Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Reading Related Abstracts

23 Teaching Reading in English: The Neglect of Phonics in Nigeria

Authors: Abdulkabir Abdullahi

Abstract:

Nigeria has not yet welcomed phonics into its primary schools. In government-owned primary schools teachers are functionally ignorant of the stories of the reading wars amongst international scholars. There are few or no Nigerian-authored phonics textbooks, and there has been no government-owned phonics curriculum either. There are few or no academic journal articles on phonics in the country and there is, in fact, a certain danger of confusion between phonics and phonetics among Nigerian publishers, authors, writers and academics as if Nigerian teachers of English and the educational policy makers of the country were unaware of reading failures/problems amongst Nigerian children, or had never heard of phonics or read of the stories of the reading wars or the annual phonics test in the United Kingdom, the United States of America and other parts of the world. It is on this note that this article reviews and examines, in the style of a qualitative inquiry, the body of arguments on phonics, and explores the effectiveness of phonics teaching, particularly, in a second-language learning contexts. While the merit of the paper is, perhaps, situated in its supreme effort to draw global attention to reading failures/problems in Nigeria and the ways the situation may affect English language learning, international academic relations and the educational future of the country, it leaves any quantitative verification of its claims to interested quantitative researchers in the world.

Keywords: Reading, graphemes, phonics, reading wars, reading theories, phonemic awareness

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22 Reading Behavior of Undergraduate Students at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Ratanavadee Takerngsukvatana

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The purposes of this research were to study reading behavior of undergraduate students at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. A stratified random sample of 380 participants was collected. A Likert five-scale questionnaire was developed to collect data and to obtain students’ opinions regarding their reading behavior. The findings revealed that the majority of respondents read mainly for academic purpose. They preferred to read magazines. The majority of respondents read an average of 3-7 pages a day. The places to read were home and library. Buying with their own money and borrowing from the library were two main sources of books. The suggested activity to promote is planning the curriculum to suit students’ reading behavior.

Keywords: Reading, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, undergraduate students, reading behavior

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21 From “Learning to Read” to “Reading to Learn”

Authors: Lucélia Alcântara

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Reading has been seen as a passive skill by many people for a long time. However, when one comes to study it deeply and in a such a way that the act of reading equals acquiring knowledge through living an experience that belongs to him/her, passive definitely becomes active. Material development with a focus on reading has to consider much more than reading strategies. The following questions are asked: Is the material appropriate to the students’ reality? Does it make students think and state their points of view? With that in mind a lesson has been developed to illustrate theory becoming practice. Knowledge, criticality, intercultural experience and social interaction. That is what reading is for.

Keywords: Learning, Culture, Reading, material development

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20 Qualitative Case Studies in Reading Specialist Education

Authors: Carol Leroy

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This presentation focuses on the analysis qualitative case studies in the graduate education of reading specialists. The presentation describes the development and application of an integrated conceptual framework for reading specialist education, drawing on Robert Stake’s work on case study research, Kenneth Zeichner’s work on professional learning, and various tools for reading assessment (e.g. the Qualitative Reading Inventory). Social constructivist theory is used to provide intersecting links between the various influences on the processes used to assess and teaching reading within the case study framework. Illustrative examples are described to show the application of the framework in reading specialist education in a teaching clinic at a large urban university. Central to education of reading specialists in this teaching clinic is the collection, analysis and interpretation of data for the design and implementation of reading and writing programs for struggling readers and writers. The case study process involves the integrated interpretation of data, which is central to qualitative case study inquiry. An emerging theme in this approach to graduate education is the ambiguity and uncertainty that governs work with the adults and children who attend the clinic for assistance. Tensions and contradictions are explored insofar as they reveal overlapping but intersecting frameworks for case study analysis in the area of literacy education. An additional theme is the interplay of multiple layers of data with a resulting depth that goes beyond the practical need of the client and toward the deeper pedagogical growth of the reading specialist. The presentation makes a case for the value of qualitative case studies in reading specialist education. Further, the use of social constructivism as a unifying paradigm provides a robustness to the conceptual framework as a tool for understanding the pedagogy that is involved.

