Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Reconstruction Related Abstracts

27 The Early Stages of the Standardisation of Finnish Building Sector

Authors: Anu Soikkeli


Early 20th century functionalism aimed at generalising living and rationalising construction, thus laying the foundation for the standardisation of construction components and products. From the 1930s onwards, all measurement and quality instructions for building products, different types of building components, descriptions of working methods complying with advisable building practises, planning, measurement and calculation guidelines, terminology, etc. were called standards. Standardisation was regarded as a necessary prerequisite for the mass production of housing. This article examines the early stages of standardisation in Finland in the 1940s and 1950s, as reflected on the working history of an individual architect, Erkki Koiso-Kanttila (1914-2006). In 1950 Koiso-Kanttila was appointed the Head of Design of the Finnish Association of Architects’ Building Standards Committee, a position which he held until 1958. His main responsibilities were the development of the RT Building Information File and compiling of the files.

Keywords: Architecture, Reconstruction, Standardisation, post WWII period

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26 Origin of Salinity Problems during Tsunami and Remedial Measures in Coastal Areas

Authors: N. K. Gupta, R. C. Bhattacharjee


In the aftermath of the tsunami in 2004 and terrible humanitarian disaster affecting thousands of kilometers of coastal south, the immediate priority is to begin the process of reconstruction of livelihoods including basic services. It is likely that many coastal wetlands would have been affected by the large inflow of salt-water and littoral sediments during the tsunami, with longer-term effects including changes in their hydrogeology caused by changes to coastlines and damage to sea-defenses. The reconstruction process is likely to provide opportunities to better integrate environmental protection and management with economic development in the region, including the opportunity to conserve and restore coastal habitats. Presented herein is a study pertaining to salinity problems encountered in coastal south during tsunami in 2004 and the consequent loss of fertility of agricultural land including remedial measures to revitalize economic growth in the region.

Keywords: Tsunami, Reconstruction, Salinity, costal area

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25 Variant Selection and Pre-transformation Phase Reconstruction for Deformation-Induced Transformation in AISI 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel

Authors: Manendra Singh Parihar, Sandip Ghosh Chowdhury


Austenitic stainless steels are widely used and give a good combination of properties. When this steel is plastically deformed, a phase transformation of the metastable Face Centred Cubic Austenite to the stable Body Centred Cubic (α’) or to the Hexagonal close packed (ԑ) martensite may occur, leading to the enhancement in the mechanical properties like strength. The work was based on variant selection and corresponding texture analysis for the strain induced martensitic transformation during deformation of the parent austenite FCC phase to form the product HCP and the BCC martensite phases separately, obeying their respective orientation relationships. The automated method for reconstruction of the parent phase orientation using the EBSD data of the product phase orientation is done using the MATLAB and TSL-OIM software. The method of triplets was used which involves the formation of a triplet of neighboring product grains having a common variant and linking them using a misorientation-based criterion. This led to the proper reconstruction of the pre-transformation phase orientation data and thus to its micro structure and texture. The computational speed of current method is better compared to the previously used methods of reconstruction. The reconstruction of austenite from ԑ and α’ martensite was carried out for multiple samples and their IPF images, pole figures, inverse pole figures and ODFs were compared. Similar type of results was observed for all samples. The comparison gives the idea for estimating the correct sequence of the transformation i.e. γ → ε → α’ or γ → α’, during deformation of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel.

Keywords: Reconstruction, Martensitic Transformation, austenitic stainless steel, EBSD, variant selection

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24 Pre-Transformation Phase Reconstruction for Deformation-Induced Transformation in AISI 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel

Authors: Manendra Singh Parihar, Sandip Ghosh Chowdhury


Austenitic stainless steels are widely used and give a good combination of properties. When this steel is plastically deformed, a phase transformation of the metastable Face Centred Cubic Austenite to the stable Body Centred Cubic (α’) or to the Hexagonal close packed (ԑ) martensite may occur, leading to the enhancement in the mechanical properties like strength. The work was based on variant selection and corresponding texture analysis for the strain induced martensitic transformation during deformation of the parent austenite FCC phase to form the product HCP and the BCC martensite phases separately, obeying their respective orientation relationships. The automated method for reconstruction of the parent phase orientation using the EBSD data of the product phase orientation is done using the MATLAB and TSL-OIM software. The method of triplets was used which involves the formation of a triplet of neighboring product grains having a common variant and linking them using a misorientation-based criterion. This led to the proper reconstruction of the pre-transformation phase orientation data and thus to its microstructure and texture. The computational speed of current method is better compared to the previously used methods of reconstruction. The reconstruction of austenite from ԑ and α’ martensite was carried out for multiple samples and their IPF images, pole figures, inverse pole figures and ODFs were compared. Similar type of results was observed for all samples. The comparison gives the idea for estimating the correct sequence of the transformation i.e. γ → ε → α’ or γ → α’, during deformation of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel.

Keywords: Reconstruction, Martensitic Transformation, austenitic stainless steel, EBSD, variant selection

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23 Investigating Re-Use a Historical Masonry Arch Bridge

Authors: H. A. Erdogan


Historical masonry arch bridges built centuries ago have fulfilled their function until recent decades. However, from the beginning of 20th century, these bridges have remained inadequate as a result of increasing speed, size and capacity of the means of transport. Although new bridges have been built in many places, masonry bridges located within the city limits still need to be used. When the size and transportation loads of modern vehicles are taken into account, it is apparent that historical masonry arch bridges would be exposed to greater loads than their initial design loads. Because of that, many precautions taken either remain insufficient or damage these bridges. In this study, the history of Debbaglar Bridge, one of the historic bridges located in the city center of Aksaray/Turkey is presented and its existing condition is evaluated. Structural analysis of the bridge under present conditions and loads is explained. Moreover, the retrofit and restoration application prepared considering the analysis data is described.

