Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Red Sea Related Abstracts

13 Benthic Foraminiferal Responses to Coastal Pollution for Some Selected Sites along Red Sea, Egypt

Authors: Ramadan M. El-Kahawy, M. A. El-Shafeiy, Mohamed Abd El-Wahab, S. A. Helal, Nabil Aboul-Ela

Abstract:

Due to the economic importance of Safaga Bay, Quseir harbor and Ras Gharib harbor , a multidisciplinary approach was adopted to invistigate 27 surfecial sediment samples from the three sites and 9 samples for each in order to use the benthic foraminifera as bio-indicators for characterization of the environmental variations. Grain size analyses indicate that the bottom facies in the inner part of quseir is muddy while the inner part of Ras Gharib and Safaga is silty sand and those close to the entrance of Safaga bay and Ras Gharib is sandy facies while quseir still also muddy facies. geochemical data show high concentration of heavy-metals mainly in Ras Gharib due to oil leakage from the hydrocarbon oil field and Safaga bay due to the phosphate mining while quseir is medium concentration due to anthropocentric effect.micropaelontological analyses indicate the boundaries of the highest concentration of heavy metals and those of low concentration as well.the dominant benthic foraminifera in these three sites are Ammonia beccarii, Amphistigina and sorites. the study highlights the worsening of environmental conditions and also show that the areas in need of a priority recovery.

Keywords: Egypt, benthic foraminifera, Ras Gharib, Safaga, Quseir, Red Sea

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12 Integrated Electric Resistivity Tomography and Magnetic Techniques in a Mineralization Zone, Erkowit, Red Sea State, Sudan

Authors: Khalid M. Kheiralla, Georgios Boutsis, Mohammed Y. Abdelgalil, Mohammed A. Ali, Nuha E. Mohamed

Abstract:

The present study focus on integrated geoelectrical surveys carried out in the mineralization zone in Erkowit region, Eastern Sudan to determine the extensions of the potential ore deposits on the topographically high hilly area and under the cover of alluvium along the nearby wadi and to locate other occurrences if any. The magnetic method (MAG) and the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) were employed for the survey. Eleven traverses were aligned approximately at right angles to the general strike of the rock formations. The disseminated sulfides are located on the alteration shear zone which is composed of granitic and dioritic highly ferruginated rock occupying the southwestern and central parts of the area, this was confirmed using thin and polished sections mineralogical analysis. The magnetic data indicates low magnetic values for wadi sedimentary deposits in its southern part of the area, and high anomalies which are suspected as gossans due to magnetite formed during wall rock alteration consequent to mineralization. The significant ERT images define low resistivity zone as traced as sheared zones which may associated with the main loci of ore deposition. By itself, no geophysical anomaly can simply be correlated with lithology, instead, magnetic and ERT anomalies raised due to variations in some specific physical properties of rocks which were extremely useful in mineral exploration.

Keywords: Magnetic, Mineralization, ERT, sudan, Red Sea

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11 Fatty Acids in Female's Gonads of the Red Sea Fish Rhabdosargus Sarba During the Spawning Season

Authors: Suhaila Qari, Samia Moharram, Safaa Alowaidi

Abstract:

Objectives: To determine the fatty acids profiles in female fish, R. sarba from the Red Sea during the spawning season. Methods: Monthly individual Rhabdosargus sarba were obtained from Bangalah market in Jeddah, Red Sea and transported to the laboratory in ice aquarium. The total length, standard length and weight were measured, fishes were dissected. Ovaries were removed, weighed and 10 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid were added to 10g of the ovary in a conical flask and immersed in boiling water until the sample was dissolved and the fat was seen to collect on the surface. The conical was cooled and the fat was extracted by shaking with 30 ml of diethyl ether. The extract was bowled after allowing the layers to separate into a weighed flask. The extraction was repeated three times more and distilled off the solvent then the fat dried at 100oC, cooled and weighed. Then 50 mg of lipid was put in a tube, 5 ml of methanolic sulphuric acid was added and 2 ml of benzene, the tube well closed and placed in water bath at 90oC for an hour and half. After cooling, 8 ml water and 5 ml petroleum was added shacked strongly and the ethereal layer was separated in a dry tube, evaporated to dryness. The fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed using a Hewlett Packard (HP 6890) chromatography, asplit /splitless injector and flame ionization detector (FID). Results: In female Rhabdosargus sarba, a total of 29 fatty acids detected in ovaries throughout the spawning season. The main fatty acid group in total lipid was saturated fatty acid (SFA, 28.9%), followed by 23.5% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and 12.9% of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). The dominant SFA were palmitic and stearic, the major MUFA were palmitoleic and oleic, and the major PUFA were C18:2 and C22:2. During spawning stages no significant differences in total SFA, MUFA and PUFA, the highest value of SFA was in late spawning (36.78%). However, the highest value of MUFA and PUFA was in spawning (16.70% and 24.96% respectively). During spawning season there were a significant differences in total SFA between March (late spawning stage) and December (nearly ripe stage), (P < 0.05).

