Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

recruitment Related Abstracts

17 Nature of HR Practices in the Micro Informal Enterprises: Case Study of Pakistan

Authors: Aamar Ilyas

Abstract:

Value of firm does not only depend upon its financial and material resources rather human resource is also a significant contributor in success of organizations by achieving competitive advantage. Human resource is an important asset so it is the main responsibility of employers to get the best use of this resource. Hence, this paper will explore the human resource practices used by entrepreneurs in the informal economy in Lahore, the provincial capital of Punjab, Pakistan. In this study three major sectors are randomly selected. Snowball sampling technique was applied to collect data. Survey was conducted through interviews of 45 respondents working in the informal sector. The results show that informal sector in Pakistan is not using any formal human resource practices as done by formal enterprises. Findings suggest that there should be the implementation of the human resource practices that help the firm to increase its productivity and ensure the betterment of the employees. The main limitation of the study was short time period to cater all sectors of informal economy of Pakistan which limits the extent of its generalizability. The rationale behind this study is to uncover the facts regarding management practices of human capital in the informal sector.

Keywords: training, welfare, Employee Motivation, Informal Economy, HR practices, working condition, recruitment

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16 Talent Sourcing Practices in Sri Lankan Software Industry

Authors: Malmi Amadoru, Chandana Gamage

Abstract:

Sri Lanka is emerging as a global IT-BPO hub topping up among the 20 global outsourcing destinations. When setting up a new venture in Sri Lanka, talent sourcing plays one of the key functions due to the rapid growth of workforce. Getting competent people with right skills for right positions leads organizations achieving its vision, mission and objectives. It also drives in earning competitive advantage over industry competitors. Thus it is crucial to scan and recruit the best employees to an organization. However there is no published information available on recruitment methods utilized in Sri Lankan software industry, as a study of this nature had not being conducted previously in Sri Lanka. The main objective of this study was to explore various talent sourcing practices exploited in Sri Lankan software industry. Also this study analyses the extent which Sri Lanka has adopted different recruitment strategies utilized in worldwide and its deviations. The research outcome is beneficial for HR professionals to identify the current trends in recruitment practices. Moreover investors who are interested in IT-BPO engagements can gain a thorough knowledge about talent sourcing techniques in Sri Lankan software industry. Finally, this research clues trending areas which can be further investigated in future.

Keywords: software industry, recruitment, Sri Lanka, talent, IT-BPO

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15 The Reasons behind Individuals to Join Terrorist Organizations: Recruitment from Outside

Authors: Murat Sözen

Abstract:

Today terrorism is gaining momentum again. Parallel to this, it hurts more than before because it has victims from not only its own locations but also remote places. As victims are from outside, militants are likewise from own location and outside. What made these individuals join the terrorist organizations and how these organizations recruit militants are still unanswered. The purpose of this work is to find reasons of joining and power of recruiting. In addition, the role of most popular tool of recruiting, ‘social media’ will be examined.

Keywords: Social Media, recruitment, militants

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14 Managing the Local Manager: A Comparative Study of Core HRM Functions in Multinationals

Authors: Maria Khan

Abstract:

Framing good core Human Resource Management (HRM) functions like recruitment, selection, training and development, which if executed effectively, can become a strategic advantage for a company. HRM policies related to mid-level managers can depend on the type of top management. This may be due to the difference in perception of effective HRM policies of an expatriate and local leadership. This comparative case study assesses how local mid-level managers are managed in leading multinational telecom companies in Pakistan. Core HRM functions related to managers were analysed through field research based on semi-structured interviews with relevant Human Resource Managers. Results suggest that recruitment and selection practices are not too different and are in compliance with best HRM practices. However, there is a difference in the effective implementation of Training and Development policies. Changing global management trends and skill development dictate that MNCs continuously develop the local talent effectively for local and international success.

