Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 65

Recycling Related Abstracts

65 Removal of Copper from Wastewaters by Nano-Micro Bubble Ion Flotation

Authors: A. Khodadadi, M. Abdollahi, R. Ahmadi

Abstract:

The removal of copper from a dilute synthetic wastewater (10 mg/L) was studied by ion flotation at laboratory scale. Anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as a collector and ethanol as a frother. Different parameters such as pH, collector and frother concentrations, foam height and bubble size distribution (multi bubble ion flotation) were tested to determine the optimum flotation conditions in a Denver type flotation machine. To see into the effect of bubbles size distribution in this paper, a nano-micro bubble generator was designed. The nano and microbubbles that are generated in this way were combined with normal size bubbles generated mechanically. Under the optimum conditions (concentration of SDS: 192mg/l, ethanol: 0.5%v/v, pH value: 4 and froth height=12.5 cm) the best removal obtained for the system Cu/SDS with a dry foam (water recovery: 15.5%) was 85.6%. Coalescence of nano-microbubbles with bubbles of normal size belonging to mechanical flotation cell improved the removal of Cu to a maximum floatability of 92.8% and reduced the water recovery to a 13.1%.The flotation time decreased considerably at 37.5% when the multi bubble ion flotation was used.

Keywords: Optimization, Recycling, Water Treatment, Copper, froth flotation

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64 Concrete Recycling in Egypt for Construction Applications: A Technical and Financial Feasibility Model

Authors: Omar Farahat Hassanein, A. Samer Ezeldin

Abstract:

The construction industry is a very dynamic field. Every day new technologies and methods are developing to fasten the process and increase its efficiency. Hence, if a project uses fewer resources, it will be more efficient. This paper examines the recycling of concrete construction and demolition (C&D) waste to reuse it as aggregates in on-site applications for construction projects in Egypt and possibly in the Middle East. The study focuses on a stationary plant setting. The machinery set-up used in the plant is analyzed technically and financially. The findings are gathered and grouped to obtain a comprehensive cost-benefit financial model to demonstrate the feasibility of establishing and operating a concrete recycling plant. Furthermore, a detailed business plan including the time and hierarchy is proposed.

Keywords: Sustainability, Recycling, construction wastes, financial model, concrete recycling, concrete life cycle

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
63 Production and Recycling of Construction and Demolition Waste

Authors: Vladimira Vytlacilova

Abstract:

Recycling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) and their new reuse in structures is one of the solutions of environmental problems. Construction and demolition waste creates a major portion of total solid waste production in the world and most of it is used in landfills all the time. The paper deals with the situation of the recycling of the building and demolition waste in the Czech Republic during the recent years. The paper is dealing with questions of C&D waste recycling, it also characterizes construction and demolition waste in general, furthermore it analyses production of construction waste and subsequent production of recycled materials.

Keywords: Waste Management, Recycling, Construction and demolition waste, Recycled rubble

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
62 Energy Efficient Recycling of In-Plant Fines

Authors: H. Ahmed, A. Persson, L. Sundqvist, B. Biorkman

Abstract:

Numerous amounts of metallurgical dusts and sludge containing iron as well as some other valuable elements such as Zn, Pb and C are annually produced in the steelmaking industry. These alternative iron ore resources (fines) with unsatisfying physical and metallurgical properties are difficult to recycle. However, agglomerating these fines to be further used as a feed stock for existing iron and steel making processes is practiced successfully at several plants but for limited extent. In the present study, briquettes of integrated steelmaking industry waste materials (namely, BF-dust and sludge, BOF-dust and sludge) were used as feed stock to produce direct reduced iron (DRI). Physical and metallurgical properties of produced briquettes were investigated by means of TGA/DTA/QMS in combination with XRD. Swelling, softening and melting behavior were also studied using heating microscope.

Keywords: Recycling, iron and steel wastes, self-reducing briquettes, thermogravimetry

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
61 Polymer Industrial Floors: The Possibility of Using Secondary Raw Materials from Solar Panels

Authors: J. Kosikova, B. Vacenovska, M. Vyhnankova

Abstract:

The paper reports on the subject of recycling and further use of secondary raw materials obtained from solar panels, which is becoming a very up to date topic in recent years. Recycling these panels is very difficult and complex, and the use of resulting secondary raw materials is still not fully resolved. Within the research carried out at the Brno University of Technology, new polymer materials used for industrial floors are being developed. Secondary raw materials are incorporated into these polymers as fillers. One of the tested filler materials was glass obtained from solar panels. The following text describes procedures and results of the tests that were performed on these materials, confirming the possibility of the use of solar panel glass in industrial polymer flooring systems.