Keywords: Fish, Fatty Acids, Red Sea, sparidae, Rhabdosargus sarba, spawning, gonads

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10 Integrated ERT and Magnetic Surveys in a Mineralization Zone in Erkowit, Red Sea State, Sudan

Authors: N. E. Mohamed, K. M. Kheiralla, M. A. Ali, M. Y. Abdelgalil, G. Boutsis

Abstract:

The present study focus on integrated geophysical surveys carried out in the mineralization zone in Erkowit region, Eastern Sudan to determine the extensions of the potential ore deposits on the topographically high hilly area and under the cover of alluvium along the nearby wadi and to locate other occurrences if any. The magnetic method (MAG) and the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) were employed for the survey. Eleven traverses were aligned approximately at right angles to the general strike of the rock formations. The disseminated sulfides are located on the alteration shear zone which is composed of granitic and dioritic highly ferruginated rock occupying the southwestern and central parts of the area, this was confirmed using thin and polished sections mineralogical analysis. The magnetic data indicates low magnetic values for wadi sedimentary deposits in its southern part of the area, and high anomalies which are suspected as gossans due to magnetite formed during wall rock alteration consequent to mineralization. The significant ERT images define low resistivity zone as traced as sheared zones which may associated with the main loci of ore deposition. The study designates that correlation of magnetic and ERT anomalies with lithology are extremely useful in mineral exploration due to variations in some specific physical properties of rocks.

Keywords: Magnetic, Mineralization, ERT, sudan, Red Sea

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9 Metazoan Meiofauna and Their Abundance in Relation to Environmental Variables in the Northern Red Sea

Authors: Hamed A. El-Serehy, Khaled A. Al-Rasheid, Fahad A. Al-Misned

Abstract:

The composition and distribution of the benthic meiofauna assemblages of the Egyptian coasts along the Red Sea are described in relation to abiotic variables. Sediment samples were collected seasonally from twelve stations chosen along the northern part of the Red Sea to observe the meiofaunal community structure, its temporal distribution and horizontal fluctuation in relation to environmental conditions of the Red Sea marine ecosystem. The meiofaunal assemblage in the area of study was well diversified including 140 taxa. The temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, and redox potential were measured at the time of collection. The water content of the sediments, total organic matters and chlorophyll a values were determined, and sediment samples were subjected to granulometric analysis. A total of 10 meiofauna taxa were identified, with the meiofauna being primarily represented by nematodes (on annual average from 42% to 84%), harpacticoids, polycheates and ostracodes; and the meiofauna abundances ranging from 41- to 167 ind. / 10 cm2. The meiofaunal population density fluctuated seasonally with a peak of 192.52 ind. / 10 cm2 during summer at station II. The vertical zonation in the distribution of meiofaunal community was significantly correlated with interstitial water, chlorophyll a and total organic matter values. The present study indicates that the existing of well diversified meiofaunal group which can serve as food for higher trophic levels in the Red Sea interstitial environment.