Keywords: Development, Human resource management, training, Selection, recruitment, managers, core HRM, subsidiary, international staffing, MNC, expatriate

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13 Effect of Recruitment and Selection on Employee Performance in Hospitality Industries

Authors: Yusuf A. Bako, Olubunmi O. Kolawole

Abstract:

This study sought to establish the effect of recruitment and selection on the employee performance in hospitality industries. The success of any organization in this modern business environment depends on the caliber of the manpower that steer the affairs of the organization. History has shown that recruitment and selection as a function of human resources management practices have a pivotal role in determining the level of employee performance in an organization. The hospitality industries have been faced with challenges of performance due to unconventional selection and placement practices in terms of poor policy in selecting candidate, inconsistency in selection process, sidetracking employment test and interview, godfatherism and regional selection process etc. The overall objective of the study was to determine how recruitment and selection affect employee performance in hospitality industry in Ogun State, Nigeria. This study adopts descriptive and inferential research design while population was drawn from leading hotels in Ogun State, Nigeria. The samples size was 100 employees and questionnaire was used to collect data while Cronbach alpha was used to test the instrument. The result of the study reveals that correlation between employee performance and recruitment and selection were highly significant.

Keywords: Practices, Human Resources Management, Selection, recruitment, employee performance

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12 Manipulation of the Public Sphere to Win Cultural Hegemony: The Process by Which Islamic State Uses the Principles of the Overton Window to Engineer Extremism

Authors: A. Brigitte Coles

Abstract:

In order to be successful in a campaign against terror and maintain a favorable world order, we must recognize the effects of priming, framing, and agenda setting on the public sphere, and address how terrorist organizations are able to manipulate language and symbols to shift public opinion and increase recruitment success. Because of their unprecedented activity in the region and foreign recruitment success, this study specifically addresses how the Islamic State (IS/ISIS/ISIL) manipulates the public sphere to amplify support and increase western recruitment. By following a grounded theory methodology and coding triangulated data from IS propaganda, a model for the process of terrorist recruitment has emerged, concerning both environments and personalities susceptible to recruitment, and the steps by which an extremist can be created. This has resulted in the ability to reverse engineer a method by which counter recruitment operations can be facilitated in an effort to lessen the vulnerability of areas and individuals, as well as create dissent among current extremists.

Keywords: Counter-Terrorism, Countering Violent Extremism, recruitment, overton window

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11 Human Resources Development and Management: A Guide to School Owners

Authors: Charita B. Lasala, Lakambini G. Reluya

Abstract:

The human factor composing the organization is an asset that needs to be managed conscientiously and to be in tuned with the organization’s need. Thus, the human resources add value to the organization by using their talents, skills and knowledge in transforming the other resources of the organization to either produce or to deliver products and services that generate profits or other valued forms for return. Keeping these kinds of employees has always been the main goal of each Human Resources Department in every company worldwide; regardless of the work being done. They are the most important resource a company can have and treating them well will make them priceless assets that can help make a business a success. Larmen de Guia Memorial College (LGMC) and Royal Oaks International School (ROIS) is one of the many organizations that seek ways to keep the human factor and are in the process of formalization and that people management is on the top of the list thus, this study was made since there was a need for the creation of the Human Resources Department due to its absence in the organization and to help the organization in keeping these valued employees. The study was anchored on the concept that human resources consist of people who perform its activities and that all decisions that affect the workforce concern the organization’s human resources functions. In conducting this study, it made use of the mixed method using both the qualitative and quantitative approaches with focus group discussions. The design has three stages namely: problem conceptualization, case analysis, and output. The output from the survey and interviews tells the abstracted ideas on the proposed HR program for the said institution. Based on the findings of the study, it can be concluded that the personnel in the institution is not in the correct perspective, much more that the personnel has no specific job descriptions. The hiring procedure is not extensive, nor the personnel was given the chance to be exposed to training that would aid them in job development and enhancement of their skills and talents. The compensation package offered by the institution does not commensurate to their services rendered. Lastly, it is concluded that in the opinion/decision rendered by the grievance committee is not fair and that the institution failed to give good motivation/initiative for the employees to be more productive.

