. SERS measurements were performed using Rhodamine 6G as probe molecule on the substrate Ag/p(BA/MMA/HEMA)/rGO.

Keywords: Laser Ablation, reduced graphene oxide, polymer/rGO nanocomposites, thin deposited film

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3 Influence of Deposition Temperature on Supercapacitive Properties of Reduced Graphene Oxide on Carbon Cloth: New Generation of Wearable Energy Storage Electrode Material

Authors: Snehal L. Kadam, Shriniwas B. Kulkarni


Flexible electrode material with high surface area and good electrochemical properties is the current trend captivating the researchers across globe for application in the next generation energy storage field. In the present work, crumpled sheet like reduced graphene oxide grown on carbon cloth by the hydrothermal method with a series of different deposition temperatures at fixed time. The influence of the deposition temperature on the structural, morphological, optical and supercapacitive properties of the electrode material was investigated by XRD, RAMAN, XPS, TEM, FE-SEM, UV-VISIBLE and electrochemical characterization techniques.The results show that the hydrothermally synthesized reduced graphene oxide on carbon cloth has sheet like mesoporous structure. The reduced graphene oxide material at 160°C exhibits the best supercapacitor performance, with a specific capacitance of 443 F/g at scan rate 5mV/sec. Moreover, stability studies show 97% capacitance retention over 1000 CV cycles. This result shows that hydrothermally synthesized RGO on carbon cloth is the potential electrode material and would be used in the next-generation wearable energy storage systems. The detailed analysis and results will be presented at the conference.

Keywords: Graphene Oxide, supercapacitor, reduced graphene oxide, carbon cloth, deposition temperature

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2 Co₂Fe LDH on Aromatic Acid Functionalized N Doped Graphene: Hybrid Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Evolution Reaction

Authors: Biswaranjan D. Mohapatra, Ipsha Hota, Swarna P. Mantry, Nibedita Behera, Kumar S. K. Varadwaj


Designing highly active and low-cost oxygen evolution (2H₂O → 4H⁺ + 4e⁻ + O₂) electrocatalyst is one of the most active areas of advanced energy research. Some precious metal-based electrocatalysts, such as IrO₂ and RuO₂, have shown excellent performance for oxygen evolution reaction (OER); however, they suffer from high-cost and low abundance which limits their applications. Recently, layered double hydroxides (LDHs), composed of layers of divalent and trivalent transition metal cations coordinated to hydroxide anions, have gathered attention as an alternative OER catalyst. However, LDHs are insulators and coupled with carbon materials for the electrocatalytic applications. Graphene covalently doped with nitrogen has been demonstrated to be an excellent electrocatalyst for energy conversion technologies such as; oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), oxygen evolution reaction (OER) & hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, they operate at high overpotentials, significantly above the thermodynamic standard potentials. Recently, we reported remarkably enhanced catalytic activity of benzoate or 1-pyrenebutyrate functionalized N-doped graphene towards the ORR in alkaline medium. The molecular and heteroatom co-doping on graphene is expected to tune the electronic structure of graphene. Therefore, an innovative catalyst architecture, in which LDHs are anchored on aromatic acid functionalized ‘N’ doped graphene may presumably boost the OER activity to a new benchmark. Herein, we report fabrication of Co₂Fe-LDH on aromatic acid (AA) functionalized ‘N’ doped reduced graphene oxide (NG) and studied their OER activities in alkaline medium. In the first step, a novel polyol method is applied for synthesis of AA functionalized NG, which is well dispersed in aqueous medium. In the second step, Co₂Fe LDH were grown on AA functionalized NG by co-precipitation method. The hybrid samples are abbreviated as Co₂Fe LDH/AA-NG, where AA is either Benzoic acid or 1, 3-Benzene dicarboxylic acid (BDA) or 1, 3, 5 Benzene tricarboxylic acid (BTA). The crystal structure and morphology of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). These studies confirmed the growth of layered single phase LDH. The electrocatalytic OER activity of these hybrid materials was investigated by rotating disc electrode (RDE) technique on a glassy carbon electrode. The linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) on these catalyst samples were taken at 1600rpm. We observed significant OER performance enhancement in terms of onset potential and current density on Co₂Fe LDH/BTA-NG hybrid, indicating the synergic effect. This exploration of molecular functionalization effect in doped graphene and LDH system may provide an excellent platform for innovative design of OER catalysts.

Keywords: layered double hydroxide, reduced graphene oxide, π-π functionalization, oxygen evolution reaction

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1 Construction and Performance of Nanocomposite-Based Electrochemical Biosensor

Authors: Jianfang Wang, Xianzhe Chen, Zhuoliang Liu, Cheng-An Tao, Yujiao Li


Organophosphorus (OPs) pesticide used as insecticides are widely used in agricultural pest control, household and storage deworming. The detection of pesticides needs more simple and efficient methods. One of the best ways is to make electrochemical biosensors. In this paper, an electrochemical enzyme biosensor based on acetylcholine esterase (AChE) was constructed, and its sensing properties and sensing mechanisms were studied. Reduced graphene oxide-polydopamine complexes (RGO-PDA), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared firstly and composited with AChE and chitosan (CS), then fixed on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface to construct the biosensor GCE/RGO-PDA-AuNPs-AgNPs-AChE-CS by one-pot method. The results show that graphene oxide (GO) can be reduced by dopamine (DA) and dispersed well in RGO-PDA complexes. And the composites have a synergistic catalysis effect and can improve the surface resistance of GCE. The biosensor selectively can detect acetylcholine (ACh) and OPs pesticide with good linear range and high sensitivity. The performance of the biosensor is affected by the ratio and adding ways of AChE and the adding of AuNPs and AChE. And the biosensor can achieve a detection limit of 2.4 ng/L for methyl parathion and a wide linear detection range of 0.02 ng/L ~ 80 ng/L, and has excellent stability, good anti-interference ability, and excellent preservation performance, indicating that the sensor has practical value.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, reduced graphene oxide, organophosphates, electrochemical biosensor, acetylcholine esterase

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