Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 38

rat Related Abstracts

38 Anti-Jaundice Properties of Methanolic Extract of Carica Papaya Leaves on Jaundice-Induced Albino Rat

Authors: Joseph Bamidele Minari

Abstract:

The anti-jaundice properties of the methanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves on albino rat was evaluated. In order to achieve this, the phytochemical screening of the extract was carried out, and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) (i.p) was injected into albino rats to induce jaundice. The rats were simultaneously given oral doses of 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, 60 mg/kg, 80 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg (p.o) of methanolic extract of C. papaya. The effects of these extract on total bilirubin concentration, liver ALT AST, GGT activities of the jaundice-induced rats were studied after seven days period of the experiment. Administration of CCl4 alone to the rats significantly increased (p<0.05) total bilirubin concentration while the activities of ALT, AST, and GGT in the liver when compared to controls which received distilled water (p.o) was significantly lower (p<0.05). Simultaneous treatment of CCl4 injection, and oral administration of different doses of the C. papaya extract significantly reduced (p<0.05) total bilirubin concentration in the serum while the liver ALT AST, GGT activities significantly increased (p < 0.05). However, the lowest significant reduction (p<0.05) of bilirubin concentration was observed with simultaneous administration of 60mg/kg of the extract on the rats. This study suggests that the extract of C. papaya leaves possess the phytochemicals that have anti-jaundice properties.

Keywords: Herbal Medicine, Liver, carica papaya, jaundice, rat

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37 Study of the Chronic Effects of CRACK on Some Biochemical Parameters Including Triglycerides, Cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, Amylase, Lipase, Albumin, Protein in Rat

Authors: Alireza Jafarzadeh, Bahram Amu-Oqhli Tabrizi, Hadi Khayat Nouri, Arash Khaki

Abstract:

30 head of adult Vistar rats were chosen to evaluate the chronic narcotic effects of crack on some biochemical parameters. The rats weighted approximately 200 to 250 g. They were divided into 5 groups of 6 and were housed in identical condition in terms of food and ambience. Rats were maintained at 12 hours light and 12 hours darkness. Rats were injected 7.8 mg/kg BW crack intraperitoneally. The groups one to four received daily medication for one to four weeks respectively. The control groups were injected identical dose of saline. The blood was taken from control and test groups then serum was separated from. Serum biochemical parameters of amylase, lipase, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, protein and albumin were measured by diagnostic kits. Serum protein and albumin levels did not show statistically significant changes. Serum lipase and amylase showed significant changes both of which were increased. The serum levels of cholesterol, LDL and HDL demonstrated no significant changes. Triglycerides values showed a significant increase in serum. Serum VLDL in groups 3 and 4 exhibited significant changes compare to other groups.

Keywords: Protein, rat, cholesterol, crack, amylase, HDL, LDL, albumin, lipase, triglycerides, VLDL

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36 Light and Electron Study of Acrylamide–Induced Hypothalamic Changes

Authors: Keivan Jamshidi

Abstract:

Distal swelling and eventual degeneration of axon in the CNS and PNS have been considered to be the characteristic neuropathological effects of acrylamide (ACR) neuropathy. This study was conducted to determine the neurotoxic effects of different doses of ACR (0.5, 5, 50, 100, and 500 mg/kg per day × 11days i. p.) on hypothalamus of rat using the de Olmos amino cupric-silver stain and electron microscopy. For this purpose 60 adult male rats (Wistar, approximately 250 g) were randomly assigned in 5 treatment groups as A, B, C, D, E) exposed to 0.5, 5, 50, 100, and 500 mg/kg per dayx11days i. p. and one control group as F received daily i. p. injections of 0.9% saline (3ml/kg). As indices of developing neurotoxicity, weight gain, gait scores and landing hindlimb foot splay were determined. After 11 days, two rats for silver stain, and two rats for EM were randomly selected; dissected and proper samples were collected from hypothalamus. Results did show no neurological behavior in groups A, B and F were observed in group C. Rats in groups D and E died within 1-2 hours due to sever toxemia. In histopathological studies based on de Olmos technique no argyrophilic neurons or processes were observed in stained sections obtained from hypothalamus of rats belong to groups A, B, and F while moderate to severe argyrophilic changes were observed in different nuclei and regions of stained sections obtained from hypothalamus of rats belong to group C. In ultra-structural studies some variations in the myelin sheet of injured axons including decompactation, interlaminar space formation, disruption of the laminar sheet, accumulation of neurofilaments, vacculation, and clumping inside the axolem, and finally complete disappearance of laminar sheet were observed.

