Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

recycled aggregate Related Abstracts

10 Improvement of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Properties by Controlling the Water Flow in the Interfacial Transition Zone

Authors: M. Oliveira, M. Eckert, A. Bettencourt Ribeiro


The intensive use of natural aggregate, near the towns, associated to the increase of the global population, leads to its depletion and increases the transport distances. The uncontrolled deposition of construction and demolition waste in landfills and city outskirts, causes pollution and take up space for noblest purposes. The main problem of recycled aggregate lies in its high water absorption, what is due to the porosity of the materials which constitute this type of aggregate. When the aggregates are dry, water flows from the inside to the engaging cement paste matrix, and when they are saturated an inverse process occurs. This water flow breaks the aggregate-cement paste bonds and the greater water concentration, in the inter-facial transition zone, degrades the concrete properties in its fresh and hardened state. Based on the water absorption over time, it was optimized an staged mixing method, to regulate the said flow and manufacture recycled aggregate concrete with levels of work-ability, strength and shrinkage equivalent to those of conventional concrete.The physical, mechanical and geometrical properties of the aggregates where related to the properties of concrete in its fresh and hardened state. Three types of commercial recycled aggregates and two types of natural aggregates where evaluated. Six compositions with different percentages of recycled coarse aggregate where tested.

Keywords: shrinkage, water absorption, recycled aggregate, interfacial transition zone, compressive-strength

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9 Quality Assessment and Classification of Recycled Aggregates from CandDW According to the European Standards

Authors: M. Oliveira, M. Eckert, D. Mendes, J P. Gonçalves, C. Moço


The intensive extraction of natural aggregates leads to both depletion of natural resources and unwanted environmental impacts. On the other hand, uncontrolled disposal of Construction and Demolition Wastes (C&DW) causes the lifetime reduction of landfills. It is known that the European Union produces, each year, about 850 million tons of C&DW. For all the member States of the European Union, one of the milestones to be reached by 2020, according to the Resource Efficiency Roadmap (COM (2011) 571) of the European Commission, is to recycle 70% of the C&DW. In this work, properties of different types of recycled C&DW aggregates and natural aggregates were compared. Assays were performed according to European Standards (EN 13285; EN 13242+A1; EN 12457-4; EN 12620; EN 13139) for the characterization of there: physical, mechanical and chemical properties. Not standardized tests such as water absorption over time, mass stability and post compaction sieve analysis were also carried out. The tested recycled C&DW aggregates were classified according to the requirements of the European Standards regarding there potential use in concrete, mortar, unbound layers of road pavements and embankments. The results of the physical and mechanical properties of recycled C&DW aggregates indicated, in general, lower quality properties when compared to natural aggregates, particularly, for concrete preparation and unbound layers of road pavements. The results of the chemical properties attested that the C&DW aggregates constitute no environmental risk. It was concluded that recycled aggregates produced from C&DW have the potential to be used in many applications.

Keywords: Sustainability, recycled aggregate, aggregate properties, European Standard Classification

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8 Risk of Plastic Shrinkage Cracking in Recycled Aggregate Concrete

Authors: M. Oliveira, M. Eckert


The intensive use of natural aggregates, near cities and towns, associated to the increase of the global population, leads to its depletion and increases the transport distances. The uncontrolled deposition of construction and demolition waste in landfills and city outskirts, causes pollution and takes up space. The use of recycled aggregates in concrete preparation would contribute to mitigate the problem. However, it arises the problem that the high water absorption of recycled aggregate decreases the bleeding rate of concrete, and when this gets lower than the evaporation rate, plastic shrinkage cracking occurs. This phenomenon can be particularly problematic in hot and windy curing environments. Cracking facilitates the flow of liquid and gas into concrete which attacks the reinforcement and degrades the concrete. These factors reduce the durability of concrete structures and consequently the lifetime of buildings. A ring test was used, cured in a wind tunnel, to evaluate the plastic shrinkage cracking sensitivity of recycled aggregate concrete, in order to implement preventive means to control this phenomenon. The role of several aggregate properties on the concrete segregation and cracking mechanisms were also discussed.