Keywords: Recycling, solar panel, fillers, industrial floors, secondary raw material

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
60 Reducing Greenhouse Gass Emissions by Recyclable Material Bank Project of Universities in Central Region of Thailand

Authors: Ronbanchob Apiratikul

Abstract:

This research studied recycled waste by the Recyclable Material Bank Project of 4 universities in the central region of Thailand for the evaluation of reducing greenhouse gas emissions compared with landfilling activity during July 2012 to June 2013. The results showed that the projects collected total amount of recyclable wastes of about 911,984.80 kilograms. Office paper had the largest amount among these recycled wastes (50.68% of total recycled waste). Groups of recycled waste can be prioritized from high to low according to their amount as paper, plastic, glass, mixed recyclables, and metal, respectively. The project reduced greenhouse gas emissions equivalent to about 2814.969 metric tons of carbon dioxide. The most significant recycled waste that affects the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is office paper which is 70.16% of total reduced greenhouse gasses emission. According to amount of reduced greenhouse gasses emission, groups of recycled waste can be prioritized from high to low significances as paper, plastic, metals, mixed recyclables, and glass, respectively.

Keywords: Waste Management, Recycling, Greenhouse gases, garbage bank, recyclable wastes

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
59 Recycled Use of Solid Wastes in Building Material: A Review

Authors: Oriyomi M. Okeyinka, David A. Oloke, Jamal M. Khatib

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Large quantities of solid wastes being generated worldwide from sources such as household, domestic, industrial, commercial and construction demolition activities, leads to environmental concerns. Utilization of these wastes in making building construction materials can reduce the magnitude of the associated problems. When these waste products are used in place of other conventional materials, natural resources and energy are preserved and expensive and/or potentially harmful waste disposal is avoided. Recycling which is regarded as the third most preferred waste disposal option, with its numerous environmental benefits, stand as a viable option to offset the environmental impact associated with the construction industry. This paper reviews the results of laboratory tests and important research findings, and the potential of using these wastes in building construction materials with focus on sustainable development. Research gaps, which includes; the need to develop standard mix design for solid waste based building materials; the need to develop energy efficient method of processing solid waste use in concrete; the need to study the actual behavior or performance of such building materials in practical application and the limited real life application of such building materials have also been identified. Therefore a research is being proposed to develop an environmentally friendly, lightweight building block from recycled waste paper, without the use of cement, and with properties suitable for use as walling unit. This proposed research intends to incorporate, laboratory experimentation and modeling to address the identified research gaps.

Keywords: Building materials, Construction, solid wastes, Recycling

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
58 Research on Eco-Sustainable Recycling of Industrial Wastes

Authors: Liliana Crăc, Nicolae Giorgi, Gheorghe Fometescu

Abstract:

In Romania, billions of tonnes of wastes are generated yearly, an important amount being stored within industrial dumps that covers high soil areas and affects the environment quality, especially of ground and surface waters. Landfill represents in Romania the most important way for wastes removal, over 75% being generated every year, the costs with the dumps construction being considerable. In most of the cases, the wastes generated mainly by the energy industry, oil exploitation and metallurgy, are still considered wastes with NO-use, and their removal and neutralization represent for transport, handling and storing, high non-productive expenses which raise the cost of the useful products obtained. The paper presents a recycling idea of three types of wastes in order to use them for building materials manufacturing, by promoting ECOWASTES LIFE+ project, whose aim is to demonstrate that the recycling of waste from energy industry (coal combustion waste), petroleum extraction (drilling mud) and metallurgy (steelmaking slag) is technically feasible.

Keywords: Building materials, Recycling, fly ash, Metallurgical Slag, drilled solid wastes

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
57 Use of Waste Glass as Coarse Aggregate in Concrete: A Possibility towards Sustainable Building Construction

Authors: M. F. M. Zain, T. S. Serniabat, M. N. N. Khan

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As climate change and environmental pressures are now well established as major international issues, to which governments, businesses and consumers have to respond through more environmentally friendly and aware practices, products and policies; the need to develop alternative sustainable construction materials, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, save energy, look to renewable energy sources and recycled materials, and reduce waste are just some of the pressures impacting significantly on the construction industry. The utilization of waste materials (slag, fly ash, glass beads, plastic and so on) in concrete manufacturing is significant due to engineering, financial, environmental and ecological importance. Thus, utilization of waste materials in concrete production is very much helpful to reach the goal of the sustainable construction. Therefore, this study intends to use glass beads in concrete production. The paper reports on the performance of 9 different concrete mixes containing different ratios of glass crushed to 5 mm - 20 mm maximum size and glass marble of 20 mm size as coarse aggregate .Ordinary Portland cement type 1 and fine sand less than 0.5 mm were used to produce standard concrete cylinders. Compressive strength tests were carried out on concrete specimens at various ages. Test results indicated that the mix having the balanced ratio of glass beads and round marbles possess maximum compressive strength which is 3888.68 psi, as glass beads perform better in bond formation but have lower strength, on the other hand marbles are strong in themselves but not good in bonding. These mixes were prepared following a specific W/C and aggregate ratio; more strength can be expected to achieve from different W/C, aggregate ratios, adding admixtures like strength increasing agents, ASR inhibitor agents etc.