Keywords: Diversity, Red Sea, benthos, meiofauna

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8 Microbial and Meiofaunal Dynamics in the Intertidal Sediments of the Northern Red Sea

Authors: Hamed A. El-Serehy, Khaled A. Al-Rasheid, Fahad A Al-Misned

Abstract:

The meiofaunal population fluctuation, microbial dynamic and the composition of the sedimentary organic matter were investigated seasonally in the Egyptian shores along the northern part of Red Sea. Total meiofaunal population densities were extremely low with an annual average of 109 ±26 ind./10 cm2 and largely dominated by nematodes (on annual average from 52% to 94% of total meiofaunal density). The benthic microbial population densities ranged from 0.26±0.02 x 108 to 102.67±18.62 x 108/g dry sediment. Total sedimentary organic matter concentrations varied between 5.8 and 11.6 mg/g and the organic carbon, which was measured as summation of the carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, accounted for only a small fraction of being 32 % of the total organic matter. Chlorophyll a attained very low values and fluctuated between 2 and 11 µg/g. The very low chlorophyll a concentration in the Egyptian coasts along the Red Sea can suggest that the sedimentary organic matter along the Egyptian coasts is dominated by organic detrital and heterotrophic bacteria on one hand, and do not promote carbon transfer towards the higher trophic level on the other hand. However, the present study indicates that the existing of well diversified meiofaunal group, with a total of ten meiofaunal taxa, can serve as food for higher trophic levels in the Red Sea marine ecosystem.

Keywords: Bacteria, Red Sea, meiofauna, intertidal sediments

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7 Floristic Diversity, Composition and Environmental Correlates on the Arid, Coralline Islands of the Farasan Archipelago, Red SEA, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Khalid Al Mutairi, Mashhor Mansor, Magdy El-Bana, Asyraf Mansor, Saud AL-Rowaily

Abstract:

Urban expansion and the associated increase in anthropogenic pressures have led to a great loss of the Red Sea’s biodiversity. Floristic composition, diversity, and environmental controls were investigated for 210 relive's on twenty coral islands of Farasan in the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia. Multivariate statistical analyses for classification (Cluster Analysis), ordination (Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA), and Redundancy Analysis (RDA) were employed to identify vegetation types and their relevance to the underlying environmental gradients. A total of 191 flowering plants belonging to 53 families and 129 genera were recorded. Geophytes and chamaephytes were the main life forms in the saline habitats, whereas therophytes and hemicryptophytes dominated the sandy formations and coral rocks. The cluster analysis and DCA ordination identified twelve vegetation groups that linked to five main habitats with definite floristic composition and environmental characteristics. The constrained RDA with Monte Carlo permutation tests revealed that elevation and soil salinity were the main environmental factors explaining the vegetation distributions. These results indicate that the flora of the study archipelago represents a phytogeographical linkage between Africa and Saharo-Arabian landscape functional elements. These findings should guide conservation and management efforts to maintain species diversity, which is threatened by anthropogenic activities and invasion by the exotic invasive tree Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Conservation, classification, Red Sea, ordination

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6 The Emerging Multi-Species Trap Fishery in the Red Sea Waters of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Nabeel M. Alikunhi, Zenon B. Batang, Aymen Charef, Abdulaziz M. Al-Suwailem

Abstract:

Saudi Arabia has a long history of using traps as a traditional fishing gear for catching commercially important demersal, mainly coral reef-associated fish species. Fish traps constitute the dominant small-scale fisheries in Saudi waters of Arabian Gulf (eastern seaboard of Saudi Arabia). Recently, however, traps have been increasingly used along the Saudi Red Sea coast (western seaboard), with a coastline of 1800 km (71%) compared to only 720 km (29%) in the Saudi Gulf region. The production trend for traps indicates a recent increase in catches and percent contribution to traditional fishery landings, thus ascertaining the rapid proliferation of trap fishing along the Saudi Red Sea coast. Reef-associated fish species, mainly groupers (Serranidae), emperors (Lethrinidae), parrotfishes (Scaridae), scads and trevallies (Carangidae), and snappers (Lutjanidae), dominate the trap catches, reflecting the reef-dominated shelf zone in the Red Sea. This ongoing investigation covers following major objectives (i) Baseline studies to characterize trap fishery through landing site visit and interview surveys (ii) Stock assessment by fisheries and biological data obtained through monthly landing site monitoring using fishery operational model by FLBEIA, (iii) Operational impacts, derelict traps assessment and by-catch analysis through bottom-mounted video camera and onboard monitoring (iv) Elucidation of fishing grounds and derelict traps impacts by onboard monitoring, Remotely Operated underwater Vehicle and Autonomous Underwater Vehicle surveys; and (v) Analysis of gear design and operations which covers colonization and deterioration experiments. The progress of this investigation on the impacts of the trap fishery on fish stocks and the marine environment in the Saudi Red Sea region is presented.