Keywords: Durability, Wind Tunnel, recycled aggregate, plastic shrinkage cracking

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7 Recycling of End of Life Concrete Based on C2CA Method

Authors: Radosław Mróz, Somayeh Lotfi, Manuel Eggimann, Eckhard Wagner, Jan Deja


One of the main environmental challenges in the construction industry is a strong social force to decrease the bulk transport of the building materials in urban environments. Considering this fact, applying more in-situ recycling technologies for Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) is an urgent need. The European C2CA project develops a novel concrete recycling technology that can be performed purely mechanically and in situ. The technology consists of a combination of smart demolition, gentle grinding of the crushed concrete in an autogenous mill, and a novel dry classification technology called ADR to remove the fines. The feasibility of this recycling process was examined in demonstration projects involving in total 20,000 tons of End of Life (EOL) concrete from two office towers in Groningen, The Netherlands. This paper concentrates on the second demonstration project of C2CA, where EOL concrete was recycled on an industrial site. After recycling, the properties of the produced Recycled Aggregate (RA) were investigated, and results are presented. An experimental study was carried out on mechanical and durability properties of produced Recycled Aggregate Concrete (RAC) compared to those of the Natural Aggregate Concrete (NAC). The aim was to understand the importance of RA substitution, w/c ratio and type of cement to the properties of RAC. In this regard, two series of reference concrete with strength classes of C25/30 and C45/55 were produced using natural coarse aggregates (rounded and crushed) and natural sand. The RAC series were created by replacing parts of the natural aggregate, resulting in series of concrete with 0%, 20%, 50% and 100% of RA. Results show that the concrete mix design and type of cement have a decisive effect on the properties of RAC. On the other hand, the substitution of RA even at a high percentage replacement level has a minor and manageable impact on the performance of RAC. This result is a good indication towards the feasibility of using RA in structural concrete by modifying the mix design and using a proper type of cement.

Keywords: Durability, concrete recycling, recycled aggregate, ADR, C2CA

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6 Comparative Analysis of Three Types of Recycled Aggregates and its Use in Masonry Mortar Fabrication

Authors: Antonio Rodríguez Sánchez, Mariano Gonzalez Cortina, Pablo Saiz Martinez, Francisco Fernandez Martinez


Construction sector incessant activity of the last years preceding the crisis has originated a high waste generation and an increased use of raw materials. The main aim of this research is to compare three types of recycled aggregates and the feasibility to incorporate them into masonry mortar fabrication. The tests were developed using two types of binders: CEM II/B-L 32.5 N and CEM IV/B (V) 32.5 N. 50%, 75% and 100% of natural sand were replaced with three types of recycled aggregates. Cement-to-aggregate by dry weight proportions were 1:3 and 1:4. Physical and chemical characterization of recycled aggregates showed continues particle size distribution curve, lower density and higher absorption, which was the reason to use additive to obtain required mortar consistency. Main crystalline phases determined in the X-Ray diffraction test were calcite, quartz, and gypsum. Performed tests show that cement-based mortars fabricated with CEM IV/B (V) 32. 5 N can incorporate recycled aggregates coming from ceramic, concrete and mixed recycling processes, using 1:3 and 1:4 cement-to-aggregate proportions, complying with the limits established by the Spanish standards. It was concluded that recycled mortar coming from concrete recycling process is the one which presents better characteristics.

Keywords: Waste treatment, Mechanical Properties, Construction and demolition waste, recycled aggregate, masonry mortar

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5 Recycled Aggregates from Construction and Demolition Waste Suitable for Concrete Production

Authors: Vladimira Vytlacilova


This study presents the latest research trend in the discipline of construction and demolition (C&D) waste management in Czech Republic. The results of research interest exhibit an increasing research interest in C&D waste management practices in recent years. Construction and demolition waste creates a major portion of total solid waste production in the world and most of it is used in landfills, for reclamation or landscaping all the time. The quality of recycled aggregates for use in concrete construction depends on recycling practices. Classifications, composition and contaminants influence the mechanical-physical properties as well as environmental risks related to its utilization. The second part of contribution describes properties of fibre reinforced concrete with the full replacement of natural aggregate by recycled one (concrete or masonry rubble).

Keywords: Waste Management, Recycling, Construction and demolition waste, recycled aggregate, fibre reinforced concrete

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4 Feasibility Study on the Application of Waste Materials for Production of Sustainable Asphalt Mixtures

Authors: Farzaneh Tahmoorian, Bijan Samali, John Yeaman


Road networks are expanding all over the world during the past few decades to meet the increasing freight volumes created by the population growth and industrial development. At the same time, the rate of generation of solid wastes in the society is increasing with the population growth, technological development, and changes in the lifestyle of people. Thus, the management of solid wastes has become an acute problem. Accordingly, there is a need for greater efficiency in the construction and maintenance of road networks, in reducing the overall cost, especially the utilization of natural materials such as aggregates. An efficient means to reduce construction and maintenance costs of road networks is to replace natural (virgin) materials by secondary, recycled materials. Recycling will also help to reduce pressure on landfills and demand for extraction of natural virgin materials thus ensuring sustainability. Application of solid wastes in asphalt layer reduces not only environmental issues associated with waste disposal but also the demand for virgin materials which will subsequently result in sustainability. Therefore, this research aims to investigate the feasibility of the application of some of the waste materials such as glass, construction and demolition wastes, etc. as alternative materials in pavement construction, particularly flexible pavements. To this end, various combination of different waste materials in certain percentages is considered in designing the asphalt mixture. One of the goals of this research is to determine the optimum percentage of all these materials in the mixture. This is done through a series of tests to evaluate the volumetric properties and resilient modulus of the mixture. The information and data collected from these tests are used to select the adequate samples for further assessment through advanced tests such as triaxial dynamic test and fatigue test, in order to investigate the asphalt mixture resistance to permanent deformation and also cracking. This paper presents the results of these investigations on the application of waste materials in asphalt mixture for production of a sustainable asphalt mix.

