Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Raw Milk Related Abstracts

6 Molecular Detection and Characterization of Shiga Toxogenic Escherichia coli Associated with Dairy Product

Authors: Mohamed Al-Hazmi, Abdullah Al-Arfaj, Moussa Ihab

Abstract:

Raw, unpasteurized milk can carry dangerous bacteria such as Salmonella, E. coli, and Listeria, which are responsible for causing numerous foodborne illnesses. The objective of this study was molecular characterization of shiga toxogenic E. coli in raw milk collected from different Egyptian governorates by multiplex PCR. During the period of 25th May to 25th October 2012, a total of 320 bulk-tank milk samples were collected from 10 cow farms located in different Egyptian governorates. Bacteriological examination of milk samples revealed the presence of E. coli organisms in 65 samples (20.3%), serotyping of the E. coli isolates revealed, 35 strains (10.94%) O111, 15 strains (4.69%) O157: H7, 10 strains (3.13%) O128 and 5 strains (1.56%) O119. Multiplex PCR for detection of shiga toxin type 2 and intimin genes revealed positive amplification of 255 bp fragment of shiga toxin type 2 gene and 384 bp fragment of intimin gene from all E. coli serovar O157: H7, while from serovar O111 were 25 (71.43%), 20 (57.14%) and from serovar O128 were 6 (60%), 8 (80%), respectively. The results of multiplex PCR assay are useful for identification of STEC possessing the eaeA and stx2 genes.

Keywords: Raw Milk, E. coli, multiplex PCR, Shiga toxin type 2, intimin gene

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5 The microbial evaluation of cow raw milk used in private dairy factories in of Zawia city, Libya

Authors: M. Ali, Obied A. Alwan, Elgerbi

Abstract:

This study was conducted on the cow milk which is used in the local milk factories of Zawia. This was completely random sampling the unscheduled samples. The microbiologic result have approved that the count of bacteria and the count of E.Coli are very high and all the manufacturing places which were included in the study have lacked the health conditions.

Keywords: Raw Milk, Libya, dairy factories, microbiologic

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4 Antioxidant Activity of the Algerian Traditional Kefir Supernatant

Authors: H. Amellal-Chibane, N. Dehdouh, S. Ait-Kaki, F. Halladj

Abstract:

Kefir is fermented milk that is produced by adding Kefir grains, consisting of bacteria and yeasts, to milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of the kefir supernatant and the raw milk. The Antioxidant activity assays of kefir supernatant and raw milk were evaluated by assessing the DPPH radical-scavenging activity. Kefir supernatant demonstrated high antioxidant activity (87.75%) compared to the raw milk (70.59 %). These results suggest that the Algerian kefir has interesting antioxidant activity.

Keywords: Raw Milk, antioxidant activity, kefir, kefir supernatant

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3 Detection of Mycobacteria spp by PCR in Raw Milk Samples Collected from Iran

Authors: Shokoufeh Roudashti, Shahin Bahari, Fakhri Haghi, Habib Zeighami, Ghazal Naderi, Paniz Shirmast

Abstract:

Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) causes tuberculosis (TB) in humans and animals. Mycobacterium MTBC is one of the most important species of zoonotic pathogens that can be transmitted from cattle to humans. The disease can transmit to human by direct contact with the infected animals, drinking unpasteurized milk and consumption of uncooked meat. The presence of these opportunistic, pathogenic bacteria in bovine milk has emerged as a public-health concern, especially among individuals who consume raw milk. Tuberculosis MTBC is the predominant infectious cause of morbidity and morality worldwide, It is estimated that one third of the world population (approx. 1.8 billion persons) is infected with M. tuberculosis and each year there are 8 million new cases worldwide. The aim of this study, to detect Mycobacterium MTBC in raw milk samples using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Materials and Methods: In the present study, 60 raw milk samples were collected from rural areas in Zanjan, Iran. After extraction of DNAs and using special primers for Is6110 gene as a marker, PCR was applied to detect the presence or non-presence of the related gene. Results: According to the findings of this study, 8 (13.5 %) out of 60 milk samples were positive for Mycobacterium spp (P < 0.1). Conclusions: The Outbreak of genus Mycobacteria spp in milk samples were determined to be relatively high in Zanjan, Iran.

