Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

reading comprehension Related Abstracts

23 Background Knowledge and Reading Comprehension in ELT Classes: A Pedagogical Perspective

Authors: Davoud Ansari Kejal, Meysam Sabour

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For long, there has been a belief that a reader can easily comprehend a text if he is strong enough in vocabulary and grammatical knowledge but there was no account for the ability of understanding different subjects based on readers’ understanding of the surrounding world which is called world background knowledge. This paper attempts to investigate the reading comprehension process applying the schema theory as an influential factor in comprehending texts, in order to prove the important role of background knowledge in reading comprehension. Based on the discussion, some teaching methods are suggested for employing world background knowledge for an elaborated teaching of reading comprehension in an active learning environment in EFL classes.

Keywords: background knowledge, reading comprehension, schema theory, ELT classes

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22 The Development of Ability in Reading Comprehension Based on Metacognitive Strategies for Mattayom 3 Students

Authors: Suttipong Boonphadung, Kanlaya Ratanasuphakarn

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The research on the development of ability in reading comprehension based on metacognitive strategies aimed to (1) improve the students’development of ability in reading comprehension based on metacognitive strategies, (2) evaluate the students’ satisfaction on using metacognitive strategies in learning as a tool developing the ability in reading comprehension. Forty-eight of Mattayom 3 students who have enrolled in the subject of research for learning development of semester 2 in 2013 were purposively selected as the research cohort. The research tools were lesson plans for reading comprehension, pre-posttest and satisfaction questionnaire that were approved as content validity and reliability (IOC=.66-1.00,0.967). The research found that the development of ability in reading comprehension of the research samples before using metacognitive strategies in learning activities was in the normal high level. Additionally, the research discovered that the students’ satisfaction of the research cohort after applying model in learning activities appeared to be high level of satisfaction on using metacognitive strategies in learning as a tool for the development of ability in reading comprehension.

Keywords: satisfaction, reading comprehension, development of ability, metacognitive strategies

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21 Salient Issues in Reading Comprehension Difficulties Faced by Primary School Children

Authors: Janet Fernandez

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Reading is both for aesthetic and efferent purposes. In order for reading comprehension to take place, the reader needs to be able to make meaningful connections and enjoy the reading process. The notion of reading comprehension is discussed along with the plausible causes of poor reading comprehension abilities among primary school children. Among the major contributing causes are imaging, lack of schemata, selection of reading materials, and habits of the readers. Instruction methods are an integral part of making reading comprehension a meaningful experience, hence several models are presented for the classroom practitioner. Suggestions on how primary school children can improve their reading comprehension skills are offered.

Keywords: Children, reading comprehension, improve, meaningful strategies

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20 Effects of Computer-Mediated Dictionaries on Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Acquisition

Authors: Mohamed Amin Mekheimer

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This study aimed to investigate the effects of paper-based monolingual, pop-up and type-in electronic dictionaries on improving reading comprehension and incidental vocabulary acquisition and retention in an EFL context. It tapped into how computer-mediated dictionaries may have facilitated/impeded reading comprehension and vocabulary acquisition. Findings showed differential effects produced by the three treatments compared with the control group. Specifically, it revealed that the pop-up dictionary condition had the shortest average vocabulary searching time, vocabulary and text reading time, yet with less than the type-in dictionary group but more than the book dictionary group in terms of frequent dictionary 'look-ups' (p<.0001). In addition, ANOVA analyses also showed that text reading time differed significantly across all four treatments, and so did reading comprehension. Vocabulary acquisition was reported as enhanced in the three treatments rather than in the control group, but still with insignificant differences across the three treatments, yet with more differential effects in favour of the pop-up condition. Data also assert that participants preferred the pop-up e-dictionary more than the type-in and paper-based groups. Explanations of the findings vis-à-vis the cognitive load theory were presented. Pedagogical implications and suggestions for further research were forwarded at the end.