Keywords: Electron Microscopy, Hypothalamus, rat, acrylamide, de Olmos amino cupric, silver stain

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35 Changes in Secretory Products and Lipid Profile in the Epididymis and Spermatozoa of Rats Induced by Aluminium Chloride

Authors: Ramalingam Venugopal, Kalaiselvi Arumugam

Abstract:

Environmental exposure to heavy metals is associated with a wide range of toxic effects. It is evident that heavy metals released in the environment affect the reproductive processes and fertility of animals. Toxic metals affect the male and female reproductive system directly or indirectly. Considering the toxic nature of aluminium and also the major role of secretory products and lipids in sperm maturation, the present study was planned to investigate the effect of aluminium chloride on secretory products like glyceryl phosphoryl choline (GPC), sialic acid, carnitine and acetyl carnitine content and also lipid profiles in the epididymis and spermatozoa of adult rats. Aluminium chloride, 50 mg/kg body weight was administered orally daily for 60 days. 24 hours after the last dose the rats were sacrificed and immediately epididymis was dissected out and spermatozoa was isolated. The weight of the epididymis decreased significantly. GPC and sialic acid content was significantly reduced in the epididymis and not much altered in spermatozoa. Carnitine and acetyl carnitine contents were markedly decreased in the spermatozoa as well as in the epididymis. Aluminium chloride administration caused a marked reduction in total lipid, cholesterol, phospholipids and cholesterol content in epididymis and no significant changes in spermatozoa. Several changes take place in the spermatozoa as they pass through the epididymis. These changes are directly related to the acquisition of fertilizing ability of spermatozoa. From the results, it is evident that aluminium chloride has definite influence on secretory products and lipid profiles in the epididymis. This may eventually have an adverse impact on the fertility of the animal.

Keywords: rat, GPC, aluminium chloride, carnitine, sialic acid, epididymis, spermatozoa

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34 Acute Toxicity Studies of Total Alkaloids of Seeds of Datura stramonium in Female Rats: Effect on Liver and Kidney

Authors: Bouzidi Abdelouahab, Ghadjati Nadhra, Bettihi Sara, Mahdeb Nadia, Daamouche Z. El Youm

Abstract:

The effects of acute administration of TOTAL alkaloids, the main active principle of Datura stramonium, with toxic properties, were studied in female Albino-Wistar rats. After acute intraperitoneal administration of dose 120 mg kg-1 (≈1/3 DL50) of total alkaloids to the seeds of D. stramonium, there were no remarkable changes in general appearance and no deaths occurred in any experimental group. After 5 days a significant reduction was observed in total alkaloids of seeds. The Red Blood Cells (RBC), Hematocrit (HCT) and Hemoglobin (HGB) show significant changes in the treated groups. There were no statistical differences in Glutamic-pyruvic Transaminase (GPT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), urea, glucose and total protein observed between groups. After 24 h Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GOT) and creatinine were significantly higher in the treated male rats than the control group histological examination of liver showed no histopathological changes.

Keywords: Toxicity, Liver, Kidney, Alkaloids, rat, datura stramonium

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33 Subacute Toxicity Study of Total Alkaloids of Seeds of Peganum harmala in Female Rat

Authors: Bouzidi Abdelouahab, Ghadjati Nadhra, Bettihi Sara, Mahdeb Nadia, Daamouche Z. El Youm

Abstract:

The effects of subacute administration of total alkaloids of seeds Peganum harmala were studied in female Albino-Wistar rats. After intraperitoneal administration of dose 50 mg/kg for 10 days and 40 mg/kg for 7 days of total alkaloids to the seeds of Peganum harmala (animal treatment lasted 17 days), there were remarkable changes in general appearance and deaths occurred in experimental group. After 17 days a significant reduction was observed in the surviving animals treated with total alkaloid seeds.The Red Blood Cells (RBC), Hematocrit (HCT), Hemoglobin (HGB) and White blood cells (WBCs), show significant reduction in the treated groups. There were no statistical differences in Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GOT), Glutamic-pyruvic Transaminase (GPT) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), total protein, glucose and creatinine observed between groups. However the urea was significantly higher in the treated female rats than the control group. Histological examination of liver showed no histopathological changes. Alkaloids of Peganum harmala showed significant toxicity in female rats.

Keywords: Toxicity, Liver, Kidney, Alkaloids, rat, Peganum harmala

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32 Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) Juice on Semen Oxidation in Male Rats

Authors: Jamshid Ghiasi Ghalehkandi, Naser Maheri Sis, Yahya Ebrahimnezhad, Shahin Hassanpour

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The objective of present study was to examine the effects of fresh garlic juice on semen malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and total antioxidant status (TAS) in male rats. Fifty-four male rats (230-250 g) were allocated into 3 treatment groups (each include 3 groups and 6 replicate). Group 1 served as water control. In group 2, rats were gavaged with 60 mg/kg garlic juice. In group 3, rats were offered 120 mg/kg garlic juice. Animals received treatments orally and ad libitum access to chow pellets and fresh water. After 4 weeks, animals were killed, testes were taken out and semen samples were used to determine MDA, SOD, GPx and TAS activity. According to the results, garlic juice (120 mg/kg) significantly declined semen MDA activity compared to control group (P<0.05). These results suggest that presumably garlic juice protects semen oxidation in rat testes.