Keywords: Recycling, environmentally friendly, waste glass, glass aggregate, strength development

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
56 Recycling in Bogotá: A SWOT Analysis of Three Associations to Evaluate the Integrating the Informal Sector into Solid Waste Management

Authors: Clara Inés Pardo Martínez

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In emerging economies, recycling is an opportunity for the cities to increase the lifespan of sanitary landfills, reduce the costs of the solid waste management, decrease the environmental problems of the waste treatment through reincorporate waste in the productive cycle and protect and develop people’s livelihoods of informal waste pickers. However, few studies have analysed the possibilities and strategies to integrate formal and informal sectors in the solid waste management for the benefit of both. This study seek to make a strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat (SWOT) analysis in three recycling associations of Bogotá with the aim to understand and determine the situation of recycling from perspective of informal sector in its transition to enter as authorized waste providers. Data used in the analysis are derived from multiple strategies such as literature review, the Bogota’s recycling database, focus group meetings, governmental reports, national laws and regulations and specific interviews with key stakeholders. Results of this study show as the main stakeholders of formal and informal sector of waste management can identify the internal and internal conditions of recycling in Bogotá. Several strategies were designed based on the SWOTs determined, could be useful for Bogotá to advance and promote recycling as a key strategy for integrated sustainable waste management in the city.

Keywords: Solid waste management, Recycling, SWOT analysis, Bogotá

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
55 Lightweight Ceramics from Clay and Ground Corncobs

Authors: N.Quaranta, M. Caligaris, R. Varoli, A. Cristobal, M. Unsen, H. López

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Corncobs are agricultural wastes and they can be used as fuel or as raw material in different industrial processes like cement manufacture, contaminant adsorption, chemical compound synthesis, etc. The aim of this work is to characterize this waste and analyze the feasibility of its use as a pore-forming material in the manufacture of lightweight ceramics for the civil construction industry. The characterization of raw materials is carried out by using various techniques: electron diffraction analysis X-ray, differential and gravimetric thermal analyses, FTIR spectroscopy, ecotoxicity evaluation, among others. The ground corncobs, particle size less than 2 mm, are mixed with clay up to 30% in volume and shaped by uniaxial pressure of 25 MPa, with 6% humidity, in moulds of 70mm x 40mm x 18mm. Then the green bodies are heat treated at 950°C for two hours following the treatment curves used in ceramic industry. The ceramic probes are characterized by several techniques: density, porosity and water absorption, permanent volumetric variation, loss on ignition, microscopies analysis, and mechanical properties. DTA-TGA analysis of corncobs shows in the range 20°-250°C a small loss in TGA curve and exothermic peaks at 250°-500°C. FTIR spectrum of the corncobs sample shows the characteristic pattern of this kind of organic matter with stretching vibration bands of adsorbed water, methyl groups, C–O and C–C bonds, and the complex form of the cellulose and hemicellulose glycosidic bonds. The obtained ceramic bodies present external good characteristics without loose edges and adequate properties for the market requirements. The porosity values of the sintered pieces are higher than those of the reference sample without waste addition. The results generally indicate that it is possible to use corncobs as porosity former in ceramic bodies without modifying the usual sintering temperatures employed in the industry.

Keywords: biomass, Recycling, ceramic industry, hemicellulose glycosidic bonds

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54 Reduce, Reuse and Recycle: Grand Challenges in Construction Recovery Process

Authors: Abioye A. Oyenuga, Rao Bhamidiarri

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Hurling a successful Construction and Demolition Waste (C&DW) recycling operation around the globe is a challenge today, predominantly because secondary materials markets are yet to be integrated. Reducing, Reusing and recycling of (C&DW) have been employed over the years, and various techniques have been investigated. However, the economic and environmental viability of its application seems limited. This paper discusses the costs and benefits in using secondary materials and focus on investigating reuse and recycling process for five major types of construction materials: concrete, metal, wood, cardboard/paper, and plasterboard. Data obtained from demolition specialist and contractors are considered and evaluated. With the date source, the research paper found that construction material recovery process fully incorporate the 3R’s process and shows how energy recovery by means of 3R's principles can be evaluated. This scrutiny leads to the empathy of grand challenges in construction material recovery process. Recommendations to deepen material recovery process are also discussed.