Keywords: Assessment, Reading, Case study, Professional Education

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19 Developing a Model of Teaching Writing Based On Reading Approach through Reflection Strategy for EFL Students of STKIP YPUP

Authors: Ardiansyah, Eny Syatriana

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The purpose of recent study was to develop a learning model on writing, based on the reading texts which will be read by the students using reflection strategy. The strategy would allow the students to read the text and then they would write back the main idea and to develop the text by using their own sentences. So, the writing practice was begun by reading an interesting text, then the students would develop the text which has been read into their writing. The problem questions are (1) what kind of learning model that can develop the students writing ability? (2) what is the achievement of the students of STKIP YPUP through reflection strategy? (3) is the using of the strategy effective to develop students competence In writing? (4) in what level are the students interest toward the using of a strategy In writing subject? This development research consisted of some steps, they are (1) need analysis (2) model design (3) implementation (4) model evaluation. The need analysis was applied through discussion among the writing lecturers to create a learning model for writing subject. To see the effectiveness of the model, an experiment would be delivered for one class. The instrument and learning material would be validated by the experts. In every steps of material development, there was a learning process, where would be validated by an expert. The research used development design. These Principles and procedures or research design and development .This study, researcher would do need analysis, creating prototype, content validation, and limited empiric experiment to the sample. In each steps, there should be an assessment and revision to the drafts before continue to the next steps. The second year, the prototype would be tested empirically to four classes in STKIP YPUP for English department. Implementing the test greatly was done through the action research and followed by evaluation and validation from the experts.

Keywords: Development, Strategy, Reading, Writing, learning model, reflection

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18 Literacy Performance among Lower Primary School Children : A Malaysian Case Study

Authors: Ratnawati Mohd Asraf, Hazlina Abdullah

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Numerous studies on boys’ performance relative to girls’ have been conducted around the globe. However, little has been done in relation to the literacy of primary school boys in the Malaysian context. This paper discusses the results of a study that sought to determine the literacy performance of Grades 1, 2, and 3 primary school students in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Data on approximately 85,000 students from each grade level were obtained from the Ministry of Education Malaysia, which conducts national screening on literacy and numeracy, or LINUS, in all government primary schools. Teachers’ views were also sought through focus group interviews and journal entries. The results show that although there is an overall improvement in literacy performance in the Malay language among the students as they go into Grades 2 and 3, girls are found to outperform boys in every screening for all grade levels.

Keywords: Literacy, Reading, boys’ underperformance, literacy performance

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17 Students Reading and Viewing the American Novel in a University EFL/ESL Context: A Picture of Real Life

Authors: Nola Nahla Bacha

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Research has indicated that ESL/EFL (nonnative students of English) students have difficulty in reading at the university as often times the requirements are long texts in which both cultural and linguistic factors impede their understanding and thus their motivation. This is especially the case in literature courses. It is the author’s view that if readings are selected according to the students’ interests and linguistic level, related to life situations and coupled with film study they will not only be motivated to read, but they will find reading interesting and exciting. They will view novels, and thus literature, as a picture of life. Students will also widen their vocabulary repertoire and overcome many of their linguistic problems. This study describes the procedure used in in a 20th Century American Novel class at one English medium university in Lebanon and explores students’ views on the novels assigned and their recommendations. Findings indicate that students significantly like to read novels, contrary to what some faculty claim and view the inclusion of novels as helping them with expanding their vocabulary repertoire and learning about real life which helps them linguistically, pedagogically, and above all personally during their life in and out of the university. Annotated texts, pictures and film will be used through technological aids to show how the class was conducted and how the students’ interacted with the novels assigned. Implications for teaching reading in the classroom are made.