Keywords: People Management, recruitment, employee benefits, employee relations, human resources and management, trainings

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10 The Use of Social Media in the Recruitment Process as HR Strategy

Authors: Seema Sant

Abstract:

In the 21st century were four generation workforces are working, it’s crucial for organizations to build talent management strategy, as tech-savvy Gen Y has entered the work force. They are more connected to each other than ever – through the internet enabled Social media networks Social media has become important in today’s world. The users of such Social media sites have increased in multiple. From sharing their opinion for a brand/product to researching a company before going for an interview, making a conception about a company’s culture or following a Company’s updates due to sheer interest or for job vacancy, Work force today is constantly in touch with social networks. Thus corporate world has rightly realized its potential uses for business purpose. Companies now use social media for marketing, advertising, consumer survey, etc. For HR professionals, it is used for networking and connecting to the Talent pool- through Talent Community. Social recruiting is the process of sourcing or hiring candidates through the use of social sites such as LinkedIn, Facebook Twitter which provide them with an array of information about potential employee; this study represents an exploratory investigation on the role of social networking sites in recruitment. The primarily aim is to analyze the factors that can enhance the channel of recruitment used by of the recruiter with specific reference to the IT organizations in Mumbai, India. Particularly, the aim is to identify how and why companies use social media to attract and screen applicants during their recruitment processes. It also examines the advantages and limitations of recruitment through social media for employers. This is done by literature review. Further, the papers examine the recruiter impact and understand the various opportunities which have created due to technology, thus, to analyze and examine these factors, both primary, as well as secondary data, are collected for the study. The primary data are gathered from five HR manager working in five top IT organizations in Mumbai and 100 HR consultants’ i.e., recruiter. The data was collected by conducting a survey and supplying a closed-ended questionnaire. A comprehension analysis of the study is depicted through graphs and figures. From the analysis, it was observed that there exists a positive relationship between the level of employee recruited through social media and their organizational commitment. Finally the findings show that company’s i.e. recruiters are currently using social media in recruitment, but perhaps not as effective as they could be. The paper gives recommendations and conditions for success that can help employers to make the most out of social media in recruitment.

Keywords: Social Media, Workforce, recruitment, social sites

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9 Changing MBA Identities: Using Critical Reflection inside and out in Finding a New Narrative

Authors: Keith Schofield, Leigh Morland

Abstract:

Storytelling is an established means of leadership and management development and is also considered a form of leadership of self and others in its own right. This study focuses on the utility of storytelling in the development of management narratives in an MBA programme; sources include programme participants as well as international recruiters, whose voices are often only heard in terms of economic contribution and globalisation. For many MBA candidates, the return to study requires the development of a new identity which complements their professional identity; each candidate has their own journey and expectations, the use of story can enable candidates to explore their aspirations and assumptions and give voice to previously unspoken ideas. For international recruitment, the story of market development and change must be captured if MBAs are to remain fit for purpose. If used effectively, story acts as a form of critical reflection that can inform the learning journeys of individuals, emerging identities as well as the ongoing design and development of programmes. The landscape of management education is shifting; the MBA begins to attract a different kind of candidate, some are younger than before, others are seeking validation for their existing work practices, yet more are entrepreneurial and wish to capitalise on an institutional experience to further their career. There is a shift in context, creating uncertainty and ambiguity for programme managers and recruiters, thus requiring institutions to create a new MBA narrative. This study utilises Lego SeriousPlay as the means to engaging programme participants and international agents in telling the story of their MBA. We asked MBA participants to tell the story of their leadership and management aspirations and compare these to stories of their development journeys, allowing for critical reflection of their respective development gaps. We asked international recruiters, who act as university agents and promote courses in the student’s country of origin, to explore their mental models of MBA candidates and their learning agenda. The purpose of this process was to explore the agent’s perception of the MBA programme and to articulate the student journey from a recruitment perspective. The paper’s unique contribution is in combining these stories in order to explore the assumptions that determine programme design. Data drawn from reflective statements together with images of Lego ‘builds’ created the opportunity for reflection between the mental models of these groups. Findings will inform the design of the MBA journey and experience; we review the extent to which the changing identities of learners are congruent with programme design. Data from international recruiters also determines the extent to which marketing and recruitment strategies identify with would be candidates.