Keywords: Vocabulary Acquisition, reading comprehension, computer-mediated dictionaries, type-in dictionaries, pop-up dictionaries

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19 Teachers and Learners Perceptions on the Impact of Different Test Procedures on Reading: A Case Study

Authors: Bahloul Amel

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The main aim of this research was to investigate the perspectives of English language teachers and learners on the effect of test techniques on reading comprehension, test performance and assessment. The research has also aimed at finding the differences between teacher and learner perspectives, specifying the test techniques which have the highest effect, investigating the other factors affecting reading comprehension, and comparing the results with the similar studies. In order to achieve these objectives, perspectives and findings of different researchers were reviewed, two different questionnaires were prepared to collect data for the perspectives of teachers and learners, the questionnaires were applied to 26 learners and 8 teachers from the University of Batna (Algeria), and quantitative and qualitative data analysis of the results were done. The results and analysis of the results show that different test techniques affect reading comprehension, test performance and assessment at different percentages rates.

Keywords: reading comprehension, reading assessment, test performance, test techniques

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18 The Role of Vocabulary in Reading Comprehension

Authors: Engku Haliza Engku Ibrahim, Isarji Sarudin, Ainon Jariah Muhamad

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It is generally agreed that many factors contribute to one’s reading comprehension and there is consensus that vocabulary size one of the main factors. This study explores the relationship between second language learners’ vocabulary size and their reading comprehension scores. 130 Malay pre-university students of a public university participated in this study. They were students of an intensive English language programme doing preparatory English courses to pursue bachelors degree in English. A quantitative research method was employed based on the Vocabulary Levels Test by Nation (1990) and the reading comprehension score of the in-house English Proficiency Test. A review of the literature indicates that a somewhat positive correlation is to be expected though findings of this study can only be explicated once the final analysis has been carried out. This is an ongoing study and it is anticipated that results of this research will be finalized in the near future. The findings will help provide beneficial implications for the prediction of reading comprehension performance. It also has implications for the teaching of vocabulary in the ESL context. A better understanding of the relationship between vocabulary size and reading comprehension scores will enhance teachers’ and students’ awareness of the importance of vocabulary acquisition in the L2 classroom.

Keywords: ESL, reading comprehension, vocabulary size, vocabulary learning

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17 The Comparative Effect of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), Critical Thinking and a Combination of Both On EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension

Authors: Mona Khabiri, Fahimeh Farahani

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The present study was an attempt to investigate the comparative effect of teaching NLP, critical thinking, and a combination of NLP and critical thinking on EFL learners' reading comprehension. To fulfill the purpose of this study, a group of 82 female and male intermediate EFL learners at a Language School in Iran took a piloted sample PET as a proficiency test and 63 of them were selected as homogenous learners and were randomly assigned to three experimental groups. Within a treatment process of 10 sessions the teacher/researcher provided the participants of each group with handouts, explanations, practices, homework, and questionnaires on techniques of NLP, critical thinking, and a combination of both. During these 10 sessions, 10 same reading comprehension texts extracted from the multi-skill course book suggested by the language school where thought to the participants of each experimental group using skills and strategies of NLP, critical thinking, and a combination of both. On the eleventh session, the participants sat for a reading posttest. The results of one-way ANOVA showed no significant difference among the three groups in terms of reading comprehension. Justifications and implications for the findings of the study and suggestions for further research are presented.

Keywords: Critical thinking, reading comprehension, neuro-linguistic programming (NLP)

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16 Moving from Practice to Theory