Keywords: Literature, Language, Reading, Novels, university teaching

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16 A Post-Colonial Reading of Maria Edgeworth's Anglo-Irish Novels: Castle Rackrent and the Absentee

Authors: Al. Harshan, Hazamah Ali Mahdi

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The Big House literature embodies Irish history. It requires a special dimension of moral and social significance in relation to its owners. The Big House is a metaphor for the decline of the protestant Ascendancy that ruled in a catholic country and oppressed a native people. In the tradition of the Big House fiction, Maria Edgeworth's Castle Rackrent and the Absentee explore the effect of the Anglo-Irish protestant Ascendancy as it governed and misgoverned Ireland. Edgeworth illustrates the tradition of the Big House as a symbol of both a personal and historical theme. This paper provides a reading of Castle Rackrent and The Absentee from a post-colonial perspective. The paper maintains that Edgeworth's novel contain elements of a radical critique of the colonialist enterprise. In our postcolonial reading of Maria Edgeworth's novels, one that goes beyond considering works as those of Sir Walter Scoot, regional evidence has been found of Edgeworth's colonial ideology. The significance of Castle Rackrent lies mainly in the fact that is the first English novel to speak in the voice of the colonized Irish. What is more important is that the irony and the comic aspect of the novel comes from its Irish narrator (Thady Quirk) and its Irish setting Ireland. Edgeworth reveals the geographical 'other' to her English reader, by placing her colonized Irish narrator and his son, Jason Quirk, in a position of inferiority to emphasize the gap between Englishness and Irishness. Furthermore, this satirical aspect is a political one. It works to create and protect the superiority of the domestic English reader over the Irish subject. In other words, the implication of the colonial system of the novel and of its structure of dominance and subordination is overlooked by its comic dimension. The matrimonial plot in the Absentee functions as an imperial plot, constructing Ireland as a complementary but ever unequal partner in the family of Great Britain. This imperial marriage works hegemonically to produce the domestic stability considered so crucial to national and colonial stability. Moreover, in order to achieve her proper imperial plot, Edgeworth reconciliation of England and Ireland is seen in the marriage of the Anglo-Irish (hero/Colambre) with the Irish (heroine/Grace Nugent), and the happy bourgeois family; consequently, it becomes the model for colonizer-colonized relationships. Edgeworth must establish modes of legitimate behavior for women and men. The Absentee explains more purposely how familial reorganization is dependent on the restitution of masculine authority and advantage, particularly for Irish community.

Keywords: Reading, Irish, Maria Edgeworth, post-colonial

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15 The Effects of the Inference Process in Reading Texts in Arabic

Authors: May George

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Inference plays an important role in the learning process and it can lead to a rapid acquisition of a second language. When learning a non-native language, i.e., a critical language like Arabic, the students depend on the teacher’s support most of the time to learn new concepts. The students focus on memorizing the new vocabulary and stress on learning all the grammatical rules. Hence, the students became mechanical and cannot produce the language easily. As a result, they are unable to predict the meaning of words in the context by relying heavily on the teacher, in that they cannot link their prior knowledge or even identify the meaning of the words without the support of the teacher. This study explores how the teacher guides students learning during the inference process and what are the processes of learning that can direct student’s inference.

Keywords: Language Acquisition, Reading, Inference, Arabic

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14 Impact of Four Reading and Library Factors on the Grade Average of Ugandan Secondary School Students: A Quantitative Study

Authors: Valeda Dent

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This study explores reading and library factors related to secondary school student academic outcomes in rural areas in Uganda. This mixed methods study utilized quantitative data collected as part of a more extensive project to explore six student factors in relation to students’ school, library, and home environments. The Kitengesa Community Library in Uganda (www.kitengesalibrary.org) served as the site for this study. The factors explored for this study include reading frequency, library use frequency, library access, overall grade average (OGA), and presence and type of reading materials in the home. Results indicated that both reading frequency and certain types of reading materials read for recreational purposes are correlated with higher OGA. Reading frequency was positively correlated with student OGA for all students.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Reading, secondary school students, rural village libraries

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13 L2 Reading in Distance Education: Analysis of Students' Reading Attitude and Interests

Authors: Ma. Junithesmer, D. Rosales

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The study is a baseline description of students’ attitude and interests about L2 reading in a state university in the Philippines that uses distance education as a delivery mode. Most research conducted on this area dealt with the analysis of reading in a traditional school set-up. For this reason, this research was written to discover if there are implications as regards students’ preferences, interests and attitude reveal about L2 reading in a non-traditional set-up. To form the corpus of this study, it included the literature and studies about reading, preferred technological devices, titles of books and authors, reading medium traditional/ print and electronic books that juxtapose with students’ interest and feelings when reading at home and in school; and their views about their strengths and weaknesses as readers.