Keywords: Reconstruction, adaptive re-use, Aksaray debbaglar bridge, masonry bridge

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22 Reconstruction of Holographic Dark Energy in Chameleon Brans-Dicke Cosmology

Authors: Surajit Chattopadhyay


Accelerated expansion of the current universe is well-established in the literature. Dark energy and modified gravity are two approaches to account for this accelerated expansion. In the present work, we consider scalar field models of dark energy, namely, tachyon and DBI essence in the framework of chameleon Brans-Dicke cosmology. The equation of state parameter is reconstructed and the subsequent cosmological implications are studied. We examined the stability for the obtained solutions of the crossing of the phantom divide under a quantum correction of massless conformally invariant fields and we have seen that quantum correction could be small when the phantom crossing occurs and the obtained solutions of the phantom crossing could be stable under the quantum correction. In the subsequent phase, we have established a correspondence between the NHDE model and the quintessence, the DBI-essence and the tachyon scalar field models in the framework of chameleon Brans–Dicke cosmology. We reconstruct the potentials and the dynamics for these three scalar field models we have considered. The reconstructed potentials are found to increase with the evolution of the universe and in a very late stage they are observed to decay.

Keywords: Reconstruction, Dark Energy, modified gravity, holographic principle

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21 Reuse of Huge Industrial Areas

Authors: Martina Peřinková, Lenka Kolarcikova, Marketa Twrda


Brownfields are one of the most important problems that must be solved by today's cities. The topic of this article is description of developing a comprehensive transformation of post-industrial area of the former iron factory national cultural heritage Lower Vítkovice. City of Ostrava used to be industrial superpower of the Czechoslovak Republic, especially in the area of coal mining and iron production, after declining industrial production and mining in the 80s left many unused areas of former factories generally brownfields and backfields. Since the late 90s we are observing how the city officials or private entities seeking to remedy this situation. Regeneration of brownfields is a very expensive and long-term process. The area is now rebuilt for tourists and residents of the city in the entertainment, cultural, and social center. It was necessary do the reconstruction of the industrial monuments. Equally important was the construction of new buildings, which helped reusing of the entire complex. This is a unique example of transformation of technical monuments and completion of necessary new objects, so that the area could start working again and reintegrate back into the urban system.

Keywords: Reconstruction, Brown Fields, conversion, historical and industrial buildings

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20 The Developments Trend of Islamic Inscriptions in the Building Portals of Dezfoul City

Authors: Mahnoush Mahmoudi, Ali Chaeedeh


In the architecture of Iranian traditional houses, the ornamentations available in the inscriptions of houses entrance portal express the identity of architects and personality of houses owners and are rooted in their religious and national beliefs and faiths. The main hypothesis of this research is changing the physique and application of religious contents in compliance with the thoughts and beliefs of people in Dezfoul historical city in the epigraphs of houses entrance portals. The objective of this study is reviewing the development trend of texts, concepts and physique of inscriptions as well as analyzing the factors effective on the quality and diversity of application of inscriptions. The present research is an applied study and descriptive-analytical method has been applied, and the data was collected by library and survey studies. The population of this research includes historical houses, houses damaged in war (Iran & Iraq) and renovated and new tissue and new-built houses of Dezfoul, from Qajar era so far. Random sampling method has been applied in this study and dispersal area includes the city. Data analysis method in this study is qualitative and quantitative. The results of this study indicate that today the inscriptions available in the entrance portal of houses in Dezfoul comparing to inscriptions in Qajar1 and Pahlavi2 era is very simple and has lower aesthetic value. One of the causes for such superficial and contextual gap between inscriptions seems to be the war and renovations during and after destruction.

Keywords: Architecture, Islamic Architecture, Reconstruction, epigraph, inscription, entrance portal, Dezfoul

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19 Impact of the Operation and Infrastructure Parameters to the Railway Track Capacity

Authors: Juraj Camaj, Jaroslav Mašek, Martin Kendra, Matej Babin


The railway transport is considered as a one of the most environmentally friendly mode of transport. With future prediction of increasing of freight transport there are lines facing problems with demanded capacity. Increase of the track capacity could be achieved by infrastructure constructive adjustments. The contribution shows how the travel time can be minimized and the track capacity increased by changing some of the basic infrastructure and operation parameters, for example, the minimal curve radius of the track, the number of tracks, or the usable track length at stations. Calculation of the necessary parameter changes is based on the fundamental physical laws applied to the train movement, and calculation of the occupation time is dependent on the changes of controlling the traffic between the stations.