Authors: Maria Lina Garrido

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This paper aims to reflect upon instruction in English classes with the specific purpose of reading comprehension development, having as its paradigm the considerations presented by William Grabe, in his book Reading in a Second Language: Moving from theory to practice. His concerns regarding the connection between research findings and instructional practices have stimulated the present author to re-evaluate both her long practice as an English reading teacher and as the author of two reading textbooks for graduate students. Elements of the reading process such as linguistic issues, prior knowledge, reading strategies, critical evaluation, and motivation are the main foci of this analysis as far as the activities developed in the classroom are concerned. The experience with university candidates on postgraduate courses with different levels of English knowledge in Bahia, Brazil, has definitely demanded certain adjustments to this author`s classroom setting. Word recognition based on cognates, for example, has been emphasized given the fact that academic texts use many Latin words which have the same roots as the Brazilian Portuguese lexicon. Concerning syntactic parsing, the tenses/verbal aspects, modality and linking words are included in the curriculum, but not with the same depth as the general English curricula. Reading strategies, another essential predictor for developing reading skills, have been largely stimulated in L2 classes in order to compensate for a lack of the appropriate knowledge of the foreign language. This paper presents results that demonstrate that this author`s teaching practice is compatible with the implications and instruction concerning the reading process outlined by Grabe, however, it admits that each class demands specific instructions to meet the needs of that particular group.

Keywords: reading comprehension, reading skills, classroom practice, instructional activities

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15 The Effects of Three Pre-Reading Activities (Text Summary, Vocabulary Definition, and Pre-Passage Questions) on the Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners

Authors: Leila Anjomshoa, Firooz Sadighi

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This study investigated the effects of three types of pre-reading activities (vocabulary definitions, text summary and pre-passage questions) on EFL learners’ English reading comprehension. On the basis of the results of a placement test administered to two hundred and thirty English students at Kerman Azad University, 200 subjects (one hundred intermediate and one hundred advanced) were selected.Four texts, two of them at intermediate level and two of them at advanced level were chosen. The data gathered was subjected to the statistical procedures of ANOVA. A close examination of the results through Tukey’s HSD showed the fact that the experimental groups performed better than the control group, highlighting the effect of the treatment on them. Also, the experimental group C (text summary), performed remarkably better than the other three groups (both experimental & control). Group B subjects, vocabulary definitions, performed better than groups A and D. The pre-passage questions group’s (D) performance showed higher scores than the control condition.

Keywords: reading comprehension, pre-reading activities, text summary, vocabulary definition, and pre-passage questions

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14 Reading Comprehension in Profound Deaf Readers

Authors: S. Raghibdoust, E. Kamari

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Research show that reduced functional hearing has a detrimental influence on the ability of an individual to establish proper phonological representations of words, since the phonological representations are claimed to mediate the conceptual processing of written words. Word processing efficiency is expected to decrease with a decrease in functional hearing. In other words, it is predicted that hearing individuals would be more capable of word processing than individuals with hearing loss, as their functional hearing works normally. Studies also demonstrate that the quality of the functional hearing affects reading comprehension via its effect on their word processing skills. In other words, better hearing facilitates the development of phonological knowledge, and can promote enhanced strategies for the recognition of written words, which in turn positively affect higher-order processes underlying reading comprehension. The aims of this study were to investigate and compare the effect of deafness on the participants’ abilities to process written words at the lexical and sentence levels through using two online and one offline reading comprehension tests. The performance of a group of 8 deaf male students (ages 8-12) was compared with that of a control group of normal hearing male students. All the participants had normal IQ and visual status, and came from an average socioeconomic background. None were diagnosed with a particular learning or motor disability. The language spoken in the homes of all participants was Persian. Two tests of word processing were developed and presented to the participants using OpenSesame software, in order to measure the speed and accuracy of their performance at the two perceptual and conceptual levels. In the third offline test of reading comprehension which comprised of semantically plausible and semantically implausible subject relative clauses, the participants had to select the correct answer out of two choices. The data derived from the statistical analysis using SPSS software indicated that hearing and deaf participants had a similar word processing performance both in terms of speed and accuracy of their responses. The results also showed that there was no significant difference between the performance of the deaf and hearing participants in comprehending semantically plausible sentences (p > 0/05). However, a significant difference between the performances of the two groups was observed with respect to their comprehension of semantically implausible sentences (p < 0/05). In sum, the findings revealed that the seriously impoverished sentence reading ability characterizing the profound deaf subjects of the present research, exhibited their reliance on reading strategies that are based on insufficient or deviant structural knowledge, in particular in processing semantically implausible sentences, rather than a failure to efficiently process written words at the lexical level. This conclusion, of course, does not mean to say that deaf individuals may never experience deficits at the word processing level, deficits that impede their understanding of written texts. However, as stated in previous researches, it sounds reasonable to assume that the more deaf individuals get familiar with written words, the better they can recognize them, despite having a profound phonological weakness.