Keywords: Distance Education, Reading, L2 reading, reading attitude

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12 Therapeutic Power of Words through Reading Writing and Storytelling

Authors: Sakshi Kaul, Sundeep Verma

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The focus of the current paper is to evaluate the therapeutic power of words. This will be done by critically evaluating the impact reading, writing and storytelling have on individuals. When we read, tell or listen to a story we are exercising our imagination. Imagination becomes the source of activation of thoughts and actions. This enables and helps the reader, writer or the listener to express the suppressed emotions or desires. The stories told, untold may bring various human emotions and attributes to forth such as hope, optimism, fear, happiness. Each story narrated evokes different emotions, at times they help us unravel ourselves in the world of the teller thereby bringing solace. Stories heard or told add to individual’s life by creating a community around, giving wings of thoughts that enable individual to be more imaginative and creative thereby fostering positively and happiness. Reading if looked at from the reader’s point of view can broaden the horizon of information and ideas about facts and life laws giving more meaning to life. From ‘once upon a time’ to ‘to happily ever after’, all that stories talk about is life’s learning. The power of words sometimes may be negated, this paper would reiterate the power of words by critically evaluating how words can become powerful and therapeutic in various structures and forms in the society. There is a story behind every situation, action and reaction. Hence it is of prime importance to understand each story, to enable a person to deal with whatever he or she may be going through. For example, if a client is going through some trauma in his or her life, the counsellor needs to know exactly what is the turmoil that is being faced so that the client can be assisted accordingly. Counselling is considered a process of healing through words or as Talk therapy, where merely through words we try to heal the client. In a counselling session, the counsellor focuses on working with the clients to bring a positive change. The counsellor allows the client to express themselves which is referred to as catharsis. The words spoken, written or heard transcend to heal and can be therapeutic. The therapeutic power of words has been seen in various cultural practices and belief systems. The underlining belief that words have the power to heal, save and bring change has existed from ages. Many religious and spiritual practices also acclaim the power of the words. Through this empirical paper, we have tried to bring to light how reading, writing, and storytelling have been used as mediums of healing and have been therapeutic in nature.

Keywords: Therapeutic, Reading, storytelling, words

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11 Assessing Student Attitudes toward Graded Readers, MReader and the MReader Challenge

Authors: Catherine Cheetam, Alan Harper, Melody Elliott, Mika Ito

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This paper describes a pilot study conducted with English as a foreign language (EFL) students at a private university in Japan who used graded readers and the MReader website in class or independently to enhance their English reading skills. Each semester students who read 100,000 words with MReader quizzes passed enter into the ‘MReader Challenge,’ a reading contest that recognizes students for their achievement. The study focused specifically on the attitudes of thirty-six EFL students who successfully completed the Challenge in the 2015 spring semester using graded readers and MReader, and their motivation to continue using English in the future. The attitudes of these students were measured using their responses to statements on a Likert scaled survey. Follow-up semi-structured interviews were conducted with eleven students to gain additional insight into their opinions. The results from this study suggest that reading graded readers in general promoted intrinsic motivation among a majority of the participants. This study is preliminary and needs to be expanded and continued to assess the lasting impact of the extensive reading program. Limitations and future directions of the study are also summarized and discussed.

Keywords: Reading, Motivation, attitudes, extensive, intrinsic, methodolgies

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10 Investigating the Effect of Juncture on Comprehension among Adult Learners of English in Nigeria

Authors: Emmanuel Uba, Oluwasegun Omidiora, Eugenia Abiodun-Eniayekan

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The role of phonology on reading comprehension is long established in the literature. However, the vast majority of studies on the relationship between phonology and reading or comprehension among adults involve investigating the role of intonation, stress, and segmental knowledge on understanding texts. Not much attention is paid to junctural observation and its effect on the interpretation of texts. This study, therefore, presents a preliminary case-study investigation of the effect of juncture on comprehension of texts among adult Nigerian learners of English. Eighty adult learners of English in Nigeria were presented with fifteen seemingly ambiguous sentences to interpret. The sentences were structured in a way that pausing at different points would produce different interpretations. The results reveal that wrong application of pause is capable of affecting comprehension even when other phonological factors such as stress and intonation are observed properly.