Keywords: Reconstruction, curve radius, maximum curve speed, track mass capacity

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18 Sustainable Reconstruction: Towards Guidelines of Post-Disaster Vulnerability Reduction for Permanent Informal Housing in Malaysia Due to Flooding

Authors: Ruhizal Roosli, Julaihi Wahid, Abu Hassan Abu Bakar, Faizal Baharum


This paper reports on the progress of a study on the reconstruction project after the ‘Yellow Flood’ disaster in Kelantan, Malaysia. Malaysia still does not have guidelines to build housing after a disaster especially in disaster-prone areas. At the international level, many guidelines have been prepared that is found suitable for post-disaster housing. Which guidelines can be adapted that best describes the situation in Malaysia? It was reported that the houses should be built on stilts, which can withstand certain level of impact during flooding. Unfortunately, until today no specific guideline was available to assist homeowners to rebuild their homes after disaster. In addition, there is also no clear operational procedure to monitor the progress of this construction work. This research is an effort to promoting resilient housing; safety and security; and secure tenure in a prone area. At the end of this study, key lessons will be emerged from the review process and data analysis. These inputs will then have influenced to the content that will be developed and presented as guidelines. An overall objective is to support humanitarian responses to disaster and conflicts for resilience house construction to flood prone area. Interviews with the field based staff were from recent post-disaster housing workforce (disaster management mechanism in Malaysia especially in Kelantan). The respondents were selected based on their experiences in disaster response particularly related to housing provision. These key lessons are perhaps the best practical (operational and technical) guidelines comparing to other International cases to be adapted to the national situations.

Keywords: Housing, Disaster, Reconstruction, Malaysia, guideline

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17 Sanction Influences and Reconstruction Strategies for Iran Oil Market in Post-Sanctions

Authors: Mehrdad HassanZadeh Dugoori, Iman Mohammadali Tajrishi


Since Iran's nuclear program became public in 2002, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been unable to confirm Tehran's assertions that its nuclear activities are exclusively for peaceful purposes and that it has not sought to develop nuclear weapons. The United Nations Security Council has adopted six resolutions since 2006 requiring Iran to stop enriching uranium - which can be used for civilian purposes, but also to build nuclear bombs, which Iran never follow this strategy- and co-operate with the IAEA. Four resolutions have included progressively expansive sanctions to persuade Tehran to comply. The US and EU have imposed additional sanctions on Iranian oil exports and banks since 2012. In this article we reassess the sanction dimensions of Iran and the influences. Then according to the last agreement between P5+1 and Iran in 15 July 2015, we mention reconstruction strategies for oil export markets of Iran and the operational program for one million barrel of crude oil sales per day. These strategies are the conclusion of focus group and brain storming with Iran's oil and gas managers during content analysis.

Keywords: Marketing, Strategy, Reconstruction, post-sanction, oil market

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16 Police and Crime Scene Management Model

Authors: Najaf Hamadzadeh Arbabi


Crime scene management is the first and most critical step in criminal investigations and all the criminal investigations are based on the ability of the crime scene investigation officers for diagnosing the importance and the role of physical evidence at the crime scene. According to the role of available physical evidence at the scene to prove the crime and identify the perpetrator and prove the innocence of those accused have been unduly and also impossible due to the rejection of these reasons, the maintenance and investigation of crime scene and collect evidence are very important in the crime scene. This research, by identifying the factors affecting the management of the crime scene, looking for presenting the effective and efficient indigenous pattern for managing of the crime scene in Iran. Method: This study is an applied and development research. Wilcoxon signed-rank test and the Friedman test for ranking, were used for analyzing the data and all hypotheses were tested at 95% confidence level. The target population is 50 judges and experts in Tehran.

Keywords: Identification, Reconstruction, Crime Scene, designation, individualization

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15 Variations in Breast Aesthetic Reconstruction Rates between Asian and Caucasian Patients Post Mastectomy in a UK Tertiary Breast Referral Centre: A Five-Year Institutional Review

Authors: Wisam Ismail, Chole Wright, Elizabeth Baker, Cathy Tait, Mohamed Salhab, Richard Linforth


Background: Post-mastectomy breast reconstruction is an important treatment option for women with breast cancer with psychosocial, emotional and quality of life benefits. Despite this, Asian patients are one-fifth as likely as Caucasian patients to undergo reconstruction after mastectomy. Aim: This study aimed to assess the difference in breast reconstruction rates between Asian and Caucasian patients treated at Bradford Teaching Hospitals between May 2011 – December 2015.The long-term goal is to equip healthcare professionals to improve breast cancer treatment outcome by increasing breast reconstruction rates in this sub-population. Methods: All patients undergoing mastectomy were identified using a prospectively collected departmental database. Further data was obtained via retrospective electronic case note review. Bradford city population is about 530.000 by the end of 2015, with 67.44% of the city's population was White ethnic groups and 26.83% Asian Ethnic Groups (UK population consensus). The majority of Asian population speaks Urdu, hence an Urdu speaking breast care nurse was appointed to facilitate communications and deliver a better understanding of the reconstruction options and pathways. Statistical analysis was undertaken using the SAS program. Patients were stratified by age, self-reported ethnicity, axillary surgery and reconstruction. Relative odds were calculated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses with adjustment for known confounders. An Urdu speaking breast care nurse was employed throughout this period to facilitate communication and patient decision making. Results: 506 patients underwent Mastectomy over 5 years. 72 (14%) Asian v. 434 (85%) Caucasian. Overall median age is 64 years (SD1.1). Asian median age is 62 (SD0.9), versus Caucasian 65 (SD1.2). Total axillary clearance rate was 30% (42% Asian v.30% Caucasian). Overall reconstruction rate was 126 patients (28.9%).Only 6 of 72 Asian patients (<1%) underwent breast reconstruction versus 121of 434 Caucasian (28%) (p < 0.04), Odds ratio 0.68, (95% confidence interval 0.57-0.79). Conclusions: There is a significant difference in post-mastectomy reconstruction rates between Asian and Caucasian patients. This difference is likely to be multi-factorial. Higher rates of axillary clearance in Asian patients might suggest later disease presentation and/or higher rates of subsequent adjuvant therapy, both of which, can impact on the suitability of breast reconstruction. Strategies aimed at reducing racial disparities in breast reconstruction should include symptom awareness to enable earlier presentation and facilitated communication to ensure informed decision-making.