Keywords: Deafness, reading comprehension, reading strategy, word processing, subject and object relative sentences

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13 Using WebQuest for Developing English Reading Comprehension Skills for Preparatory Experimental School Students: Proposed Design

Authors: Sarah Hamdy Abd-Al Hamid Seyam

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The research aimed investigating the effect of using web quest on developing English reading comprehension skills for preparatory experimental school students. The descriptive design was adopted in the study. The tools of the study are represented in: a checklist for the English reading comprehension skills and a test of the English reading comprehension skills for the first year preparatory experimental school students. Results of the study were discussed in relation to various factors that affect the learning process. Finally the research presented applicable contributions according to using web quest in teaching English as a foreign language generally and improving reading comprehension in particular.

Keywords: English as a Second Language, reading comprehension, preparatory experimental schools, WebQuest

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12 Review of Literature: Using Technology to Help Language Learners at Improving Their Language Skills

Authors: Eyup Bayram Guzel, Osman Tunc

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People have been fairly interested in what technology offers to them around a scope of human necessities and it has become a part of human life. In this study, experimental studies were reviewed for the purpose of how technology helps language learners improve their phonemic awareness, reading comprehension and vocabulary development skills. As a conclusion, experimental studies demonstrated that students showed significant improvements up to 70% in phonological awareness, while they demonstrated up to 76% of improvements in reading comprehension and up to 77% in vocabulary development. The use of computer-assisted technologies and its positive outcomes were encouraged to be used more widely in order to meet the diverse needs of students.

Keywords: Technology, reading comprehension, phonemic awareness, vocabulary development

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11 The Effects of Collaborative Reflection and Class Observation on Improving the Quality of Teacher-Training Courses

Authors: Somayeh Sharifi

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of collaborative reflection and class observation on improving the quality of teacher training courses and the students reading comprehension skills. 13 inexperienced English teachers teaching elementary courses that were at the same level of proficiency were chosen. Thirteen participants were allocated in two groups, with 7 teachers in the experimental group and the other 6 teachers in the control group. Since two groups were not selected randomly, this study is a form of quasi-experimental research. In addition to a 3-day teacher training course for both groups, teachers in experimental group recorded and observed 20 sessions of their own classes and 30 sessions of experienced teachers’ class and participated in 12 meetings -3 month once a week- in which teachers shared any event that they found interesting during observations and their own teaching and compare it with strategies that they learned in teacher training courses. In contrast, the control group did not engage in any process of observation and collaboration. In order to test students' performance in English before and after the treatment, a Key English Test (KET) was employed to check students' reading skill. The result of the test shows that there is not a significant difference in mean of scores in KET pretest in and, since they are close to each other. However by considering mean and median of posttest in both classes we perceive that although both control and experimental group students' proficiency in English enhanced, there was a significant difference in experimental group students' final scores before and after treatment.

Keywords: reading comprehension, collaborative reflection, teacher training courses, key English test (KET)

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10 Reading Literacy and Methods of Improving Reading

Authors: Iva Kosek Bartosova, Andrea Jokešová, Eva Kozlová, Helena Matějová

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The paper presents results of a research team from Faculty of Education, University of Hradec Králové in the Czech Republic. It introduces with the most reading methods used in the 1st classes of a primary school and presents results of a pilot research focused on mastering reading techniques and the quality of reading comprehension of pupils in the first half of a school year during training in teaching reading by an analytic-synthetic method and by a genetic method. These methods of practicing reading skills are the most used ones in the Czech Republic. During the school year 2015/16 there has been a measurement made of two groups of pupils of the 1st year and monitoring of quantitative and qualitative parameters of reading pupils’ outputs by several methods. Both of these methods are based on different theoretical basis and each of them has a specific educational and methodical procedure. This contribution represents results during a piloting project and draws pilot conclusions which will be verified in the subsequent broader research at the end of the school year of the first class of primary school.