Keywords: Phonology, Reading, Comprehension, juncture

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9 An Experimental Study on the Variability of Nonnative and Native Inference of Word Meanings in Timed and Untimed Conditions

Authors: Swathi M. Vanniarajan

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Reading research suggests that online contextual vocabulary comprehension while reading is an interactive and integrative process. One’s success in it depends on a variety of factors including the amount and the nature of available linguistic and nonlinguistic cues, his/her analytical and integrative skills, schema memory (content familiarity), and processing speed characterized along the continuum of controlled to automatic processing. The experiment reported here, conducted with 30 native speakers as one group and 30 nonnative speakers as another group (all graduate students), hypothesized that while working on (24) tasks which required them to comprehend an unfamiliar word in real time without backtracking, due to the differences in the nature of their respective reading processes, the nonnative subjects would be less able to construct the meanings of the unknown words by integrating the multiple but sufficient contextual cues provided in the text but the native subjects would be able to. The results indicated that there were significant inter-group as well as intra-group differences in terms of the quality of definitions given. However, when given additional time, while the nonnative speakers could significantly improve the quality of their definitions, the native speakers in general would not, suggesting that all things being equal, time is a significant factor for success in nonnative vocabulary and reading comprehension processes and that accuracy precedes automaticity in the development of nonnative reading processes also.

Keywords: Reading, second language processing, vocabulary comprehension

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8 Developing the Skills of Reading Comprehension of Learners of English as a Second Language

Authors: Indu Gamage

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Though commonly utilized as a language improvement technique, reading has not been fully employed by both language teachers and learners to develop reading comprehension skills in English as a second language. In a Sri Lankan context, this area has to be delved deep into as the learners’ show more propensity to analyze. Reading comprehension is an area that most language teachers and learners struggle with though it appears easy. Most ESL learners engage in reading tasks without being properly aware of the objective of doing reading comprehension. It is observed that when doing reading tasks, the language learners’ concern is more on the meanings of individual words than on the overall comprehension of the given text. The passiveness with which the ESL learners engage themselves in reading comprehension makes reading a tedious task for the learner thereby giving the learner a sense of disappointment at the end. Certain reading tasks take the form of translations. The active cognitive participation of the learner in the mode of using productive strategies for predicting, employing schemata and using contextual clues seems quite less. It was hypothesized that the learners’ lack of knowledge of the productive strategies of reading was the major obstacle that makes reading comprehension a tedious task for them. This study is based on a group of 30 tertiary students who read English only as a fundamental requirement for their degree. They belonged to the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences of the University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka. Almost all learners hailed from areas where English was hardly utilized in their day to day conversations. The study is carried out in the mode of a questionnaire to check their opinions on reading and a test to check whether the learners are using productive strategies of reading when doing reading comprehension tasks. The test comprised reading questions covering major productive strategies for reading. Then the results were analyzed to see the degree of their active engagement in comprehending the text. The findings depicted the validity of the hypothesis as grounds behind the difficulties related to reading comprehension.

Keywords: Reading, Skills, Comprehension, reading strategies

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7 Application of Reception Theory to Analyze the Translation as a Continuous Reception