Keywords: Breast, Aesthetic, Reconstruction, Asian

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14 3D Object Model Reconstruction Based on Polywogs Wavelet Network Parametrization

Authors: Mohamed Othmani, Yassine Khlifi


This paper presents a technique for compact three dimensional (3D) object model reconstruction using wavelet networks. It consists to transform an input surface vertices into signals,and uses wavelet network parameters for signal approximations. To prove this, we use a wavelet network architecture founded on several mother wavelet families. POLYnomials WindOwed with Gaussians (POLYWOG) wavelet families are used to maximize the probability to select the best wavelets which ensure the good generalization of the network. To achieve a better reconstruction, the network is trained several iterations to optimize the wavelet network parameters until the error criterion is small enough. Experimental results will shown that our proposed technique can effectively reconstruct an irregular 3D object models when using the optimized wavelet network parameters. We will prove that an accurateness reconstruction depends on the best choice of the mother wavelets.

Keywords: Optimization, Reconstruction, parametrization, polywog wavelets, wavelet networks

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13 Build Back Better Propositions for Disaster Risk Reduction in Natural Environment Recovery

Authors: S. Wilkinson, Tinu Rose Francis, Y. Chang-Richards, S. Mannakkara


The objective of this paper is to assess the implementation of Build Back Better (BBB) propositions for disaster risk reduction in the natural environment with regard to greater Christchurch, New Zealand, after the 2010–2011 earthquakes in the region. A set of indicators was established to analyse the extent of recovery attained in Christchurch. Disaster recovery in the region is an ongoing process, which gives us the opportunity to rate the progress made so far. Disasters cause significant damage to the built, social and economic environments and also have severe consequences for the natural environment. Findings show that greater Christchurch has made important progress and implemented a comprehensive natural environment recovery plan. The plan addresses the restoration of biodiversity, natural resources, disaster waste management and amenity values in greater Christchurch. This paper also surveys the risk reduction actions being implemented with regard to the natural environment. The findings of this study will help governing bodies to identify and fill the gaps in their natural environment recovery plans.

Keywords: Planning, Resilience, Reconstruction, Recovery, risk reduction, Natural Environment, build back better (BBB)

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12 The Benefits of a Totally Autologous Breast Reconstruction Technique Using Extended Latissimus Dorsi Flap with Lipo-Modelling: A Seven Years United Kingdom Tertiary Breast Unit Results

Authors: Wisam Ismail, Brendan Wooler, Penelope McManus


Introduction: The public perception of implants has been damaged in the wake of recent negative publicity and increasingly we are finding patients wanting to avoid them. Planned lipo-modelling to enhance the volume of a Latissimus dorsi flap is a viable alternative to silicone implants and maintains a Totally Autologous Technique (TAT). Here we demonstrate that when compared to an Implant Assisted Technique (IAT), a TAT offers patients many benefits that offset the requirement of more operations initially, with reduced short and long term complications, reduced symmetrisation surgery and reduced revision rates. Methods. Data was collected prospectively over 7 years. The minimum follows up was 3 years. The technique was generally standardized in the hand of one surgeon. All flaps were extended LD flaps (ELD). Lipo-modelling was performed using standard techniques. Outcome measures were unplanned secondary procedures, complication rates, and contralateral symmetrisation surgery rates. Key Results Were: Lower complication rates in the TAT group (18.5% vs. 33.3%), despite higher radiotherapy rates (TAT=49%, IAT=36.8%), TAT was associated with lower subsequent symmetrisation rates (30.6% vs. 50.9%), IAT had a relative risk of 3.1 for subsequent unplanned procedure, Autologous patients required an average of 1.76 sessions of lipo-modelling, Conclusions: Using lipo-modelling to enable totally autologous LD reconstruction offers significant advantages over an implant assisted technique. We have shown a lower subsequent unplanned procedure rate, lower revision surgery, and less contralateral symmetrisation surgery. We anticipate that a TAT will be supported by patient satisfaction surveys and long-term patient-reported cosmetic outcome data and intended to study this.

Keywords: Breast, Reconstruction, Latissimus dorsi, lipomodelling

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11 Multidisciplinary Approach for a Tsunami Reconstruction Plan in Coquimbo, Chile

Authors: Ileen Van den Berg, Reinier J. Daals, Chris E. M. Heuberger, Sven P. Hildering, Bob E. Van Maris, Carla M. Smulders, Rafael Aránguiz