Keywords: reading comprehension, reading speed, analytic-synthetic method of reading, genetic method of reading, reading literacy, reading methods

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9 Predicting Reading Comprehension in Spanish: The Evidence for the Simple View Model

Authors: Gabriela Silva-Maceda, Silvia Romero-Contreras

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Spanish is a more transparent language than English given that it has more direct correspondences between sounds and letters. It has become important to understand how decoding and linguistic comprehension contribute to reading comprehension in the framework of the widely known Simple View Model. This study aimed to identify the level of prediction by these two components in a sample of 1st to 4th grade children attending two schools in central Mexico (one public and one private). Within each school, ten children were randomly selected in each grade level, and their parents were asked about reading habits and socioeconomic information. In total, 79 children completed three standardized tests measuring decoding (pseudo-word reading), linguistic comprehension (understanding of paragraphs) and reading comprehension using subtests from the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Spanish, Fourth Edition, and the Test de Lectura y Escritura en Español (LEE). The data were analyzed using hierarchical regression, with decoding as a first step and linguistic comprehension as a second step. Results showed that decoding accounted for 19.2% of the variance in reading comprehension, while linguistic comprehension accounted for an additional 10%, adding up to 29.2% of variance explained: F (2, 75)= 15.45, p <.001. Socioeconomic status derived from parental questionnaires showed a statistically significant association with the type of school attended, X2 (3, N= 79) = 14.33, p =.002. Nonetheless when analyzing the Simple View components, only decoding differences were statistically significant (t = -6.92, df = 76.81, p < .001, two-tailed); reading comprehension differences were also significant (t = -3.44, df = 76, p = .001, two-tailed). When socioeconomic status was included in the model, it predicted a 5.9% unique variance, even when already accounting for Simple View components, adding to a 35.1% total variance explained. This three-predictor model was also significant: F (3, 72)= 12.99, p <.001. In addition, socioeconomic status was significantly correlated with the amount of non-textbook books parents reported to have at home for both adults (rho = .61, p<.001) and children (rho= .47, p<.001). Results converge with a large body of literature finding socioeconomic differences in reading comprehension; in addition this study suggests that these differences were also present in decoding skills. Although linguistic comprehension differences between schools were expected, it is argued that the test used to collect this variable was not sensitive to linguistic differences, since it came from a test to diagnose clinical language disabilities. Even with this caveat, results show that the components of the Simple View Model can predict less than a third of the variance in reading comprehension in Spanish. However, the results also suggest that a fuller model of reading comprehension is obtained when considering the family’s socioeconomic status, given the potential differences shown by the socioeconomic status association with books at home, factors that are particularly important in countries where inequality gaps are relatively large.

Keywords: Spanish, Socioeconomic Status, reading comprehension, decoding, linguistic comprehension, simple view model

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8 Examining the Links between Established Principles, Iranian Teachers' Perceptions of Reading Comprehension, and Their Actual Practice in English for Specific Purposes Courses

