Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

RAW 264.7 Related Abstracts

3 Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Activity of Heliotropium indicum Linn. Used for Cancer Patients Treatment

Authors: Arunporn Itharat, Onmanee Prajuabjinda, Jitpisute Chunthorng-Orn, Thana Juckmeta


Inflammation and oxidative stress work together to produce symptoms in cancer patients. The whole part of it is used as a preparation to treat cancer patients in Khampramong temple which has been a place of treatment and palliative care for cancer patients since 2005. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of Heliotropium indicum extracts. Dried plant materials were extracted in a similar manner to those practiced by the Khampramong Temple i.e. maceration in 95% ethanol and boiling in water. For anti-inflammation activity, both extracts were tested for suppression of nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. They were also tested for antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging assay. This study found that the ethanolic extract of Heliotropium indicum exhibited higher inhibitory activity of NO release than Indomethacin as a positive control (IC50 value of 24.17±2.12 and 34.67±6.23 μg/mL, respectively). For DPPH radical scavenging assay, the ethanolic extract also exhibited antioxidant activity but less than BHT as a antioxidant compound (EC50 values = 28.91±4.26 and 13.08±0.29 μg/mL, respectively). In contrast, its water extract had no inhibitory activity on NO release (IC50 > 100 μg/mL) and no inhibitory activity on DPPH radicals (EC50 values > 100 μg/mL). The results showed correlation between anti-inflammation and antioxidant activity and these results also support using this plant to treat cancer patients.

Keywords: DPPH, Heliotropium indicum, RAW 264.7, Khampramong Temple

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2 Effects of Golden Thistle (Scolymus hispanicus L.) Hydromethanolic Extracts on in vitro Systemic Inflammation Model

Authors: Cansu Ozel-Tasci, Sukru Gulec


Inflammation is the response of the body in the case of an infection, irritation, and injury. Among the inflammation types, systemic inflammation can be considered as the manifestation of the whole system for all of the abnormal situations that occurred in the body. Various white blood cells, especially macrophages manifest this abnormal situation by secreting cytokines into the bloodstream. Systemic inflammation is related to many diseases like obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Various phytochemicals have been reported to have a protective effect against systemic inflammation. One of the richest sources of these phytochemicals is wild edible plants. In public, wild edible plants are widely used for their nutritive values and in ethnomedicine. Among these, golden thistle (Scolymus hispanius L.) has been known and used in the Mediterranean countries for its functional activities, and as the main course in meals. The golden thistle has three parts as the aerial, root bark, and root internal. The edible part that is used for culinary purposes is the root bark. In Turkey, the first licensed drug for removing calculi from kidneys was an ethanolic extract of the golden thistle plant. The production of the plant has been ended due to the lack of material, then the Turkish General Directorate of Agricultural Research and Policy started the cultivation of this plant in the year 2017. Therefore, we would explore the possible beneficial health effect of Scolymus hispanius L. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible mechanisms of these anti-inflammatory effects of the plant. For this purpose, extracts were prepared from the three parts of the plant by using methanol and water. RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line was used as an in vitro model of the systemic inflammation. The cells were incubated extracts (50-150-500 µg/mL) for 2h and then were treated by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.5 µg/mL) to induce inflammation. The cell culture mediums were taken in 12h and 24h time points, then tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) as inflammatory and transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) as anti-inflammatory cytokines were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. We observed that 50 µg/mL mix sample caused 25% reduction in the release of TNF-α (p<0.0001), and 500 µg/mL mix sample reduced the IL-6 release 36% (p<0.0001) in terms of inflammatory cytokines after 12h. For the anti-inflammatory cytokines, 150 µg/mL aerial and 50 µg/mL mix samples resulted in 100% increase in TGFβ (p<0.0001) and 37% IL-10 increase (p<0.0001) after 24h of inflammation, respectively. Our results suggest that extracts from the Scolymus hispanius L. have anti-inflammatory effects on systemic inflammation in vitro.

Keywords: RAW 264.7, Systemic inflammation, Scolymus hispanicus L, Cytokine profile

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1 Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) Has Protective Effect on Colonic Inflammation: An in Vitro Study in Raw 264.7 and Caco-2 Cells

Authors: Sukru Gulec, Aysegul Alyamac


Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) is a plant extract used to stop bleeding caused by injuries and surgical interventions. ABS also involved in wound healing of intestinal mucosal damage due to oxidative stress and inflammation. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a common chronic disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that causes abdominal pain, diarrhea, and gastrointestinal bleeding, and increases the risk of colon cancer. Inflammation is an essential factor in the development of IBD. The various studies have been performed about the physiological effects of ABS; however, ABS dependent mechanism on colonic inflammation has not been elucidated. Thus, the protective effect of ABS on colonic inflammation was investigated in this study. The Caco-2 and RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells were used as a model of in vitro colonic inflammation. RAW 264.7 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 12 hours to induce the inflammation, and a conditional medium was obtained. Caco-2 cells were treated with 15 µl/ml ABS for 4 hours, then incubated with conditional medium and the cells also were incubated with 15 µl/ml ABS and conditional medium together for 4 hours. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) protein levels were targeted in testing inflammatory condition and its level was significantly increased (25 fold, p<0.001) compared to the control group by using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. The COX-2 mRNA level was used as a marker gene to show the possible anti-inflammatory effect of ABS in Caco-2 cells. RAW cells-derived conditional medium significantly (3.3 fold, p<0.001) induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA levels in Caco-2 cells. The pretreatment of Caco-2 cells caused a significant decrease (3.3 fold, p<0.001) in COX-2 mRNA levels relative to conditional medium given group. Furthermore, COX-2 mRNA level was significantly reduced (4,7 fold, p<0.001) in ABS and conditional medium treated group. These results suggest that ABS might have an anti-inflammatory effect in vitro.

Keywords: RAW 264.7, Ankaferd Blood Stopper, CaCo-2, Colonic Inflammation

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