Chile is located along the subduction zone of the Nazca plate beneath the South American plate, where large earthquakes and tsunamis have taken place throughout history. The last significant earthquake (Mw 8.2) occurred in September 2015 and generated a destructive tsunami, which mainly affected the city of Coquimbo (71.33°W, 29.96°S). The inundation area consisted of a beach, damaged seawall, damaged railway, wetland and old neighborhood; therefore, local authorities started a reconstruction process immediately after the event. Moreover, a seismic gap has been identified in the same area, and another large event could take place in the near future. The present work proposed an integrated tsunami reconstruction plan for the city of Coquimbo that considered several variables such as safety, nature & recreation, neighborhood welfare, visual obstruction, infrastructure, construction process, and durability & maintenance. Possible future tsunami scenarios are simulated by means of the Non-hydrostatic Evolution of Ocean WAVEs (NEOWAVE) model with 5 nested grids and a higher grid resolution of ~10 m. Based on the score from a multi-criteria analysis, the costs of the alternatives and a preference for a multifunctional solution, the alternative that includes an elevated coastal road with floodgates to reduce tsunami overtopping and control the return flow of a tsunami was selected as the best solution. It was also observed that the wetlands are significantly restored to their former configuration; moreover, the dynamic behavior of the wetlands is stimulated. The numerical simulation showed that the new coastal protection decreases damage and the probability of loss of life by delaying tsunami arrival time. In addition, new evacuation routes and a smaller inundation zone in the city increase safety for the area.

Keywords: Tsunami, Numerical Simulation, Reconstruction, Coquimbo, Chile

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10 Social Capital in Housing Reconstruction Post Disaster Case of Yogyakarta Post Earthquake

Authors: Ikaputra


This paper will focus on the concept of social capital for especially housing reconstruction Post Disaster. The context of the study is Indonesia and Yogyakarta Post Earthquake 2006 as a case, but it is expected that the concept can be adopted in general post disaster reconstruction. The discussion will begin by addressing issues on House Reconstruction Post Disaster in Indonesia and Yogyakarta; defining Social Capital as a concept for effective management capacity based on community; Social Capital Post Java Earthquake utilizing Gotong Royong—community mutual self-help, and Approach and Strategy towards Community-based Reconstruction.

Keywords: Social Capital, Reconstruction, community empowerment, Gotong Royong, post disaster, Yogyakarta-Indonesia

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9 Challenges for Reconstruction: A Case Study from 2015 Gorkha, Nepal Earthquake

Authors: Hari K. Adhikari, Keshab Sharma, K. C. Apil


The Gorkha Nepal earthquake of moment magnitude (Mw) 7.8 hit the central region of Nepal on April 25, 2015; with the epicenter about 77 km northwest of Kathmandu Valley. This paper aims to explore challenges of reconstruction in the rural earthquake-stricken areas of Nepal. The Gorkha earthquake on April 25, 2015, has significantly affected the livelihood of people and overall economy in Nepal, causing severe damage and destruction in central Nepal including nation’s capital. A larger part of the earthquake affected area is difficult to access with rugged terrain and scattered settlements, which posed unique challenges and efforts on a massive scale reconstruction and rehabilitation. 800 thousand buildings were affected leaving 8 million people homeless. Challenge of reconstruction of optimum 800 thousand houses is arduous for Nepal in the background of its turmoil political scenario and weak governance. With significant actors involved in the reconstruction process, no appreciable relief has reached to the ground, which is reflected over the frustration of affected people. The 2015 Gorkha earthquake is one of most devastating disasters in the modern history of Nepal. Best of our knowledge, there is no comprehensive study on reconstruction after disasters in modern Nepal, which integrates the necessary information to deal with challenges and opportunities of reconstructions. The study was conducted using qualitative content analysis method. Thirty engineers and ten social mobilizes working for reconstruction and more than hundreds local social workers, local party leaders, and earthquake victims were selected arbitrarily. Information was collected through semi-structured interviews and open-ended questions, focus group discussions, and field notes, with no previous assumption. Author also reviewed literature and document reviews covering academic and practitioner studies on challenges of reconstruction after earthquake in developing countries such as 2001 Gujarat earthquake, 2005 Kashmir earthquake, 2003 Bam earthquake and 2010 Haiti earthquake; which have very similar building typologies, economic, political, geographical, and geological conditions with Nepal. Secondary data was collected from reports, action plans, and reflection papers of governmental entities, non-governmental organizations, private sector businesses, and the online news. This study concludes that inaccessibility, absence of local government, weak governance, weak infrastructures, lack of preparedness, knowledge gap and manpower shortage, etc. are the key challenges of the reconstruction after 2015 earthquake in Nepal. After scrutinizing different challenges and issues, study counsels that good governance, integrated information, addressing technical issues, public participation along with short term and long term strategies to tackle with technical issues are some crucial factors for timely and quality reconstruction in context of Nepal. Sample collected for this study is relatively small sample size and may not be fully representative of the stakeholders involved in reconstruction. However, the key findings of this study are ones that need to be recognized by academics, governments, and implementation agencies, and considered in the implementation of post-disaster reconstruction program in developing countries.

Keywords: Challenges, Policy, Reconstruction, Gorkha earthquake

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8 The Concept of Art: A Redefinition or Reconstruction

Authors: Patricia Agboro


The definition of a concept is quite important in any philosophical discourse as it serves as a guide in the analysis of that concept. In the sciences, arriving at a consensus regarding concepts is quite easily achievable due to the nature of the discipline. Problem arises when one delves into the realm of the humanities. Discourses in the humanities are largely perspectival because the question of values come into play. Defining the concept of Art is no different as it has yielded unresolved and problematic issues arising from attempts at definition. A major problem arising from such attempt is that of exclusion of other art forms. In this paper therefore, we call for the rejection of an attempt at providing a comprehensive definition for Art since it is clear that the collection of definitions provided so far, has failed in capturing the nuances and intricacies of the infinite varieties of the art forms that there are. Rather, a more fruitful approach to philosophical discourses on Art is not to construe the theories of Art per-se but to reconstruct them as a collection of criteria for determining artistic excellence.