Keywords: storytelling, recruitment, critical reflection, programme management

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8 Climate Related Variability and Stock-Recruitment Relationship of the North Pacific Albacore Tuna

Authors: Ashneel Ajay Singh, Naoki Suzuki, Kazumi Sakuramoto

Abstract:

The North Pacific albacore (Thunnus alalunga) is a temperate tuna species distributed in the North Pacific which is of significant economic importance to the Pacific Island Nations and Territories. Despite its importance, the stock dynamics and ecological characteristics of albacore still, have gaps in knowledge. The stock-recruitment relationship of the North Pacific stock of albacore tuna was investigated for different density-dependent effects and a regime shift in the stock characteristics in response to changes in environmental and climatic conditions. Linear regression analysis for recruit per spawning biomass (RPS) and recruitment (R) against the female spawning stock biomass (SSB) were significant for the presence of different density-dependent effects and positive for a regime shift in the stock time series. Application of Deming regression to RPS against SSB with the assumption for the presence of observation and process errors in both the dependent and independent variables confirmed the results of simple regression. However, R against SSB results disagreed given variance level of < 3 and agreed with linear regression results given the assumption of variance ≥ 3. Assuming the presence of different density-dependent effects in the albacore tuna time series, environmental and climatic condition variables were compared with R, RPS, and SSB. The significant relationship of R, RPS and SSB were determined with the sea surface temperature (SST), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and multivariate El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) with SST being the principal variable exhibiting significantly similar trend with R and RPS. Recruitment is significantly influenced by the dynamics of the SSB as well as environmental conditions which demonstrates that the stock-recruitment relationship is multidimensional. Further investigation of the North Pacific albacore tuna age-class and structure is necessary for further support the results presented here. It is important for fishery managers and decision makers to be vigilant of regime shifts in environmental conditions relating to albacore tuna as it may possibly cause regime shifts in the albacore R and RPS which should be taken into account to effectively and sustainability formulate harvesting plans and management of the species in the North Pacific oceanic region.

Keywords: recruitment, Albacore tuna, El Niño southern oscillation, Pacific decadal oscillation, sea surface temperature, Thunnus alalunga, spawning stock biomass, recruits per spawning biomass, density-dependent effects, regime shift

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7 Role of Climatic Conditions on Pacific Bluefin Tuna Thunnus orientalis Stock Structure

Authors: Ashneel Ajay Singh, Naoki Suzuki, Kazumi Sakuramoto, Kalla Alok, Nath Paras

Abstract:

Bluefin (Thunnus orientalis) tuna is one of the most economically valuable tuna species in the world. In recent years the stock has been observed to decline. It is suspected that the stock-recruitment relationship and population structure is influenced by environmental and climatic variables. This study was aimed at investigating the influence of environmental and climatic conditions on the trajectory of the different life stages of the North Pacific bluefin tuna. Exploratory analysis was performed for the North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) on the time series of the bluefin tuna cohorts (age-0, 1, 2,…,9, 10+). General Additive Modeling (GAM) was used to reconstruct the recruitment (R) trajectory. The spatial movement of the SST was also monitored from 1953 to 2012 in the distribution area of the bluefin tuna. Exploratory analysis showed significance influence of the North Pacific Sea Surface temperature (SST) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) on the time series of the age-0 group. Other age group (1, 2,…,9, 10+) time series did not exhibit any significant correlations. PDO showed most significant relationship in the months of October to December. Although the stock-recruitment relationship is of biological significance, the recruits (age-0) showed poor correlation with the Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB). Indeed the most significant model incorporated the SSB, SST and PDO. The results show that the stock-recruitment relationship of the North Pacific bluefin tuna is multi-dimensional and cannot be adequately explained by the SSB alone. SST and PDO forcing of the population structure is of significant importance and needs to be accounted for when making harvesting plans for bluefin tuna in the North Pacific.