Keywords: Environmental Impacts, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea, fish trap, stock assessment

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5 Enzymatic Biomonitoring of Aquatic Pollution at Jeddah Southern Red Sea Shore

Authors: Saleh Mohamed, Mohamed El-Shal, Taha Kumosani, Ahmad Mal, Youssri Ahmed, Yasser Almulaiky

Abstract:

The marine environment of the Jeddah southern red sea shore is subjected to increasing anthropogenic activities as sewage sludge draining and desalting processes. The objective of this study is to compare the quantitative responses of enzymatic biomarkers in fish from polluted area with the responses of organism from reference area. Enzymatic biomarkers as neurotoxic, antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes were evaluated in the brain and liver from Variola louti as a sentinel species sampled from both polluted and reference sites in the Jeddah southern red sea shore during four months January, April, July and October in 2014 and 2015. In brain of V. louti, the activity of acetylcholinestease (AChE) collected from reference area significantly increased 8.8 and 10.5 folds than that from polluted area in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) from liver of V. louti in polluted area significantly increased 1.4, 1.27 and 3, 4.5 and 4.37, 2 and 5, 4.5 folds than that from reference area in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The levels of examined enzymes are approximately similar in the four seasons detected in 2014 and 2015 indicating that the similar components of sewage were draining in red sea. In conclusion, these findings suggest the important of enzymatic biomarkers in monitoring the pollution in Jeddah red sea shore.

Keywords: Pollution, Red Sea, Variola louti, enzymatic biomarkers

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4 Earth Observations and Hydrodynamic Modeling to Monitor and Simulate the Oil Pollution in the Gulf of Suez, Red Sea, Egypt

Authors: Islam Abou El-Magd, Elham Ali, Moahmed Zakzouk, Nesreen Khairy, Naglaa Zanaty

Abstract:

Maine environment and coastal zone are wealthy with natural resources that contribute to the local economy of Egypt. The Gulf of Suez and Red Sea area accommodates diverse human activities that contribute to the local economy, including oil exploration and production, touristic activities, export and import harbors, etc, however, it is always under the threat of pollution due to human interaction and activities. This research aimed at integrating in-situ measurements and remotely sensed data with hydrodynamic model to map and simulate the oil pollution. High-resolution satellite sensors including Sentinel 2 and Plantlab were functioned to trace the oil pollution. Spectral band ratio of band 4 (infrared) over band 3 (red) underpinned the mapping of the point source pollution from the oil industrial estates. This ratio is supporting the absorption windows detected in the hyperspectral profiles. ASD in-situ hyperspectral device was used to measure experimentally the oil pollution in the marine environment. The experiment used to measure water behavior in three cases a) clear water without oil, b) water covered with raw oil, and c) water after a while from throwing the raw oil. The spectral curve is clearly identified absorption windows for oil pollution, particularly at 600-700nm. MIKE 21 model was applied to simulate the dispersion of the oil contamination and create scenarios for crises management. The model requires precise data preparation of the bathymetry, tides, waves, atmospheric parameters, which partially obtained from online modeled data and other from historical in-situ stations. The simulation enabled to project the movement of the oil spill and could create a warning system for mitigation. Details of the research results will be described in the paper.

Keywords: Modelling, Remote Sensing, Oil Pollution, Egypt, Red Sea

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3 Bioactive Rare Acetogenins from the Red Alga Laurencia obtusa

Authors: Nahed O. Bawakid, Walied M. Alarif, Mohamed A. Ghandourah

Abstract:

Halogenated cyclic enynes and terpenoids are commonly identified among secondary metabolites of the genus Laurencia. Laurencian acetogenins are entirly C15 non-terpenoid haloethers with different carbocyclic nuclei; a specimen of the Red Sea red alga L. obtusa was investigated for its acetogenin content. The dichloromethane extract of the air-dried red algal material was fractionated on aluminum oxide column preparative thin-layer chromatography. Three new rare C12 acetogenin derivatives (1-3) were isolated from the organic extract obtained from Laurencia obtusa, collected from the territorial Red Sea water of Saudi Arabia. The structures of the isolated metabolites were established by means of spectroscopical data analyses. Examining the isolated compounds in activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) revealed potent Anti-inflammatory activity as evidenced by inhibition of NFκB and release of other inflammatory mediators like TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6.