Authors: Zahra Alimorad

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There is a strong belief that language teachers' actual practices in the classroom context are largely determined by the underlying perceptions they hold about the nature of language and language learning. That being so, it can be envisaged that teaching procedures of ESP (English for Specific Purposes) teachers teaching reading comprehension will mainly be driven by their perceptions about the nature of reading. To examine this issue, four Iranian university professors holding Ph.D. in either TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) or English Literature who were teaching English to Engineering and Sciences students were recruited to participate in this study. To collect the necessary data, classroom observations and follow-up semi-structured interviews were used. Furthermore, the materials utilized by the teachers such as textbooks, syllabuses, and tests were also examined. Although it can be argued that their perceptions were partially compatible with the established principles, results of the study pointed to a lack of congruence between these teachers' perceptions and their practices, on the one hand, and between the established principles and the practices, on the other. While the literature mostly supports a metacognitive-strategy approach to reading comprehension, the teachers were mainly adopting a skills-based approach to the teaching of reading. That is, they primarily focused on translation as the core activity in the classroom followed by reading aloud, defining words, and explaining grammatical structures. This divergence was partly attributed to the contextual constraints and partly to students' lack of motivation by the teachers.

Keywords: Principles, Practice, perceptions, reading comprehension, English teachers

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7 The Difference of Learning Outcomes in Reading Comprehension between Text and Film as The Media in Indonesian Language for Foreign Speaker in Intermediate Level

Authors: Siti Ayu Ningsih

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This study aims to find the differences outcomes in learning reading comprehension with text and film as media on Indonesian Language for foreign speaker (BIPA) learning at intermediate level. By using quantitative and qualitative research methods, the respondent of this study is a single respondent from D'Royal Morocco Integrative Islamic School in grade nine from secondary level. Quantitative method used to calculate the learning outcomes that have been given the appropriate action cycle, whereas qualitative method used to translate the findings derived from quantitative methods to be described. The technique used in this study is the observation techniques and testing work. Based on the research, it is known that the use of the text media is more effective than the film for intermediate level of Indonesian Language for foreign speaker learner. This is because, when using film the learner does not have enough time to take note the difficult vocabulary and don't have enough time to look for the meaning of the vocabulary from the dictionary. While the use of media texts shows the better effectiveness because it does not require additional time to take note the difficult words. For the words that are difficult or strange, the learner can immediately find its meaning from the dictionary. The presence of the text is also very helpful for Indonesian Language for foreign speaker learner to find the answers according to the questions more easily. By matching the vocabulary of the question into the text references.

Keywords: Media, reading comprehension, learning outcome, Indonesian language for foreign speaker

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6 Contribution of Word Decoding and Reading Fluency on Reading Comprehension in Young Typical Readers of Kannada Language

Authors: Jayashree S. Bhat, Vangmayee V. Subban, Suzan Deelan. Pinto, Somashekara Haralakatta Shivananjappa, Shwetha Prabhu

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Introduction and Need: During early years of schooling, the instruction in the schools mainly focus on children’s word decoding abilities. However, the skilled readers should master all the components of reading such as word decoding, reading fluency and comprehension. Nevertheless, the relationship between each component during the process of learning to read is less clear. The studies conducted in alphabetical languages have mixed opinion on relative contribution of word decoding and reading fluency on reading comprehension. However, the scenarios in alphasyllabary languages are unexplored. Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore the role of word decoding, reading fluency on reading comprehension abilities in children learning to read Kannada between the age ranges of 5.6 to 8.6 years. Method: In this cross sectional study, a total of 60 typically developing children, 20 each from Grade I, Grade II, Grade III maintaining equal gender ratio between the age range of 5.6 to 6.6 years, 6.7 to 7.6 years and 7.7 to 8.6 years respectively were selected from Kannada medium schools. The reading fluency and reading comprehension abilities of the children were assessed using Grade level passages selected from the Kannada text book of children core curriculum. All the passages consist of five questions to assess reading comprehension. The pseudoword decoding skills were assessed using 40 pseudowords with varying syllable length and their Akshara composition. Pseudowords are formed by interchanging the syllables within the meaningful word while maintaining the phonotactic constraints of Kannada language. The assessment material was subjected to content validation and reliability measures before collecting the data on the study samples. The data were collected individually, and reading fluency was assessed for words correctly read per minute. Pseudoword decoding was scored for the accuracy of reading. Results: The descriptive statistics indicated that the mean pseudoword reading, reading comprehension, words accurately read per minute increased with the Grades. The performance of Grade III children found to be higher, Grade I lower and Grade II remained intermediate of Grade III and Grade I. The trend indicated that reading skills gradually improve with the Grades. Pearson’s correlation co-efficient showed moderate and highly significant (p=0.00) positive co-relation between the variables, indicating the interdependency of all the three components required for reading. The hierarchical regression analysis revealed 37% variance in reading comprehension was explained by pseudoword decoding and was highly significant. Subsequent entry of reading fluency measure, there was no significant change in R-square and was only change 3%. Therefore, pseudoword-decoding evolved as a single most significant predictor of reading comprehension during early Grades of reading acquisition. Conclusion: The present study concludes that the pseudoword decoding skills contribute significantly to reading comprehension than reading fluency during initial years of schooling in children learning to read Kannada language.