Authors: Mina Darabi Amin

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In 1972, Hans Robert Jauss introduced the Reception Theory a version of Reader-response criticism, that suggests the literary critics to re-examine the relationship between the author, the work and the reader. The revealing of these relationships has shown that, besides the creation, the reception and the reading of the text have different levels which exempt it from a continuous reference to the meaning intended by the artist and could lead to multiplicity of possible interpretations according to the ‘Horizon of Expectations’. This theory could be associated with another intellectual process called ‘translation’, a process that is always confronted by different levels of readers in the target language and different levels of reception by these readers. By adopting the perspective of Reception theory in translation, we could ignore a particular kind of translation and consider the initiation to a literary text, its translation and its reception as a continuous process. Just like the creation of the text, the translation and its reception, are not made once and for all; they are confronted with different levels of reception and interpretation which are made and remade endlessly. After having known and crossing the first levels, the Horizons of Expectation could be extended and the reader could be initiated to the higher levels. On the other hand, we could say that the faithful and free translation are not opposed to each other, but depending on the type of reception by the readers and in a particular moment, the existence of both is necessary. In fact, it is the level of reception in readers and their Horizon of Expectations that determine the degree of fidelity and freedom of translation.

Keywords: Reading, Reception Theory, literary translation, reader, horizons of expectation

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6 Homogeneity and Trend Analyses of Temperature Indices: The Case Study of Umbria Region (Italy) in the Mediterranean Area

Authors: R. Morbidelli, C. Saltalippi, A. Flammini, A. Garcia-Marin, J. L. Ayuso-Munoz

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The climate change, mainly due to greenhouse gas emissions associated to human activities, has been modifying hydrologic processes with a direct effect on air surface temperature that has significantly increased in the last century at global scale. In this context the Mediterranean area is considered to be particularly sensitive to the climate change impacts on temperature indices. An analysis finalized to study the evolution of temperature indices and to check the existence of significant trends in the Umbria Region (Italy) is presented. Temperature data were obtained by seven meteorological stations uniformly distributed in the study area and characterized by very long series of temperature observations (at least 60 years) spanning the 1924-2015 period. A set of 39 temperature indices represented by monthly and annual mean, average maximum and average minimum temperatures, has been derived. The trend analysis was realized by applying the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test, while the non-parametric Pettit test and the parametric Standard Normal Homogeneity test (SNHT) were used to check the presence of breakpoints or in-homogeneities due to environmental changes/anthropic activity or climate change effects. The Umbria region, in agreement with other recent studies exploring the temperature behavior in Italy, shows a general increase in all temperature indices, with the only exception of Gubbio site that exhibits very light negative trends or absence of trend. The presence of break points and in-homogeneity was widely explored through the selected tests and the results were checked on the basis of the well-known metadata of the meteorological stations.

Keywords: Reading, Reception Theory, literary translation, reader, horizons of expectation

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5 Method of Complex Estimation of Text Perusal and Indicators of Reading Quality in Different Types of Commercials

Authors: Victor N. Anisimov, Lyubov A. Boyko, Yazgul R. Almukhametova, Natalia V. Galkina, Alexander V. Latanov

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Modern commercials presented on billboards, TV and on the Internet contain a lot of information about the product or service in text form. However, this information cannot always be perceived and understood by consumers. Typical sociological focus group studies often cannot reveal important features of the interpretation and understanding information that has been read in text messages. In addition, there is no reliable method to determine the degree of understanding of the information contained in a text. Only the fact of viewing a text does not mean that consumer has perceived and understood the meaning of this text. At the same time, the tools based on marketing analysis allow only to indirectly estimate the process of reading and understanding a text. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop a valid method of recording objective indicators in real time for assessing the fact of reading and the degree of text comprehension. Psychophysiological parameters recorded during text reading can form the basis for this objective method. We studied the relationship between multimodal psychophysiological parameters and the process of text comprehension during reading using the method of correlation analysis. We used eye-tracking technology to record eye movements parameters to estimate visual attention, electroencephalography (EEG) to assess cognitive load and polygraphic indicators (skin-galvanic reaction, SGR) that reflect the emotional state of the respondent during text reading. We revealed reliable interrelations between perceiving the information and the dynamics of psychophysiological parameters during reading the text in commercials. Eye movement parameters reflected the difficulties arising in respondents during perceiving ambiguous parts of text. EEG dynamics in rate of alpha band were related with cumulative effect of cognitive load. SGR dynamics were related with emotional state of the respondent and with the meaning of text and type of commercial. EEG and polygraph parameters together also reflected the mental difficulties of respondents in understanding text and showed significant differences in cases of low and high text comprehension. We also revealed differences in psychophysiological parameters for different type of commercials (static vs. video, financial vs. cinema vs. pharmaceutics vs. mobile communication, etc.). Conclusions: Our methodology allows to perform multimodal evaluation of text perusal and the quality of text reading in commercials. In general, our results indicate the possibility of designing an integral model to estimate the comprehension of reading the commercial text in percent scale based on all noticed markers.