Keywords: recruitment, Pacific decadal oscillation, sea surface temperature, spawning stock biomass, pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis, cohorts, general additive model

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6 Assessment of Student Attitudes to Higher Education Service Measures: The Development of a Framework for Private Higher Education Institutions in Malaysia

Authors: Farrah Anne Robert, Robert McClelland, Seng Kiat Kok

Abstract:

Higher education service quality is widely regarded as key factors in the long term success of a higher education institution in attracting and retaining students. This research attempted to establish the impact of service quality on recruiting and retaining students in private higher education institutions (PHEI’s). 501 local and international students responded to a 49 item educational service measure questionnaire from PHEIs in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, two states in Malaysia which together account for 60% of private colleges in Malaysia. Results from this research revealed that, inter-alia, facilities, employability, management and administration services, academic staff competence, curriculum and student overall experiences were key driving factors in attracting and retaining students. Lack of “campus-like building” facilities and lecturer’s effectiveness in delivering lectures were keys concerns in the provision of service quality by PHEI’s in Malaysia. Over the last decade, the Government of Malaysia has set a target of recruiting 200,000 international students to study in Malaysia by PHEI’s and PHEI’s have failed to achieve this target. This research suggests that service quality issues identified above are impacting efforts to recruit and retain both local and international students by PHEIs. The researcher recommends that further and detailed research be carried on these factors and its impact on recruitment and retention. PHEI administrators can benefit from this research by conducting an evaluation of service measures delivered in their institutions and take corrective measures. Prospective students can benefit from this study by including in their choice factors the “service quality delivery” of PHEI’s when deciding to enroll in a particular PHEI.

Keywords: Higher Education, Service Quality, Retention, recruitment

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5 Resourcing Remote Rural Social Enterprises to Foster Resilience and Regional Development

Authors: Heather Fulford, Melanie Liddell

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The recruitment and retention of high quality employees can prove to be challenging for social enterprises, particularly in some of the core business support functions such as marketing, communications, IT and finance. This holds true for social enterprises in urban contexts, where roles with more attractive remuneration in these business functions can often be found quite readily in the private sector. For social enterprises situated in rural locations, the challenges of staff recruitment and retention are even more acute. Such challenges can lead to a skills deficit in rural social enterprises, which can, at best, hinder their growth potential, and worse, jeopardise their chances of survival. This in turn, can have a negative impact on the sustainability and resilience of the surrounding rural community in which the social enterprise is located. The purpose of this paper is to report on aspects of a collaborative initiative established to stimulate innovation and business growth in remote rural businesses in Scotland. Launched in 2010, this initiative was designed to attract young students and graduates from the region to stay in the region upon completion of their studies, and to attract others from outside the region to re-locate there post-university. To facilitate this, SMEs in the region were offered wage subsidies to encourage them to recruit a student or graduate on a work placement for up to one year to participate in an innovation or business growth-oriented project. A number of the employers offering work placements were social enterprises. Through analysis of the placement project and role specifications devised by the participating social enterprises, an overview is provided of their business development needs and the skills they require to stimulate innovation and growth. Scrutiny of the reflective accounts compiled by the students and graduates at the close of their work placements highlights the benefits they derived from being able to put their academic knowledge and skills into action within a social enterprise. Examination of interviews conducted with a sample of placement employers reveals the contribution the students and graduates made during the business development projects with the social enterprises. The challenges of hosting such placements are also discussed. The paper concludes with indications of the lessons learned and an outline of the wider implications for other remote rural locations in which social enterprises play an important role in the local economy and life of the community.

Keywords: Resource Management, Regional Development, Resilience, Rural development, Regeneration, Retention, recruitment, remuneration

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4 The Role of Social Media in the Rise of Islamic State in India: An Analytical Overview