Keywords: Creativity, Art, Reconstruction, Definition

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7 Speckle-Based Phase Contrast Micro-Computed Tomography with Neural Network Reconstruction

Authors: Y. Zheng, M. Busi, A. F. Pedersen, M. A. Beltran, C. Gundlach


X-ray phase contrast imaging has shown to yield a better contrast compared to conventional attenuation X-ray imaging, especially for soft tissues in the medical imaging energy range. This can potentially lead to better diagnosis for patients. However, phase contrast imaging has mainly been performed using highly brilliant Synchrotron radiation, as it requires high coherence X-rays. Many research teams have demonstrated that it is also feasible using a laboratory source, bringing it one step closer to clinical use. Nevertheless, the requirement of fine gratings and high precision stepping motors when using a laboratory source prevents it from being widely used. Recently, a random phase object has been proposed as an analyzer. This method requires a much less robust experimental setup. However, previous studies were done using a particular X-ray source (liquid-metal jet micro-focus source) or high precision motors for stepping. We have been working on a much simpler setup with just small modification of a commercial bench-top micro-CT (computed tomography) scanner, by introducing a piece of sandpaper as the phase analyzer in front of the X-ray source. However, it needs a suitable algorithm for speckle tracking and 3D reconstructions. The precision and sensitivity of speckle tracking algorithm determine the resolution of the system, while the 3D reconstruction algorithm will affect the minimum number of projections required, thus limiting the temporal resolution. As phase contrast imaging methods usually require much longer exposure time than traditional absorption based X-ray imaging technologies, a dynamic phase contrast micro-CT with a high temporal resolution is particularly challenging. Different reconstruction methods, including neural network based techniques, will be evaluated in this project to increase the temporal resolution of the phase contrast micro-CT. A Monte Carlo ray tracing simulation (McXtrace) was used to generate a large dataset to train the neural network, in order to address the issue that neural networks require large amount of training data to get high-quality reconstructions.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Reconstruction, micro-CT, speckle-based x-ray phase contrast

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6 Source-Detector Trajectory Optimization for Target-Based C-Arm Cone Beam Computed Tomography

Authors: S. Hatamikia, A. Biguri, H. Furtado, G. Kronreif, J. Kettenbach, W. Birkfellner


Nowadays, three dimensional Cone Beam CT (CBCT) has turned into a widespread clinical routine imaging modality for interventional radiology. In conventional CBCT, a circular sourcedetector trajectory is used to acquire a high number of 2D projections in order to reconstruct a 3D volume. However, the accumulated radiation dose due to the repetitive use of CBCT needed for the intraoperative procedure as well as daily pretreatment patient alignment for radiotherapy has become a concern. It is of great importance for both health care providers and patients to decrease the amount of radiation dose required for these interventional images. Thus, it is desirable to find some optimized source-detector trajectories with the reduced number of projections which could therefore lead to dose reduction. In this study we investigate some source-detector trajectories with the optimal arbitrary orientation in the way to maximize performance of the reconstructed image at particular regions of interest. To achieve this approach, we developed a box phantom consisting several small target polytetrafluoroethylene spheres at regular distances through the entire phantom. Each of these spheres serves as a target inside a particular region of interest. We use the 3D Point Spread Function (PSF) as a measure to evaluate the performance of the reconstructed image. We measured the spatial variance in terms of Full-Width-Half-Maximum (FWHM) of the local PSFs each related to a particular target. The lower value of FWHM shows the better spatial resolution of reconstruction results at the target area. One important feature of interventional radiology is that we have very well-known imaging targets as a prior knowledge of patient anatomy (e.g. preoperative CT) is usually available for interventional imaging. Therefore, we use a CT scan from the box phantom as the prior knowledge and consider that as the digital phantom in our simulations to find the optimal trajectory for a specific target. Based on the simulation phase we have the optimal trajectory which can be then applied on the device in real situation. We consider a Philips Allura FD20 Xper C-arm geometry to perform the simulations and real data acquisition. Our experimental results based on both simulation and real data show our proposed optimization scheme has the capacity to find optimized trajectories with minimal number of projections in order to localize the targets. Our results show the proposed optimized trajectories are able to localize the targets as good as a standard circular trajectory while using just 1/3 number of projections. Conclusion: We demonstrate that applying a minimal dedicated set of projections with optimized orientations is sufficient to localize targets, may minimize radiation.