Keywords: Waste Management, Recycling, reuse, construction and demolition waste (C&DW)

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
53 Comparison of Processing Conditions for Plasticized PVC and PVB

Authors: Michael Tupý, Dagmar Měřínská, Alice Tesaříková-Svobodová, Jaroslav Císař, Pavel Mokrejš

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The worldwide problem is that the recycled PVB is wildly stored in landfills. However, PVB have very similar chemical properties such as PVC. Moreover, both of them are used in plasticized form. Thus, the thermal properties of plasticized PVC obtained from primary production and the PVB was obtained by recycling of windshields are compared. It is carried out in order to find degradable conditions and decide if blend of PVB/PVC can be processable together. Tested PVC contained 38 % of plasticizer diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and PVB was plasticized with 28 % of triethylene glycol, bis(2-ethylhexanoate) (3GO). Thermal and thermo-oxidative decomposition of both vinyl polymers are compared such as DSC and OOT analysis. The tensile strength analysis is added.

Keywords: Recycling, Thermal analysis, Reprocessing, Decomposition, polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl butyral

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
52 Influence of Processing Regime and Contaminants on the Properties of Postconsumer Thermoplastics

Authors: Fares Alsewailem

Abstract:

Material recycling of thermoplastic waste offers practical solution for municipal solid waste reduction. Post-consumer plastics such as polyethylene (PE), polyethyleneterephtalate (PET), and polystyrene (PS) may be separated from each other by physical methods such as density difference and hence processed as single plastic, however one should be cautious about the contaminants presence in the waste stream inform of paper, glue, etc. since these articles even in trace amount may deteriorate properties of the recycled plastics especially the mechanical properties. furthermore, melt processing methods used to recycle thermoplastics such as extrusion and compression molding may induce degradation of some of the recycled plastics such as PET and PS. In this research, it is shown that care should be taken when processing recycled plastics by melt processing means in two directions, first contaminants should be extremely minimized, and secondly melt processing steps should also be minimum.

Keywords: Mechanical, Recycling, PET, HDPE

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
51 Use of Fine Recycled Aggregates in Normal Concrete Production

Authors: Vignesh Pechiappan Ayyathurai, Mukesh Limbachiya, Hsein Kew

Abstract:

There is a growing interest in using recycled, secondary use and industrial by product materials in high value commercial applications. Potential high volume applications include use of fine aggregate in flowable fill or as a component in manufactured aggregates. However, there is much scientific, as well as applied research needed in this area due to lack to availability of data on the mechanical and environmental properties of elements or products produced using fine recycled aggregates. The principle objectives of this research are to synthesize existing data on the beneficial reuse of fine recycled materials and to develop extensive testing programme for assessing and establishing engineering and long term durability properties of concrete and other construction products produced using such material for use in practical application widely. This paper is a research proposal for PhD admission. The proposed research aims to supply the necessary technical, as well as practical information on fine recycled aggregate concrete to the construction industry for promoting its wider use within the construction industry. Furthermore, to disseminate research outcomes to the local authorities for consideration of use of fine recycled aggregate concrete in various applications.

Keywords: Concrete, Recycling, fine aggregate, FRA

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
50 Study Technical Possibilities of Agricultural Reuse of by-Products from Treatment Plant of Boumerdes, Algeria

Authors: Kadir Mokrane, Souag Doudja

Abstract:

In Algeria, one of the Mediterranean countries, water resources are limited and unevenly distributed in space and in time. Boumerdes, coastal town of Algeria, known for its farming and fishing activities. The region is also known for its semi-arid climate and a large water deficit. In order to preserve the quality of water bodies and to reduce withdrawals in the natural environment, it is necessary to seek alternative supplies. The reuse of treated wastewater seems to be a good alternative, especially for irrigation. In the framework of sustainable development, it is imperative to rationalize the use of water resources conventional and unconventional. That is why the re-use agricultural of by-products of the treatment is an alternative expected to preserve the environment and promotion of the agricultural sector. The present work aims, to search for the possibility of reuse of treated wastewater, and sludge resulting from treatment plant of the city of Boumerdes in agriculture, through the analysis of physical, chemical and bacteriological on the samples, and the continuous monitoring of the evolution of several elements during the period of study extended over 12 months, and then, the comparison of these test results to standards and guidelines established in the framework of irrigation and land application.

Keywords: Agriculture, Recycling, Sewage Sludge, treated water

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
49 Environmental Limits of Using Newly Developed Progressive Polymer Protection and Repair Systems

Authors: Vít Petránek, Jana Hodna, Bozena Vacenovska

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The paper is focused on the identification of limiting environmental factors of individual industrial floors on which newly developed polymer protection and repair systems with the use of secondary raw materials will be used. These mainly include floors with extreme stresses and special requirements for materials used. In relation to the environment of a particular industrial floor, it is necessary to ensure, for example, chemical stability, resistance to higher temperatures, resistance to higher mechanical stress, etc. for developed materials, which is reflected in the demands for the developed material systems. The paper describes individual environments and, in relation to them, also requirements for individual components of the developed materials and for the developed materials as a whole.