Authors: Parvinder Singh, Yasmeen Cheema

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The evolution of Islamic State (acronym IS) has an ultimate goal of restoring the caliphate. IS threat to the global security is main concern of international community but has also raised a factual concern for India about the regular radicalization of IS ideology among Indian youth. The incident of joining Arif Ejaz Majeed, an Indian as ‘jihadist’ in IS has set strident alarm in law & enforcement agencies. On 07.03.2017, many people were injured in an Improvised Explosive Device (IED) blast on-board of Bhopal Ujjain Express. One perpetrator of this incident was killed in encounter with police. But, the biggest shock is that the conspiracy was pre-planned and the assailants who carried out the blast were influenced by the ideology perpetrated by the Islamic State. This is the first time name of IS has cropped up in a terror attack in India. It is a red indicator of violent presence of IS in India, which is spreading through social media. The IS have the capacity to influence the younger Muslim generation in India through its brutal and aggressive propaganda videos, social media apps and hatred speeches. It is a well known fact that India is on the radar of IS, as well on its ‘Caliphate Map’. IS uses Twitter, Facebook and other social media platforms constantly. Islamic State has used enticing videos, graphics, and articles on social media and try to influence persons from India & globally that their jihad is worthy. According to arrested perpetrator of IS in different cases in India, the most of Indian youths are victims to the daydreams which are fondly shown by IS. The dreams that the Muslim empire as it was before 1920 can come back with all its power and also that the Caliph and its caliphate can be re-established are shown by the IS. Indian Muslim Youth gets attracted towards these euphemistic ideologies. Islamic State has used social media for disseminating its poisonous ideology, recruitment, operational activities and for future direction of attacks. IS through social media inspired its recruits & lone wolfs to continue to rely on local networks to identify targets and access weaponry and explosives. Recently, a pro-IS media group on its Telegram platform shows Taj Mahal as the target and suggested mode of attack as a Vehicle Born Improvised Explosive Attack (VBIED). Islamic State definitely has the potential to destroy the Indian national security & peace, if timely steps are not taken. No doubt, IS has used social media as a critical mechanism for recruitment, planning and executing of terror attacks. This paper will therefore examine the specific characteristics of social media that have made it such a successful weapon for Islamic State. The rise of IS in India should be viewed as a national crisis and handled at the central level with efficient use of modern technology.

Keywords: Social Media, National Security, Ideology, India, recruitment, Islamic State, terror attack

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3 Defining and Measuring the Success of the Hospitality-Based Social Enterprise Ringelblum Café

Authors: Nitzan Winograd, Nada Kakabadse

Abstract:

This study examines whether the hospitality-based social enterprise Ringelblum Café is achieving its stated social goals of developing a sense of self-efficacy among at-risk youth who work in this enterprise and raising levels of recruitment to the Israel Defence Forces (IDF) and National Service (NS) among these young adults. Ringelblum Café was founded in 2009 in Be'er-Sheva in order to provide employment solutions for at-risk youth in the southern district of Israel. Each year, 10 at-risk young adults aged 16–18 are referred to the programme by various welfare agencies. The training programme is approximately a year in duration and includes professional training in the art of cooking. Each young adult is also supported by a social worker. This study is based on the participation of 31 youths who graduated from the Ringelblum Café’s training programme. A convenience sampling model was used with the assistance of the programme's social worker. This study is quantitative in its approach. Data was collected by means of three separate self-reported questionnaires: a personal information questionnaire collected general demographics data; a self-efficacy questionnaire consisted of two parts: general self-efficacy and social self-efficacy; and an IDS/NS recruitment questionnaire. The study uses the theory of change in order to find out whether at-risk youth in the Ringelblum Café programme are taught a profession with future prospects, as well as whether they develop a sense of self-efficacy and raise their chances of recruitment into the IDF/NS. The study found that the sense of self-efficacy of the graduates is relatively high. In addition, there was a significant difference between the importance of recruitment to the IDF/NS among these youth prior to the beginning of the programme and after its completion, indicating that the training programme had a positive effect on motivation for recruitment to the IDF/NS. The study also found that the percentage of recruits to the IDF/NS among youth who graduated from the training programme were not significantly higher than the general recruitment figures in Israel. In conclusion, Ringelblum Café is making sound progress towards achieving its social goals regarding recruitment to the IDF/NS. Moreover, the sense of self-efficacy among the graduates is relatively high, and it can be assumed that the training programme has a positive effect on these young adults, although there is no clear connection between the two. This study is among a few that have been conducted in the field of hospitality-based social enterprises in Israel and can serve as a basis for further research. Moreover, the study results may help improve the perception of at-risk youth and their contribution to society and could increase awareness of the growing trend of social enterprises promoting social goals.