Keywords: reading comprehension, alphasyllabary, pseudo-word decoding, reading fluency

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5 Developing Second Language Learners’ Reading Comprehension through Content and Language Integrated Learning

Authors: Kaine Gulozer

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A strong methodological conception in the practice of teaching, content, and language integrated learning (CLIL) is adapted to boost efficiency in the second language (L2) instruction with a range of proficiency levels. This study aims to investigate whether the incorporation of two different mediums of meaningful CLIL reading activities (in-school and out-of-school settings) influence L2 students’ development of comprehension skills differently. CLIL based instructional methodology was adopted and total of 50 preparatory year students (N=50, 25 students for each proficiency level) from two distinct language proficiency learners (elementary and intermediate) majoring in engineering faculties were recruited for the study. Both qualitative and quantitative methods through a post-test design were adopted. Data were collected through a questionnaire, a reading comprehension test and a semi-structured interview addressed to the two proficiency groups. The results show that both settings in relation to the development of reading comprehension are beneficial, whereas the impact of the reading activities conducted in school settings was higher at the elementary language level of students than that of the one conducted out-of-class settings based on the reported interview results. This study suggests that the incorporation of meaningful CLIL reading activities in both settings for both proficiency levels could create students’ self-awareness of their language learning process and the sense of ownership in successful improvements of field-specific reading comprehension. Further potential suggestions and implications of the study were discussed.

Keywords: reading comprehension, language proficiency, content and language integrated learning, in-school setting, out-of-school setting

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4 The Design and Implementation of Interactive Storybook Reading to Develop the Reading Comprehension of ESL Learners

Authors: A. Van Staden, A. A. van Rhyn

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The numerous challenges South African, ESL learners experience were highlighted by the results of several literacy surveys and tests, which demonstrated that our learners’ literacy abilities are far below standard and very weak compared to other international countries. This study developed and implemented an interactive storybook intervention program to support the reading development of ESL learners. The researchers utilized an experimental pre-test/post-test research design, whereby 80 ESL learners from five participating schools, were purposively sampled to take part in this study. This paper, inter alia, discusses the key features of this intervention program whilst also reporting the results of the experimental investigation. Results are promising and show a significant improvement in the mean scores of the learners in the experimental group. Moreover, the results show the value of interactive storybook reading in creating responsive literacy environments to develop the literacy skills of ESL learners.

Keywords: reading comprehension, South Africa, ESL learners, Interactive story book reading

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3 The Impact of the Lexical Quality Hypothesis and the Self-Teaching Hypothesis on Reading Ability