Keywords: Raw Milk, PCR, Zanjan, Mycobacteria spp

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2 Prospects of Milk Protein as a Potential Alternative of Natural Antibiotic

Authors: Syeda Fahria Hoque Mimmi

Abstract:

Many new and promising treatments for reducing or diminishing the adverse effects of microorganisms are being discovered day by day. On the other hand, the dairy industry is accelerating the economic wheel of Bangladesh. Considering all these facts, new thoughts were developed to isolate milk proteins by the present experiment for opening up a new era of developing natural antibiotics from milk. Lactoferrin, an iron-binding glycoprotein with multifunctional properties, is crucial to strengthening the immune system and also useful for commercial applications. The protein’s iron-binding capacity makes it undoubtedly advantageous to immune system modulation and different bacterial strains. For fulfilling the purpose, 4 of raw and 17 of commercially available milk samples were collected from different farms and stores in Bangladesh (Dhaka, Chittagong, and Cox’s Bazar). Protein quantification by nanodrop technology has confirmed that raw milk samples have better quantities of protein than the commercial ones. All the samples were tested for their antimicrobial activity against 18 pathogens, where raw milk samples showed a higher percentage of antibacterial activity. In addition to this, SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate–Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis) was performed to identify lactoferrin in the milk samples. Lactoferrin was detected in 9 samples from which 4 were raw milk samples. Interestingly, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholera, Staphylococcus aureus, and enterotoxigenic E. coli significantly displayed sensitivity against lactoferrin collected from raw milk. Only Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumonia, Enterococcus faecalis, and ETEC (Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli) were susceptible to lactoferrin obtained from a commercial one. This study suggested that lactoferrin might be used as the potential alternative of antibiotics for many diseases and also can be used to reduce microbial deterioration in the food and feed industry.

Keywords: Pathogens, Raw Milk, lactoferrin, alternative of antibiotics, commercially available milk, nanodrop technology

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1 Microbiological Assessment of Soft Cheese (Wara), Raw Milk and Dairy Drinking Water from Selected Farms in Ido, Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Blessing C. Nwachukwu, Michael O. Taiwo, Wasiu A. Abibu, Isaac O. Ayodeji

Abstract:

Milk is an important source of micro and macronutrients for humans. Soft Cheese (Wara) is an example of a by-product of milk. In addition, water is considered as one of the most vital resources in cattle farms. Due to the high consumption rate of milk and soft cheese and the traditional techniques involved in their production in Nigeria, there was a need for a microbiological assessment which will be of utmost public health importance. The study thus investigated microbial risk assessments associated with consumption of milk and soft cheese (Wara). It also investigated common pathogens present in dairy water in farms and antibiotic sensitivity profiling for implicated pathogens were conducted. Samples were collected from three different Fulani dairy herds in Ido local government, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria and subjected to microbiological evaluation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Aspergillus flavus was the only isolated fungal isolate from Wara while Staphylococcus aureus, Vibro cholera, Hafnia alvei, Proteus mirabilis, Escherishia coli, Psuedomonas aeuroginosa, Citrobacter freundii, and Klebsiella pneumonia were the bacteria genera isolated from Wara, dairy milk and dairy drinking water. Bacterial counts from Wara from the three selected farms A, B and C were 3.5×105 CFU/ml, 4.0×105 CFU/ml and 5.3×105 CFU/ml respectively while the fungal count was 3CFU/100µl. The total bacteria count from dairy milk from the three selected farms A, B and C were Farms 2.0 ×105 CFU/ml, 3.5 × 105 CFU/ml and 6.5 × 105 CFU/ml respectively. 1.4×105 CFU/ml, 1.9×105 CFU/ml and 4.9×105 CFU/ml were the recorded bacterial counts from dairy water from farms A, B and C respectively. The highest antimicrobial resistance of 100% was recorded in Wara with Enrofloxacin, Gentamycin, Cefatriaxone and Colistin. The highest antimicrobial susceptibility of 100% was recorded in Raw milk with Enrofloxacin and Gentamicin. Highest antimicrobial intermediate response of 100% was recorded in Raw milk with Streptomycin. The study revealed that most of the cheeses sold at Ido local Government are contaminated with pathogens. Further research is needed on standardizing the production method to prevent pathogens from gaining access. The presence of bacteria in raw milk indicated contamination due to poor handling and unhygienic practices. Thus, drinking unpasteurized milk is hazardous as it increases the risk of zoonoses. Also, the Provision of quality drinking water is crucial for optimum productivity of dairy. Health education programs aiming at increasing awareness of the importance of clean water for animal health will be helpful.

Keywords: Dairy, Raw Milk, soft cheese, Wara

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