Keywords: Environment, Recycling, Polymer, industrial floors, secondary raw material, limits, protective system

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
48 Recycling Construction Waste Materials to Reduce the Environmental Pollutants

Authors: Mehrdad Abkenari, Alireza Rezaei, Naghmeh Pournayeb

Abstract:

There have recently been many studies and investments in developed and developing countries regarding the possibility of recycling construction waste, which are still ongoing. Since the term 'construction waste' covers a vast spectrum of materials in constructing buildings, roads and etc., many investigations are required to measure their technical performance in use as well as their time and place of use. Concrete is among the major and fundamental materials used in current construction industry. Along with the rise of population in developing countries, it is desperately required to meet the people's primary need in construction industry and on the other hand, dispose existing wastes for reducing the amount of environmental pollutants. Restrictions of natural resources and environmental pollution are the most important problems encountered by civil engineers. Reusing construction waste is an important and economic approach that not only assists the preservation of environment but also, provides us with primary raw materials. In line with consistent municipal development in disposal and reuse of construction waste, several approaches including, management of construction waste and materials, materials recycling and innovation and new inventions in materials have been predicted. This article has accordingly attempted to study the activities related to recycling of construction wastes and then, stated the economic, quantitative, qualitative and environmental results obtained.

Keywords: Civil Engineering, Environment, Recycling, Construction Waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
47 The Potential for Recycling Household Wastes Generated from the Residential Areas of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife

Authors: Asaolu Olugbenga Stephen, Afolabi Olusegun Temitope

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Lack of proper solid waste management is one of the main causes of environmental pollution and degradation in many cities, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the quantity of waste generated per capita per day, determine the composition and identify the potentials for recycling of waste generated. Characterization of wastes from selected households in the residential areas was done for over a 7 day period. The weight of each sorted category of waste was recorded in a structured database that calculated the proportion of each waste component. The results indicated that 85.4% of the sampled waste characterized was found to be recyclable; with an estimated average waste generated of 1.82kg/capita/day. The various solid waste fractions were organic (64.6%), plastics (15.6%), metals (9.2%), glass materials (1.6%) and unclassified (8.9%). It was concluded from this study that a large proportion of the waste generated from OAU campus residential area was recyclable and that there is a need to enact policy on waste recycling within the university campus.

Keywords: Solid waste management, Recycling, Residential, household wastes

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
46 Zinc Sorption by Six Agricultural Soils Amended with Municipal Biosolids

Authors: Antoine Karam, Lotfi Khiari, Bruno Breton, Alfred Jaouich

Abstract:

Anthropogenic sources of zinc (Zn), including industrial emissions and effluents, Zn–rich fertilizer materials and pesticides containing Zn, can contribute to increasing the concentration of soluble Zn at levels toxic to plants in acid sandy soils. The application of municipal sewage sludge or biosolids (MBS) which contain metal immobilizing agents on coarse-textured soils could improve the metal sorption capacity of the low-CEC soils. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the sorption of Zn in surface samples (0-15 cm) of six Quebec (Canada) soils amended with MBS (pH 6.9) from Val d’Or (Quebec, Canada). Soil samples amended with increasing amounts (0 to 20%) of MBS were equilibrated with various amounts of Zn as ZnCl2 in 0.01 M CaCl2 for 48 hours at room temperature. Sorbed Zn was calculated from the difference between the initial and final Zn concentration in solution. Zn sorption data conformed to the linear form of Freundlich equation. The amount of sorbed Zn increased considerably with increasing MBS rate. Analysis of variance revealed a highly significant effect (p ≤ 0.001) of soil texture and MBS rate on the amount of sorbed Zn. The average values of the Zn-sorption capacity of MBS-amended coarse-textured soils were lower than those of MBS-amended fine textured soils. The two sandy soils (86-99% sand) amended with MBS retained 2- to 5-fold Zn than those without MBS (control). Significant Pearson correlation coefficients between the Zn sorption isotherm parameter, i.e. the Freundlich sorption isotherm (KF), and commonly measured physical and chemical entities were obtained. Among all the soil properties measured, soil pH gave the best significant correlation coefficients (p ≤ 0.001) for soils receiving 0, 5 and 10% MBS. Furthermore, KF values were positively correlated with soil clay content, exchangeable basic cations (Ca, Mg or K), CEC and clay content to CEC ratio. From these results, it can be concluded that (i) municipal biosolids provide sorption sites that have a strong affinity for Zn, (ii) both soil texture, especially clay content, and soil pH are the main factors controlling anthropogenic Zn sorption in the municipal biosolids-amended soils, and (iii) the effect of municipal biosolids on Zn sorption will be more pronounced for a sandy soil than for a clay soil.