Keywords: Reading, eeg, Eye Movements, commercials, polygraphic indicators

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4 A Computerized Tool for Predicting Future Reading Abilities in Pre-Readers Children

Authors: Stephanie Ducrot, Marie Vernet, Eve Meiss, Yves Chaix

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Learning to read is a key topic of debate today, both in terms of its implications on school failure and illiteracy and regarding what are the best teaching methods to develop. It is estimated today that four to six percent of school-age children suffer from specific developmental disorders that impair learning. The findings from people with dyslexia and typically developing readers suggest that the problems children experience in learning to read are related to the preliteracy skills that they bring with them from kindergarten. Most tools available to professionals are designed for the evaluation of child language problems. In comparison, there are very few tools for assessing the relations between visual skills and the process of learning to read. Recent literature reports that visual-motor skills and visual-spatial attention in preschoolers are important predictors of reading development — the main goal of this study aimed at improving screening for future reading difficulties in preschool children. We used a prospective, longitudinal approach where oculomotor processes (assessed with the DiagLECT test) were measured in pre-readers, and the impact of these skills on future reading development was explored. The dialect test specifically measures the online time taken to name numbers arranged irregularly in horizontal rows (horizontal time, HT), and the time taken to name numbers arranged in vertical columns (vertical time, VT). A total of 131 preschoolers took part in this study. At Time 0 (kindergarten), the mean VT, HT, errors were recorded. One year later, at Time 1, the reading level of the same children was evaluated. Firstly, this study allowed us to provide normative data for a standardized evaluation of the oculomotor skills in 5- and 6-year-old children. The data also revealed that 25% of our sample of preschoolers showed oculomotor impairments (without any clinical complaints). Finally, the results of this study assessed the validity of the DiagLECT test for predicting reading outcomes; the better a child's oculomotor skills are, the better his/her reading abilities will be.

Keywords: Attention, Vision, Reading, preschoolers, oculomotor processes

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3 The Processing of Implicit Stereotypes in Contexts of Reading, Using Eye-Tracking and Self-Paced Reading Tasks

Authors: Magali Mari, Misha Muller

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The present study’s objectives were to determine how diverse implicit stereotypes affect the processing of written information and linguistic inferential processes, such as presupposition accommodation. When reading a text, one constructs a representation of the described situation, which is then updated, according to new outputs and based on stereotypes inscribed within society. If the new output contradicts stereotypical expectations, the representation must be corrected, resulting in longer reading times. A similar process occurs in cases of linguistic inferential processes like presupposition accommodation. Presupposition accommodation is traditionally regarded as fast, automatic processing of background information (e.g., ‘Mary stopped eating meat’ is quickly processed as Mary used to eat meat). However, very few accounts have investigated if this process is likely to be influenced by domains of social cognition, such as implicit stereotypes. To study the effects of implicit stereotypes on presupposition accommodation, adults were recorded while they read sentences in French, combining two methods, an eye-tracking task and a classic self-paced reading task (where participants read sentence segments at their own pace by pressing a computer key). In one condition, presuppositions were activated with the French definite articles ‘le/la/les,’ whereas in the other condition, the French indefinite articles ‘un/une/des’ was used, triggering no presupposition. Using a definite article presupposes that the object has already been uttered and is thus part of background information, whereas using an indefinite article is understood as the introduction of new information. Two types of stereotypes were under examination in order to enlarge the scope of stereotypes traditionally analyzed. Study 1 investigated gender stereotypes linked to professional occupations to replicate previous findings. Study 2 focused on nationality-related stereotypes (e.g. ‘the French are seducers’ versus ‘the Japanese are seducers’) to determine if the effects of implicit stereotypes on reading are generalizable to other types of implicit stereotypes. The results show that reading is influenced by the two types of implicit stereotypes; in the two studies, the reading pace slowed down when a counter-stereotype was presented. However, presupposition accommodation did not affect participants’ processing of information. Altogether these results show that (a) implicit stereotypes affect the processing of written information, regardless of the type of stereotypes presented, and (b) that implicit stereotypes prevail over the superficial linguistic treatment of presuppositions, which suggests faster processing for treating social information compared to linguistic information.