Keywords: Reconstruction, Trajectory Optimization, CBCT, C-arm

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5 Rainwater Management: A Case Study of Residential Reconstruction of Cultural Heritage Buildings in Russia

Authors: V. Vsevolozhskaia


Since 1990, energy-efficient development concepts have constituted both a turning point in civil engineering and a challenge for an environmentally friendly future. Energy and water currently play an essential role in the sustainable economic growth of the world in general and Russia in particular: the efficiency of the water supply system is the second most important parameter for energy consumption according to the British assessment method, while the water-energy nexus has been identified as a focus for accelerating sustainable growth and developing effective, innovative solutions. The activities considered in this study were aimed at organizing and executing the renovation of the property in residential buildings located in St. Petersburg, specifically buildings with local or federal historical heritage status under the control of the St. Petersburg Committee for the State Inspection and Protection of Historic and Cultural Monuments (KGIOP) and UNESCO. Even after reconstruction, these buildings still fall into energy efficiency class D. Russian Government Resolution No. 87 on the structure and required content of project documentation contains a section entitled ‘Measures to ensure compliance with energy efficiency and equipment requirements for buildings, structures, and constructions with energy metering devices’. Mention is made of the need to install collectors and meters, which only calculate energy, neglecting the main purpose: to make buildings more energy-efficient, potentially even energy efficiency class A. The least-explored aspects of energy-efficient technology in the Russian Federation remain the water balance and the possibility of implementing rain and meltwater collection systems. These modern technologies are used exclusively for new buildings due to a lack of government directive to create project documentation during the planning of major renovations and reconstruction that would include the collection and reuse of rainwater. Energy-efficient technology for rain and meltwater collection is currently applied only to new buildings, even though research has proved that using rainwater is safe and offers a huge step forward in terms of eco-efficiency analysis and water innovation. Where conservation is mandatory, making changes to protected sites is prohibited. In most cases, the protected site is the cultural heritage building itself, including the main walls and roof. However, the installation of a second water supply system and collection of rainwater would not affect the protected building itself. Water efficiency in St. Petersburg is currently considered only from the point of view of the installation that regulates the flow of the pipeline shutoff valves. The development of technical guidelines for the use of grey- and/or rainwater to meet the needs of residential buildings during reconstruction or renovation is not yet complete. The ideas for water treatment, collection and distribution systems presented in this study should be taken into consideration during the reconstruction or renovation of residential cultural heritage buildings under the protection of KGIOP and UNESCO. The methodology applied also has the potential to be extended to other cultural heritage sites in northern countries and lands with an average annual rainfall of over 600 mm to cover average toilet-flush needs.

Keywords: Water supply, Water management, Cultural Heritage, Energy Efficiency, Reconstruction, renovation, rainwater collection

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4 Ideal Posture in Regulating Legal Regulations in Indonesia

Authors: M Jeffri Arlinandes Chandra, Puwaningdyah Murti Wahyuni, Dewi Mutiara M Jeffri Arlinandes Chandra, Dewi Mutiara


Indonesia is a state of the law in accordance with article 1 paragraph 3 of the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia (1945 Constitution), namely, 'the State of Indonesia is a state of law'. The consequences of the rule of law are making the law as the main commanding officer or making the law as a basis for carrying out an action taken by the state. The types of regulations and procedures for the formation of legislation in Indonesia are contained in Law Number 12 of 2011 concerning the Formation of Legislation. Various attempts were made to make quality regulations both in the formal hierarchy and material hierarchy such as synchronization and harmonization in the formation of laws and regulations so that there is no conflict between equal and hierarchical laws, but the fact is that there are still many conflicting regulations found between one another. This can be seen clearly in the many laws and regulations that were sued to judicial institutions such as the Constitutional Court (MK) and the Supreme Court (MA). Therefore, it is necessary to have a formulation regarding the governance of the formation of laws and regulations so as to minimize the occurrence of lawsuits to the court so that positive law can be realized which can be used today and for the future (ius constituendum). The research method that will be used in this research is a combination of normative research (library research) supported by empirical data from field research so that it can formulate concepts and answer the challenges being faced. First, the structuring of laws and regulations in Indonesia must start from the inventory of laws and regulations, whether they can be classified based on the type of legislation, what are they set about, the year of manufacture, etc. so that they can be clearly traced to the regulations relating to the formation of laws and regulations. Second, the search and revocation/revocation of laws and regulations that do not exist in the state registration system. Third, the periodic evaluation system is carried out at every level of the hierarchy of laws and regulations. These steps will form an ideal model of laws and regulations in Indonesia both in terms of content and material so that the instructions can be codified and clearly inventoried so that they can be accessed by the wider community as a concrete manifestation of the principle that all people know the law (presumptio iures de iure).

Keywords: Evaluation, Reconstruction, Legislation, review

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3 Analysis of Environmental Sustainability in Post- Earthquake Reconstruction : A Case of Barpak, Nepal

Authors: Sudikshya Bhandari, Jonathan K. London


Barpak in northern Nepal represents a unique identity expressed through the local rituals, values, lifeways and the styles of vernacular architecture. The traditional residential buildings and construction practices adopted by the dominant ethnic groups: Ghales and Gurungs, reflect environmental, social, cultural and economic concerns. However, most of these buildings did not survive the Gorkha earthquake in 2015 that made many residents skeptical about their strength to resist future disasters. This led Barpak residents to prefer modern housing designs primarily for the strength but additionally for convenience and access to earthquake relief funds. Post-earthquake reconstruction has transformed the cohesive community, developed over hundreds of years into a haphazard settlement with the imposition of externally-driven building models. Housing guidelines provided for the community reconstruction and earthquake resilience have been used as a singular template, similar to other communities on different geographical locations. The design and construction of these buildings do not take into account the local, historical, environmental, social, cultural and economic context of Barpak. In addition to the physical transformation of houses and the settlement, the consequences continue to develop challenges to sustainability. This paper identifies the major challenges for environmental sustainability with the construction of new houses in post-earthquake Barpak. Mixed methods such as interviews, focus groups, site observation, and documentation, and analysis of housing and neighborhood design have been used for data collection. The discernible changing situation of this settlement due to the new housing has included reduced climatic adaptation and thermal comfort, increased consumption of agricultural land and water, minimized use of local building materials, and an increase in energy demand. The research has identified that reconstruction housing practices happening in Barpak, while responding to crucial needs for disaster recovery and resilience, are also leading this community towards an unsustainable future. This study has also integrated environmental, social, cultural and economic parameters into an assessment framework that could be used to develop place-based design guidelines in the context of other post-earthquake reconstruction efforts. This framework seeks to minimize the unintended repercussions of unsustainable reconstruction interventions, support the vitality of vernacular architecture and traditional lifeways and respond to context-based needs in coordination with residents.