Keywords: Social Enterprise, Self-efficacy, recruitment, at-risk youth, Israel Defence Forces (IDF), national service

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2 ISIS Women Recruitment in Spain and De-Radicalization Programs in Prisons

Authors: Inmaculada Yuste Martinez

Abstract:

Since July 5, 2014, Abubaker al Bagdadi, leader of the Islamic State since 2010 climbed the pulpit of the Great Mosque of Al Nuri of Mosul and proclaimed the Caliphate, the number of fighters who have travelled to Syria to join the Caliphate has increased as never before. Although it is true that the phenomenon of foreign fighters is not a new phenomenon, as it occurred after the Spanish Civil War, Republicans from Ireland and the conflict of the Balkans among others, it is highly relevant the fact that in this case, it has reached figures unknown in Europe until now. The approval of the resolution 2178 (2014) of the Security Council, foreign terrorist fighters placed the subject a priority position on the International agenda. The available data allow us to affirm that women have increasingly assumed operative functions in jihadist terrorism and in the activities linked to it in the development of attacks in the European Union, including minors and young adults. In the case of Spain, one in four of the detainees in 2016 were women, a significant increase compared to 2015. This contrasts with the fact that until 2014 no woman had been prosecuted in Spain for terrorist activities of a jihadist nature. It is fundamental when we talk about the prevention of radicalization and counterterrorism that we do not underestimate the potential threat to the security of countries like Spain that women from the West can assume to the global jihadist movement. This work aims to deepen the radicalization processes of these women and their profiles influencing the female inmate population. It also wants to focus on the importance of creating de-radicalization programs for these inmates since women are a crucial element in radicalization processes. A special focus it is made on young radicalized female inmate population as this target group is the most recoverable and on which it would result more fruitful to intervene. De-radicalization programs must also be designed to fit their profiles and circumstances; a sensitive environment will be prisons and juvenile centers, areas that until now had been unrelated to this problem and which are already hosting the first convicted in judicial offices in Spanish territory. A qualitative research and an empirical and analytical method has been implemented in this work, focused on the cases that took place in Spain of young women and the imaginary that the Islamic State uses for the processes of radicalization for this target group and how it does not fit with their real role in the Jihad, as opposed to other movements in which women do have a real and active role in the armed conflict as YPJ do it as a part of the armed wing of the Democratic Union Party of Syria.

Keywords: Caliphate, Jihadism, recruitment, ISIS, de-radicalization, gender perspective, foreign fighter

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1 Minors and Terrorism: A Discussion about the Recruitment and Resilience

Authors: Marta Maria Aguilar Carceles

Abstract:

This theoretical study argues how terrorism is rising around the world and which are the factors and situations that contribute to this process. Linked to aspects of human development, minors are one of the most vulnerable collectives to be engaged for this purpose. Its special weakness and lower possibility of self-defense makes them more likely to become victims as a result of a brainwashing process. Terrorism is an illicit way to achieve political and social changes and new technologies and available resources make it easier to spread. In this sense, throughout a theoretical revision of different recent and scientific articles, it is evaluated which risk factors can provoke its affiliation and later develop of antisocial and illicit behavior. An example of this group of factors could be the inter-generational continuity between parents and their children, as well as the sociodemographic aspects joined to cultural experiences (i.e. sense of dishonor, frustration, etc.). The assess of this kind of variables must be accompanied by the evaluation of protective factors, because the reasons through one person decides to join to terrorism are inherently idiosyncratic and we can only install mechanisms of prevention knowing those personal characteristics. To sum, both aspects underline the relevance of the internalizing and externalizing personal factors, each of them in one specific direction: a) to increase the possibility of being recruited or follow this type of criminal group by himself, and b) to be able of avoiding the effects and consequences of terrorism thanks to personal and resilient characteristics (resilience).

Keywords: Terrorism, Resilience, Criminality, recruitment, minors

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