Keywords: Spectroscopy, Anti-Inflammatory, Fatty Acids, Red Sea, red algae

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2 Late Pleistocene Raised Coral Reefs in Rabigh Area, Red Sea: Microfacies and Environmental Interpretation

Authors: Ammar Manaa

Abstract:

The late Pleistocene raised coral reef terraces, 1 to 5 m above present sea level, are distinguished in Rabigh area into two marine terraces at elevations 0.5 m and 3.20 m, in addition to back-reef facies. The lower and upper terraces consist mainly of corals that increased in abundance and distribution in the upper terrace, with a minor occurrence of detrital quartz and feldspar. The back-reef facies consist mainly of coralline algae with a minor occurrence of corals. The upper terrace was interpreted as a reef crest or algal ridge due to the dominance of bindstone facies. The lower terrace indicates an outer reef flat with the occurrence of grainstone and rudstone facies. The coral framework in the upper terrace indicates a low energy environment. Within the back-reef terrace, calcareous mud was dominant, which indicates low energy, lagoon environment. The XRD results for the studied terraces revealed a variable abundance of aragonite, high-Mg calcite, and low-Mg calcite, with a slight increase in calcite and high-Mg calcite in the upper terrace. The dominant diagenetic processes in the terraces are cementation by fibrous and blocky calcite and dissolution that varied slightly between the lower and upper terraces. This study provides a coral reef model relevant to a low energy system in a dry and hot environment.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, Red Sea, late Pleistocene, Rabigh, reef terraces

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1 A Strategic Water and Energy Project as a Climate Change Adaptation Tool for Israel, Jordan and the Middle East

Authors: Doron Markel

Abstract:

Water availability in most of the Middle East (especially in Jordan) is among the lowest in the world and has been even further exacerbated by the regional climatic change and the reduced rainfall. The Araba Valley in Israel is disconnected from the national water system. On the other hand, the Araba Valley, both in Israel and Jordan, is an excellent area for solar energy gaining. The Dead Sea (Israel and Jordan) is a hypersaline lake which its level declines at a rate of more than 1 m/y. The decline stems from the increasing use of all available freshwater resources that discharge into the Dead Sea and decreasing natural precipitation due to climate change in the Middle East. As an adaptation tool for this humanmade and Climate Change results, a comprehensive water-energy and environmental project were suggested: The Red Sea-Dead Sea Conveyance. It is planned to desalinate the Red Sea water, supply the desalinated water to both Israel and Jordan, and convey the desalination brine to the Dead Sea to stabilize its water level. Therefore, the World Bank had led a multi-discipline feasibility study between 2008 and 2013, that had mainly dealt with the mixing of seawater and Dead Sea Water. The possible consequences of such mixing were precipitation and possible suspension of secondary Gypsum, as well as blooming of Dunaliella red algae. Using a comprehensive hydrodynamic-geochemical model for the Dead Sea, it was predicted that while conveying up to 400 Million Cubic Meters per year of seawater or desalination brine to the Dead Sea, the latter would not be stratified as it was until 1979; hence Gypsum precipitation and algal blooms would be neglecting. Using another hydrodynamic-biological model for the Red Sea, it was predicted the Seawater pump from the Gulf of Eilat would not harm the ecological system of the gulf (including the sensitive coral reef), giving a pump depth of 120-160 m. Based on these studies, a pipeline conveyance was recommended to convey desalination brine to the Dead Sea with the use of a hydropower plant, utilizing the elevation difference of 400 m between the Red Sea and the Dead Sea. The complementary energy would come from solar panels coupled with innovative storage technology, needed to produce a continuous energy production for an appropriate function of the desalination plant. The paper will describe the proposed project as well as the feasibility study results. The possibility to utilize this water-energy-environmental project as a climate change adaptation strategy for both Israel and Jordan will also be discussed.

Keywords: Water supply, gypsum, Algae, hydro-power, Red Sea, Dead Sea

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