Keywords: Reading, Social Cognition, eye-tracking, implicit stereotypes

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2 An Investigation of the Effects of Word Length on Amblyopic Eye Movement during Reading

Authors: Yahya Maeni

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It is well established that amblyopic patients have a reduced reading performance and oculomotor deficits. Word length has a significant impact on reading performance and eye movement behaviour during reading. As there no previous attempts to assess whether amblyopic eyes would be affected by word length while reading. This study aims to assess the effect of word length on amblyopic eye movement behaviour during reading including fixation duration, number of fixation and gaze duration. 21 adults with amblyopia and 21 age-matched controls participated in the study (age ± SD) (23.80 ± 4.66) for amblyopes and (24.20 ± 3.58) for Controls. Eye movement was recorded during reading binocularly using Eyelink 1000. Study was designed as 2 x 2 (amblyopia vs. control) x 2 lengths (4 letters, and 8 letters). Compared to controls, the amblyopic participants report significant longer duration of fixation, higher number of fixation and longer gaze duration for short words with far higher significant difference for long words. It could be concluded that eye movement in amblyopia during reading might be accounted for by the length of a word within a text and this could possible explanation of reduced reading performance among amblyopes. By understanding the effect of word length on amblyopia will shed light on reading deficits in amblyopia and help to determine the reading needs of amplyopes in educational and clinical settings.

Keywords: amblyopia, Reading, Fixation, eye movement

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1 Gender, Age, and Race Differences in Self-Reported Reading Attitudes of College Students

Authors: Jill Villarreal, Kristalyn Cooksey, Kai Lloyd, Daniel Ha

Abstract:

Little research has been conducted to examine college students' reading attitudes, including students' perceptions of reading behaviors and reading abilities. This is problematic, as reading assigned course material is a critical component to an undergraduate student's academic success. For this study, flyers were electronically disseminated to instructors at 24 public and 10 private U.S. institutions in “Reading-Intensive Departments” including Psychology, Sociology, Education, Business, and Communications. We requested the online survey be completed as an in-class activity during the fall 2019 and spring 2020 semesters. All participants voluntarily completed the questionnaire anonymously. Of the participants, 280 self-identified their race as Black and 280 self-identified their race as White. Of the participants, 177 self-identified their gender as Male and 383 self-identified their Gender as Female. Participants ranged in age from 18-24. Factor analysis found four dimensions resulting from the questions regarding reading. The first we interpret as “Reading Proficiency”, accounted for 19% of the variability. The second dimension was “Reading Anxiety” (15%), the third was “Textbook Reading Ability” (9%), and the fourth was “Reading Enjoyment” (8%). Linear models on each of these dimensions revealed no effect of Age, Gender, Race, or Income on “Reading proficiency”. The linear model of “Reading Anxiety” showed a significant effect of race (p = 0.02), with higher anxiety in white students, as well as higher reading anxiety in female students (p < 0.001). The model of “Textbook Reading Ability” found a significant effect of race (p < 0.001), with higher textbook problems in white students. The model of “Reading Enjoyment” showed significant effects of race (p = 0.013) with more enjoyment for white students, gender (p = 0.001) with higher enjoyment for female students, and age (p = 0.033) with older students showing higher enjoyment. These findings suggest that gender, age, and race are important factors in many aspects of college students' reading attitudes. Further research will investigate possible causes for these differences. In addition, the effectiveness of college-level programs to reduce reading anxiety, promote the reading of textbooks, and foster a love of reading will be assessed.

Keywords: Gender, Race, Reading, age, college

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