Keywords: Recycling, Metal, trace element, Sewage Sludge

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45 Concentrations of Some Metallic Trace Elements in Twelve Sludge Incineration Ashes

Authors: Antoine Karam, Lotfi Khiari, Claude-Alla Joseph, Marc Hébert

Abstract:

The main objective of incineration of sludge generated from municipal or agri-food waste treatment plant is to reduce the volume of sludge to be disposed of as a solid or liquid waste, whilst concentrating or destroying potentially harmful volatile substances. In some cities in Canada and United States of America (USA), a large amount of sludge is incinerated, which entails a loss of organic matter and water leading to phosphorus, potassium and some metallic trace element (MTE) accumulation in ashes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concentration of potentially hazardous MTE such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) in twelve sludge incineration ash samples obtained from municipal wastewater and other food processing waste treatments from Canada and USA. The average, maximum, and minimum values of MTE in ashes were calculated for each city individually and all together. The trace metal concentration values were compared to the literature reported values. The concentrations of MTE in ashes vary widely depending on the sludge origins and treatment options. The concentrations of MTE in ashes were found the range of 0.1-6.4 mg/kg for Cd; 13-286 mg/kg for Pb and 0.1-0.5 mg/kg for Hg. On average, the following order of metal concentration in ashes was observed: Pb > Cd > Hg. Results show that metal contents in most ashes were similar to MTE levels in synthetic inorganic fertilizers and many fertilizing residual materials. Consequently, the environmental effects of MTE content of these ashes would be low.

Keywords: Recycling, Biosolids, Heavy Metals, Sewage Sludge

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
44 Technology Identification, Evaluation and Selection Methodology for Industrial Process Water and Waste Water Treatment Plant of 3x150 MWe Tufanbeyli Lignite-Fired Power Plant

Authors: Cigdem Safak Saglam

Abstract:

Most thermal power plants use steam as working fluid in their power cycle. Therefore, in addition to fuel, water is the other main input for thermal plants. Water and steam must be highly pure in order to protect the systems from corrosion, scaling and biofouling. Pure process water is produced in water treatment plants having many several treatment methods. Treatment plant design is selected depending on raw water source and required water quality. Although working principle of fossil-fuel fired thermal power plants are same, there is no standard design and equipment arrangement valid for all thermal power plant utility systems. Besides that, there are many other technology evaluation and selection criteria for designing the most optimal water systems meeting the requirements such as local conditions, environmental restrictions, electricity and other consumables availability and transport, process water sources and scarcity, land use constraints etc. Aim of this study is explaining the adopted methodology for technology selection for process water preparation and industrial waste water treatment plant in a thermal power plant project located in Tufanbeyli, Adana Province in Turkey. Thermal power plant is fired with indigenous lignite coal extracted from adjacent lignite reserves. This paper addresses all above-mentioned factors affecting the thermal power plant water treatment facilities (demineralization + waste water treatment) design and describes the ultimate design of Tufanbeyli Thermal Power Plant Water Treatment Plant.

Keywords: Recycling, Pretreatment, electrodialysis, demineralization, thermal power plant, lignite coal, ash dampening

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
43 Towards Sustainable Construction: An Exploratory Study of the Factors Affecting the Investment on Construction and Demolition Waste in Saudi Arabia (KSA)

Authors: Mohammed Alnuwairan, Mahmoud Abdelrahman

Abstract:

Based on the sustainability concept, this paper explores the current situation of construction and demolition waste (C&D) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) from the source of production to final destinations. The issues that hindered the investment of recycling C&D in the context will be studied in order to identify the challenges and opportunities to improve this sector and put forward a strategic framework to reduce, reuse, recycle and minimize the disposal of this type of waste. The research, which is exploratory in nature, identified four types of organizations that were appropriate case studies. These organizations were drawn from the municipalities, city council, recyclers and manufacturers. Secondary data collection, direct observation, and elite interviewing methods were used in the case studies to facilitate comparisons with existing literature to explore opportunities to improve sustainability practices in the buildings sector. Implementation of C&D waste management and recycling in KSA is in the early stages. Resistance of virgin building material manufacturers, free usage of landfill, culture, surpluses of natural raw material, availability of land and the cost of recycling this material compared with virgin material hinders the adoption of recycled buildings martial. Although the metal material is collected and recycled but it has the lowest percentage of C&D waste in Saudi. The findings indicate that government and industry need to collaborate more closely in order to successfully implement best practices. Economic and environmental benefits can be achieved, particularly through improvements to infrastructure and legislation. Feasible solution framework and recommendations for managing C&D waste under current situation are provided. The findings can be used to extend this framework and to enable it to be applicable in other context with emerging economies similar to that found in KSA. No study of this type has been previously carried out in KSA. The findings should prove useful in creating a future research agenda for C&D waste in KSA and, possibly, other emerging countries within a similar context.