Keywords: Sustainability, Glass, Asphalt, Pavement, recycled aggregate

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3 Laboratory Investigations on the Utilization of Recycled Construction Aggregates in Asphalt Mixtures

Authors: Farzaneh Tahmoorian, Bijan Samali, John Yeaman


Road networks are increasingly expanding all over the world. The construction and maintenance of the road pavements require large amounts of aggregates. Considerable usage of various natural aggregates for constructing roads as well as the increasing rate at which solid waste is generated have attracted the attention of many researchers in the pavement industry to investigate the feasibility of the application of some of the waste materials as alternative materials in pavement construction. Among various waste materials, construction and demolition wastes, including Recycled Construction Aggregate (RCA) constitute a major part of the municipal solid wastes in Australia. Creating opportunities for the application of RCA in civil and geotechnical engineering applications is an efficient way to increase the market value of RCA. However, in spite of such promising potentials, insufficient and inconclusive data and information on the engineering properties of RCA had limited the reliability and design specifications of RCA to date. In light of this, this paper, as a first step of a comprehensive research, aims to investigate the feasibility of the application of RCA obtained from construction and demolition wastes for the replacement of part of coarse aggregates in asphalt mixture. As the suitability of aggregates for using in asphalt mixtures is determined based on the aggregate characteristics, including physical and mechanical properties of the aggregates, an experimental program is set up to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of RCA. This laboratory investigation included the measurement of compressive strength and workability of RCA, particle shape, water absorption, flakiness index, crushing value, deleterious materials and weak particles, wet/dry strength variation, and particle density. In addition, the comparison of RCA properties with virgin aggregates has been included as part of this investigation and this paper presents the results of these investigations on RCA, basalt, and the mix of RCA/basalt.

Keywords: Asphalt, Pavement, recycled aggregate, basalt

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2 Durability Aspects of Recycled Aggregate Concrete: An Experimental Study

Authors: Smitha Yadav, Snehal Pathak


Aggregate compositions in the construction and demolition (C&D) waste have potential to replace normal aggregates. However, to re-utilise these aggregates, the concrete produced with these recycled aggregates needs to provide the desired compressive strength and durability. This paper examines the performance of recycled aggregate concrete made up of 60% recycled aggregates of 20 mm size in terms of durability tests namely rapid chloride permeability, drying shrinkage, water permeability, modulus of elasticity and creep without compromising the compressive strength. The experimental outcome indicates that recycled aggregate concrete provides strength and durability same as controlled concrete when processed for removal of adhered mortar.

Keywords: compressive strength, shrinkage, modulus of elasticity, water permeability, recycled aggregate, rapid chloride permeation test

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1 Experimental Study on Recycled Aggregate Pervious Concrete

Authors: Ji Wenzhan, Zhang Tao, Li Guoyou


Concrete is the most widely used building material in the world. At the same time, the world produces a large amount of construction waste each year. Waste concrete is processed and treated, and the recycled aggregate is used to make pervious concrete, which enables the construction waste to be recycled. Pervious concrete has many advantages such as permeability to water, protection of water resources, and so on. This paper tests the recycled aggregate obtained by crushing high-strength waste concrete (TOU) and low-strength waste concrete (PU), and analyzes the effect of porosity, amount of cement, mineral admixture and recycled aggregate on the strength of permeable concrete. The porosity is inversely proportional to the strength, and the amount of cement used is proportional to the strength. The mineral admixture can effectively improve the workability of the mixture. The quality of recycled aggregates had a significant effect on strength. Compared with concrete using "PU" aggregates, the strength of 7d and 28d concrete using "TOU" aggregates increased by 69.0% and 73.3%, respectively. Therefore, the quality of recycled aggregates should be strictly controlled during production, and the mix ratio should be designed according to different use environments and usage requirements. This test prepared a recycled aggregate permeable concrete with a compressive strength of 35.8 MPa, which can be used for light load roads and provides a reference for engineering applications.

Keywords: Permeability, compressive strength, recycled aggregate, permeable concrete

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