Keywords: Earthquake, Environment, Sustainability, Reconstruction

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2 Socio-Economic Transformation of Barpak Post-Earthquake Reconstruction

Authors: Sudikshya Bhandari, Jonathan K. London


The earthquake of April 2015 was one of the biggest disasters in the history of Nepal. The epicenter was located near Barpak, north of the Gorkha district. Before the disaster, this settlement was a compact and homogeneous settlement manifesting its uniqueness through the social and cultural activities, and a distinct vernacular architecture. Narrow alleys with stone paved streets, buildings with slate roofs, and common spaces between the houses made this settlement socially, culturally, and environmentally cohesive. With the presence of micro hydro power plants, local economic activities enabled the local community to exist and thrive. Agriculture and animal rearing are the sources of livelihood for the majority of families, along with the booming homestays (where local people welcome guests to their home, as a business) and local shops. Most of these activities are difficult to find as the houses have been destroyed with the earthquake and the process of reconstruction has been transforming the outlook of the settlement. This study characterized the drastic transformation in Barpak post-earthquake, and analyzed the consequences of the reconstruction process. In addition, it contributes to comprehending a broader representation about unsustainability created by the lack of contextual post-disaster development. Since the research is based in a specific area, a case study approach was used. Sample houses were selected on the basis of ethnicity and house typology. Mixed methods such as key informant and semi structured interviews, focus groups, observations and photographs are used for the collection of data. The research focus is predominantly on the physical change of the house typology from vernacular to externally adopted designs. This transformation of the house entails socio-cultural changes such as social fragmentation with differences among the rich and the poor and decreases in the social connectivity within families and neighborhood. Families have found that new houses require more maintenance and resources that have increased their economic expenses. The study also found that the reconstructed houses are not thermally comfortable in the cold climate of Barpak, leading to the increased use of different sources of heating like electric heaters and more firewood. Lack of storage spaces for crops and livestock have discouraged them to pursue traditional means of livelihood and depend more on buying food from stores, ultimately making it less economical for most of the families. The transformation of space leading to the economic, social and cultural changes demonstrates the unsustainability of Barpak. Conclusions from the study suggest place based and inclusive planning and policy formations that include locals as partners, identifying the possible ways to minimize the impact and implement these recommendations into the future policy and planning scenarios.

Keywords: Earthquake, Transformation, Reconstruction, Settlement, Nepal

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1 Palaeo-Environmental Reconstruction of the Wet Zone of Sri Lanka: A Zooarchaeological Perspective

Authors: Kalangi Rodrigo


Sri Lanka has been known as an island which has a diverse variety of prehistoric occupation among ecological zones. Defining the paleoecology of the past societies has been an archaeological thought developed in the 1960s. It is mainly concerned with the reconstruction from available geological and biological evidence of past biota, populations, communities, landscapes, environments, and ecosystems. Sri Lanka has dealt with this subject, and considerable research has been already undertaken. The fossil and material record of Sri Lanka’s Wet Zone tropical forests continues from c. 38,000–34,000 ybp. This early and persistent human fossil, technical, and cultural florescence, as well as a collection of well-preserved tropical-forest rock shelters with associated 'on-site' palaeoenvironmental records, makes Sri Lanka a central and unusual case study to determine the extent and strength of early human tropical forest encounters. Excavations carried out in prehistoric caves in the low country wet zone has shown that in the last 50,000 years, the temperature in the lowland rainforests has not exceeded 5°C. When taking Batadombalena alone, the entire seven layers have yielded an uninterrupted occupation of Acavus sp and Canerium zeylanicum, a plant that grows in the middle of the rainforest. Acavus, which is highly sensitive to rainforest ecosystems, has been well documented in many of the lowland caves, confirming that the wetland rainforest environment has remained intact at least for the last 50,000 years. If the dry and arid conditions in the upper hills regions affected the wet zone, the Tufted Gray Lunger (semnopithecus priam), must also meet with the prehistoric caves in the wet zone thrown over dry climate. However, the bones in the low country wet zone do not find any of the fragments belonging to Turfed Gray Lunger, and prehistoric human consumption is bestowed with purple-faced leaf monkey (Trachypithecus vetulus) and Toque Macaque (Macaca Sinica). The skeletal remains of Lyriocephalus scutatus, a full-time resident in rain forests, have also been recorded among lowland caves. But, in zoological terms, these remains may be the remains of the Barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak), which is currently found in the wet zone. For further investigations, the mtDNA test of genetic diversity (Bottleneck effect) and pollen study from lowland caves should determine whether the wet zone climate has persisted over the last 50,000 years, or whether the dry weather affected in the mountainous region has invaded the wet zone.

Keywords: Paleoecology, Reconstruction, Prehistory, zooarchaeology, palaeo-climate

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