Keywords: Sustainability, Recycling, reuse, Construction and demolition waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
42 Recovery of Metals from Electronic Waste by Physical and Chemical Recycling Processes

Authors: Muammer Kaya

Abstract:

The main purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of various physical and chemical processes for electronic waste (e-waste) recycling, their advantages and shortfalls towards achieving a cleaner process of waste utilization, with especial attention towards extraction of metallic values. Current status and future perspectives of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) recycling are described. E-waste characterization, dismantling/ disassembly methods, liberation and classification processes, composition determination techniques are covered. Manual selective dismantling and metal-nonmetal liberation at – 150 µm at two step crushing are found to be the best. After size reduction, mainly physical separation/concentration processes employing gravity, electrostatic, magnetic separators, froth floatation etc., which are commonly used in mineral processing, have been critically reviewed here for separation of metals and non-metals, along with useful utilizations of the non-metallic materials. The recovery of metals from e-waste material after physical separation through pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical or biohydrometallurgical routes is also discussed along with purification and refining and some suitable flowsheets are also given. It seems that hydrometallurgical route will be a key player in the base and precious metals recoveries from e-waste. E-waste recycling will be a very important sector in the near future from economic and environmental perspectives.

Keywords: Recycling, E-Waste, Metal Recovery, Hydrometallurgy, WEEE, pirometallurgy, biometallurgy

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
41 Processes for Valorization of Valuable Products from Kerf Slurry Waste

Authors: Nadjib Drouiche, Abdenour Lami, Salaheddine Aoudj, Tarik Ouslimane

Abstract:

Although solar cells manufacturing is a conservative industry, economics drivers continue to encourage innovation, feedstock savings and cost reduction. Kerf slurry waste is a complex product containing both valuable substances as well as contaminants. The valuable substances are: i) high purity silicon, ii) polyethylene glycol, and iii) silicon carbide. The contaminants mainly include metal fragments and organics. Therefore, recycling of the kerf slurry waste is an important subject not only from the treatment of waste but also from the recovery of valuable products. The present paper relates to processes for the recovery of valuable products from the kerf slurry waste in which they are contained, such products comprising nanoparticles, polyethylene glycol, high purity silicon, and silicon carbide.

Keywords: Recycling, Silicon Carbide, photovoltaic cell, Kerf slurry waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
40 Studies on Mechanical Properties of Concrete and Mortar Containing Waste Glass Aggregate

Authors: Nadjoua Bourmatte, Hacène Houari

Abstract:

Glass has been indispensable to men’s life due to its properties, including pliability to take any shape with ease, bright surface, resistance to abrasion, reasonable safety and durability. Waste glass creates serious environmental problems, mainly due to the inconsistency of waste glass streams. With increasing environmental pressure to reduce solid waste and to recycle as much as possible, the concrete industry has adopted a number of methods to achieve this goal. The object of this research work is to study the effect of using recycled glass waste, as a partial replacement of fine aggregate, on the fresh and hardened properties of concrete. Recycled glass was used to replace fine aggregate in proportions of 0%, 25% and 50%. We could observe that the Glass waste aggregates are lighter than natural aggregates and they show a very low water absorption. The experimental results showed that the slump flow increased with the increase of recycled glass content. On the other hand, the compressive strength and tensile strength of recycled glass mixtures decreased with the increase in the recycled glass content. The results showed that recycled glass aggregate can successfully be used with limited level for producing concrete. The standard sand was substituted with aggregates based on glass waste for manufacturing mortars, Mortar based on glass shows a compressive strength and low bending with a 1/2 ratio with control mortar strength.

Keywords: Concrete, Environment, Recycling, glass waste

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39 Synthesis of La0.8Sr0.05Ca0.15Fe0.8Co0.2O3-δ -Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 Composite Cathode Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell with Lanthanum and Cerium Recycled from Wasted Glass Polishing Powder

Authors: Jun-Lun Jiang, Bing-Sheng Yu

Abstract:

