Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

reasons Related Abstracts

4 Reasons for Study of Evening Class Students, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Luedech Girdwichai, Ratchasak Sannok, Jeeranan Wueamprakhon

Abstract:

This research aims to study reasons for study of Evening Class Students, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Population is special program students of the Faculty of Industrial Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University enrolled in academic year B.E. 2012. Data were collected in February 2013 from 98 students. Tool used in this research was questionnaire. Data were analyzed by statistics: percentage, mean, and standard deviation, using a computer program. The results revealed that: 1. Most of the special program students have monthly income between 10,001–20,000 Baht. Majority of the students were private company employees, working in operational level. They were mainly single and the commuting distance to the university is between 10-30 kilometers. 2. Reasons for enrolling of special program students of the Faculty of Industrial Technology, namely, career, self advancement, personal reasons and support from others received high scores. 3. Problems identified such as facilities, services, learning media and the content of the course received average scores.

Keywords: Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Faculty of Industrial Technology, reasons, evening class students

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3 Factors Associated with Hotel Employees’ Loyalty: A Case Study of Hotel Employees in Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: Kevin Wongleedee

Abstract:

This research paper was aimed to examine the reasons associated with hotel employees’ loyalty. This was a case study of 200 hotel employees in Bangkok, Thailand. The population of this study included all hotel employees who were working in Bangkok during January to March, 2014. Based on 200 respondents who answered the questionnaire, the data were complied by using SPSS. Mean and standard deviation were utilized in analyzing the data. The findings revealed that the average mean of importance was 4.40, with 0.7585 of standard deviation. Moreover, the mean average can be used to rank the level of importance from each factor as follows: 1) salary, service charge cut, and benefits, 2) career development and possible advancement, 3) freedom of working, thinking, and ability to use my initiative, 4) training opportunities, 5) social involvement and positive environment, 6) fair treatment in the workplace and fair evaluation of job performance, and 7) personal satisfaction, participation, and recognition.

Keywords: Case study, loyalty, reasons, hotel employees

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2 Tendency of Smoking, Factors Influencing and Knowledge Related to Smoking among Male Students in Tamil Primary School in Kuala Lumpur

Authors: T. Jivita, M. S. Salmiah

Abstract:

The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of smoking, reasons for tried smoking, factors that influence smoking, and knowledge level on health risk among male Tamil primary school students. Seven urban Tamil primary schools in Kuala Lumpur were identified based on cluster sampling. A cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2014 and a total of 380 male children in standard 4 and 5 were selected. Survey included information on history of ever smoking even a puff, smoking a whole cigarette, smoking every day at least for 7 days, reasons for tried smoking, potential factors of smoking and knowledge related to smoking and health. Fifty seven had previously smoked, with a prevalence of 15.0% (95% CI = 11.4, 18.6) and 17 had smoked a whole cigarette (4.5%, 95% CI = 2.42, 6.58) while 8 had at least smoked 7 days continuously (2.1%, 95% CI = 0.66, 3.54). The reasons for tried smoking were because of curiosity (63.2%), it is not allowed (42.6%), it is relaxing (35.2%), it is cool (33.3%), to lose weight (20.4%), style (1.8%), by mistake (0.5%), for prayers purpose (0.3%), given by uncle (0.3%), and introduced by elder brother (0.3%). None of these reasons were associated with age factors (p > 0.05). Of those who had smoked a whole cigarette, 42.9% were significantly influenced by father (χ2 (1) = 6.42, p = 0.040) and 47.8% were significantly influenced by friends (χ2 (2) = 6.27, p = 0.043). Overall 91.5% had good level of knowledge about smoking, where the majority knew that smoking was dangerous to their health. However only 61.7% and 63.1% of them knew that smoking can cause high blood pressure and stroke, respectively. There is no significant different in mean rank between 10 years old and 11 years old students (p=0.987 < 0.05) for level of knowledge, tested by Mann-Whitney U Test. Odds of smoking increased 1.37 times having seen actors smoking (95% CI= 1.01, 1.86), 1.55 times having a father who smokes (95% CI= 1.26, 1.92), 1.64 times having siblings who smokes (95% CI= 1.32, 2.04), and 10.55 times having friends who offered cigarette (95% CI= 4.17, 26.68). As a conclusion, cessation of smoking in family members, who are role models, so as to reduce rates to taking up smoking among children.

Keywords: reasons, factors influence, knowledge on smoking, prevalence on smoking

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1 Self-Medication with Antibiotics, Evidence of Factors Influencing the Practice in Low and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Scoping Review

Authors: Neusa Fernanda Torres, Buyisile Chibi, Lyn E. Middleton, Vernon P. Solomon, Tivani P. Mashamba-Thompson

Abstract:

Background: Self-medication with antibiotics (SMA) is a global concern, with a higher incidence in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite intense world-wide efforts to control and promote the rational use of antibiotics, continuing practices of SMA systematically exposes individuals and communities to the risk of antibiotic resistance and other undesirable antibiotic side effects. Moreover, it increases the health systems costs of acquiring more powerful antibiotics to treat the resistant infection. This review thus maps evidence on the factors influencing self-medication with antibiotics in these settings. Methods: The search strategy for this review involved electronic databases including PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, EBSCOhost (PubMed, CINAHL with Full Text, Health Source - Consumer Edition, MEDLINE), Google Scholar, BioMed Central and World Health Organization library, using the search terms:’ Self-Medication’, ‘antibiotics’, ‘factors’ and ‘reasons’. Our search included studies published from 2007 to 2017. Thematic analysis was performed to identify the patterns of evidence on SMA in LMICs. The mixed method quality appraisal tool (MMAT) version 2011 was employed to assess the quality of the included primary studies. Results: Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies included population from the rural (46,4%), urban (33,6%) and combined (20%) settings, of the following LMICs: Guatemala (2 studies), India (2), Indonesia (2), Kenya (1), Laos (1), Nepal (1), Nigeria (2), Pakistan (2), Sri Lanka (1), and Yemen (1). The total sample size of all 15 included studies was 7676 participants. The findings of the review show a high prevalence of SMA ranging from 8,1% to 93%. Accessibility, affordability, conditions of health facilities (long waiting, quality of services and workers) as long well as poor health-seeking behavior and lack of information are factors that influence SMA in LMICs. Antibiotics such as amoxicillin, metronidazole, amoxicillin/clavulanic, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, penicillin, and tetracycline, were the most frequently used for SMA. The major sources of antibiotics included pharmacies, drug stores, leftover drugs, family/friends and old prescription. Sore throat, common cold, cough with mucus, headache, toothache, flu-like symptoms, pain relief, fever, running nose, toothache, upper respiratory tract infections, urinary symptoms, urinary tract infection were the common disease symptoms managed with SMA. Conclusion: Although the information on factors influencing SMA in LMICs is unevenly distributed, the available information revealed the existence of research evidence on antibiotic self-medication in some countries of LMICs. SMA practices are influenced by social-cultural determinants of health and frequently associated with poor dispensing and prescribing practices, deficient health-seeking behavior and consequently with inappropriate drug use. Therefore, there is still a need to conduct further studies (qualitative, quantitative and randomized control trial) on factors and reasons for SMA to correctly address the public health problem in LMICs.

Keywords: Antibiotics, factors, reasons, self-medication, low and middle-income countries (LMICs)

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