Authors: Anastasios Ntousas

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The purpose of the following paper is to analyze the relationship between the lexical quality and the self-teaching hypothesis and their impact on the reading ability. The following questions emerged, is there a correlation between the effective reading experience that the lexical quality hypothesis proposes and the self-teaching hypothesis, would the ability to read by analogy facilitate and create stable, synchronized four-word representational, and would word morphological knowledge be a possible extension of the self-teaching hypothesis. The lexical quality hypothesis speculates that words include four representational attributes, phonology, orthography, morpho-syntax, and meaning. Those four-word representations work together to make word reading an effective task. A possible lack of knowledge in one of the representations might disrupt reading comprehension. The degree that the four-word features connect together makes high and low lexical word quality representations. When the four-word representational attributes connect together effectively, readers have a high lexical quality of words; however, when they hardly have a strong connection with each other, readers have a low lexical quality of words. Furthermore, the self-teaching hypothesis proposes that phonological recoding enables printed word learning. Phonological knowledge and reading experience facilitate the acquisition and consolidation of specific-word orthographies. The reading experience is related to strong reading comprehension. The more readers have contact with texts, the better readers they become. Therefore, their phonological knowledge, as the self-teaching hypothesis suggests, might have a facilitative impact on the consolidation of the orthographical, morphological-syntax and meaning representations of unknown words. The phonology of known words might activate effectively the rest of the representational features of words. Readers use their existing phonological knowledge of similarly spelt words to pronounce unknown words; a possible transference of this ability to read by analogy will appear with readers’ morphological knowledge. Morphemes might facilitate readers’ ability to pronounce and spell new unknown words in which they do not have lexical access. Readers will encounter unknown words with similarly phonemes and morphemes but with different meanings. Knowledge of phonology and morphology might support and increase reading comprehension. There was a careful selection, discussion of theoretical material and comparison of the two existing theories. Evidence shows that morphological knowledge improves reading ability and comprehension, so morphological knowledge might be a possible extension of the self-teaching hypothesis, the fundamental skill to read by analogy can be implemented to the consolidation of word – specific orthographies via readers’ morphological knowledge, and there is a positive correlation between effective reading experience and self-teaching hypothesis.

Keywords: Morphology, Orthography, reading comprehension, reading ability

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2 Using 'Know, Want to Know, Learned' Strategy to Enhance the Seventh C Grade Students' Reading Comprehension Achievement at SMPN 1 Mumbulsari

Authors: Abdul Rofiq Badril Rizal M. Z.

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Reading becomes one of the most important skills in teaching and learning English. The purpose of this research was to improve the students' active participation, and reading comprehension achievement by using Know, Want to Know, Learned (KWL) strategy. The research design was Classroom Action Research. The area and participants of this research were chosen by using purposive method. The data were collected by observation, a reading comprehension test, interview, and documentation. The results showed that there was significant improvement in Cycle 1 to Cycle 2 of the research. In cycle 1, the students’ active participation increased 49.77% from 28% to 77.77. In addition, in cycle 2, the students’ active participation also increased by 14.17% from 77.77% to 81.94%. The students’ reading comprehension achievement also increased by 52.14% from 25% to 77.14% in Cycle 1 and increased by 5.71% from 77.14% to 82.85% in cycle 2. It indicated that using Know, Want to Know, Learned (KWL) strategy could enhance the Seventh C grade students’ descriptive text reading comprehension achievement, and active participation.

Keywords: active participation, reading comprehension, classroom action research, Indonesian folktales

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1 Foreign Language Reading Comprehenmsion and the Linguistic Intervention Program

Authors: Silvia HvozdíKová, Eva Stranovská

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The purpose of the article is to discuss the results of the research conducted during the period of two semesters paying attention to selected factors of foreign language reading comprehension through the means of Linguistic Intervention Program. The Linguistic Intervention Program was designed for the purpose of the current research. It refers to such method of foreign language teaching which emphasized active social learning, creative drama strategies, self-directed learning. The research sample consisted of 360 respondents, foreign language learners ranging from 13 – 17 years of age. Specifically designed questionnaire and a standardized foreign language reading comprehension tests were applied to serve the purpose. The outcomes of the research recorded significant results towards significant relationship between selected elements of the Linguistic Intervention Program and the academic achievements in the factors of reading comprehension.

Keywords: Social Learning, foreign language learning, reading comprehension, Linguistic intervention program

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