Processing of flat-panel displays generates huge amount of wasted glass polishing powder, with high concentration of cerium and other elements such as lanthanum. According to the current statistics, consumption of polishing powder was approximately ten thousand tons per year in the world. Nevertheless, wasted polishing powder was usually buried or burned. If the lanthanum and cerium compounds in the wasted polishing powder could be recycled, that will greatly reduce enterprise cost and implement waste circulation. Cathodes of SOFCs are the principal consisting of rare earth elements such as lanthanum and cerium. In this study, we recycled the lanthanum and cerium from wasted glass polishing powder by acid-solution method, and synthesized La0.8Sr0.05Ca0.15Fe0.8Co0.8O3-δ and Gd0.1Ce0.9O2 (LSCCF-GDC) composite cathode material for SOFCs by glycinenitrate combustion (GNP) method. The results show that the recovery rates of lanthanum and cerium could accomplish up to 80% and 100% under 10N nitric acid solution within one hour. Comparing with the XRD data of the commercial LSCCF-GDC powder and the LSCCF-GDC product synthesized with chemicals, we find that the LSCCF-GDC was successfully synthesized with the recycled La & Ce solution by GNP method. The effect of adding ammonia to the product was also discussed, the grain size is finer and recovery rate of the product is higher without the addition of ammonia to the solution.

Keywords: Recycling, perovskite, acid solution, glass polishing powder, composite cathodes of solid oxide fuel, cell (SOFC), glycine-nitrate combustion(GNP) method

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38 Recycling Strategies of Construction Waste in Egypt

Authors: Hanan Anwar

Abstract:

All systems recycle. The construction industry has not only become a major consumer of natural materials along with a source of pollution. Environmental integrated production, reusing and recycling is of great importance in Egypt nowadays. Governments should ensure that the technical, environmental and economic feasibility of alternative systems is considered and is taken into account before construction starts. Hereby this paper focuses on the recycle of building materials as a way for environment protection and sustainable development. Environmental management integrates the requirements of sustainable development. There are many methods used to reduce waste and increase profits through salvage, reuse, and the recycling of construction waste. Sustainable development as a tool to continual improvement cycle processes innovations to save money.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Management, Environment, Recycling, reuse

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
37 Material Concepts and Processing Methods for Electrical Insulation

Authors: R. Sekula

Abstract:

Epoxy composites are broadly used as an electrical insulation for the high voltage applications since only such materials can fulfill particular mechanical, thermal, and dielectric requirements. However, properties of the final product are strongly dependent on proper manufacturing process with minimized material failures, as too large shrinkage, voids and cracks. Therefore, application of proper materials (epoxy, hardener, and filler) and process parameters (mold temperature, filling time, filling velocity, initial temperature of internal parts, gelation time), as well as design and geometric parameters are essential features for final quality of the produced components. In this paper, an approach for three-dimensional modeling of all molding stages, namely filling, curing and post-curing is presented. The reactive molding simulation tool is based on a commercial CFD package, and include dedicated models describing viscosity and reaction kinetics that have been successfully implemented to simulate the reactive nature of the system with exothermic effect. Also a dedicated simulation procedure for stress and shrinkage calculations, as well as simulation results are presented in the paper. Second part of the paper is dedicated to recent developments on formulations of functional composites for electrical insulation applications, focusing on thermally conductive materials. Concepts based on filler modifications for epoxy electrical composites have been presented, including the results of the obtained properties. Finally, having in mind tough environmental regulations, in addition to current process and design aspects, an approach for product re-design has been presented focusing on replacement of epoxy material with the thermoplastic one. Such “design-for-recycling” method is one of new directions associated with development of new material and processing concepts of electrical products and brings a lot of additional research challenges. For that, one of the successful products has been presented to illustrate the presented methodology.

Keywords: Recycling, Numerical Simulations, curing, epoxy insulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
36 Reduction Conditions of Briquetted Solid Wastes Generated by the Integrated Iron and Steel Plant

Authors: Gökhan Polat, Dicle Kocaoğlu Yılmazer, Muhlis Nezihi Sarıdede

Abstract:

Iron oxides are the main input to produce iron in integrated iron and steel plants. During production of iron from iron oxides, some wastes with high iron content occur. These main wastes can be classified as basic oxygen furnace (BOF) sludge, flue dust and rolling scale. Recycling of these wastes has a great importance for both environmental effects and reduction of production costs. In this study, recycling experiments were performed on basic oxygen furnace sludge, flue dust and rolling scale which contain 53.8%, 54.3% and 70.2% iron respectively. These wastes were mixed together with coke as reducer and these mixtures are pressed to obtain cylindrical briquettes. These briquettes were pressed under various compacting forces from 1 ton to 6 tons. Also, both stoichiometric and twice the stoichiometric cokes were added to investigate effect of coke amount on reduction properties of the waste mixtures. Then, these briquettes were reduced at 1000°C and 1100°C during 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min in a muffle furnace. According to the results of reduction experiments, the effect of compacting force, temperature and time on reduction ratio of the wastes were determined. It is found that 1 ton compacting force, 150 min reduction time and 1100°C are the optimum conditions to obtain reduction ratio higher than 75%.

Keywords: Recycling, Reduction, Coke, iron oxide wastes

Procedia PDF Downloads 177