Keywords: rat, garlic juice, chromium chloride, semen

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31 Dexamethasone: Impact on Testicular Activity

Authors: Sadi-Guettaf Hassiba, Hadj-Bekkouche Fatima

Abstract:

Dexamethasone (Dex) is a synthetic glucocorticoid that is used in therapy. However prolonged treatments with high doses are often required. This causes side effects that interfere with the activity of several endocrine systems, including the gonadotropic axis. The aim of our study is to determine the effect of Dex on testicular function in prepubertal Wistar rats. Newborn Wistar rats are submitted to intraperitoneal injection of Dex (1μg of Dex dissolved in NaCl 0.9% / 5g bw) for 20 days and then sacrificed at the age of 40days. A control group received NaCl 0.9%. The rat is weighed daily. The plasmatic levels of testosterone, LH and FSH were measured by radioimmunoassay. A histo-morphometric study was performed on sections of testis. Treated groups showed a significant decrease in body weight (p < 0.05), testis weight (p < 0.05) and plasma levels of testosterone (p < 0.05), of LH (P < .05) and FSH (p> 0.05). There is a reduction of seminiferous tubules average diameter and also of the seminiferous epithelium thickness with an increasing of lumen tubular. The diameter of the Leydig cells and Sertoli cell nucleus is also significantly reduced. Spermatogenesis is blocked at the stage round spermatid unlike witnesses or elongated spermatid stage is found. These results suggest that Dex administered during neonatal life influences testicular activity in the long term.

Keywords: rat, dexamethasone, FSH, testis, testosterone

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30 Impact of Some Experimental Procedures on Behavioral Patterns and Physiological Traits of Rats

Authors: Amira, A. Goma, U. E. Mahrous

Abstract:

Welfare may be considered to be a subjective experience; it has a biological function that is related to the fitness and survival of the animal accordingly, researches have suggested that welfare is compromised when the animal's evolutionary fitness is reduced. This study was carried out to explain the effect of some managerial stressors as handling and restraint on behavioral patterns and biochemical parameters of rats. A total of 24 (12 males and 12 females) Sprague-Dawley rats (12 months and 150-180g) were allotted into 3 groups, handled group (4 male and 4 female), restrained group (4 male and 4 female) and control group (4 males and 4 females). The obtained results revealed that time spent feeding, drinking frequency, movement and cage exploration increased significantly in handled rats than other groups, while lying time and licking increased significantly in restrained rats than handled and controls. Moreover, social behavior decreased in both stressed groups than control. Triglycerides were significantly increased in handled rats than other groups, while total lipid, total protein and globulin significantly increased in both treated groups than control. Corticosterone increased in restrained and handled rats than control ones. Moreover, there was an increment in packed cell volume significantly in restrained rats than others. These deducted that if we want to study the effect of stress on animal welfare it is necessary to study the effect of such stressors on animal’s behavior and physiological responses.

Keywords: Physiology, Behavior, welfare, Handling, rat, restraint

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29 Hyparrhenia hirta: A Potential Protective Agent against DNA Damage and Liver Toxicity of Sodium Nitrate in Adult Rats

Authors: Hanen Bouaziz-Ketata, Ghada Ben Salah, Hichem Ben Salah, Kamel Jamoussi, Najiba Zeghal

Abstract:

The present study investigated the protective role of Hyparrhenia hirta on nitrate-induced liver damage. Experiments were carried out on adult rats divided into 3 groups, a control group and two treated groups. NaNO3 was administered daily by oral gavage at a dose of 400 mg/kg bw in treated groups either alone or coadministered with Hyparrhenia hirta methanolic extract via drinking water at a dose of 200 mg/kg bw for 50 days. Liver toxicity induced by NaNO3 was characterized by higher serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol and triglyceride and lower serum total protein than those of controls. Transaminases and lactate deshydrogenase activities in serum were elevated indicating hepatic cells’ damage after treatment with NaNO3. The hyperbilirubinemia and the increased serum gamma glutamyl transferase activities suggested the presence of cholestasis in NaNO3 exposed rats. In parallel, NaNO3 caused oxidant/antioxidant imbalance in the liver as reflected by the increased lipid peroxidation, the decreased total glutathione content and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Nitrate caused also a significant induction of DNA fragmentation as evidenced by the presence of a smear without ladder formation on agarose gel. Hyparrhenia hirta supplementation showed an improvement of all parameters cited above. We conclude that the present work provides ethnopharmacological relevance of Hyparrhenia hirta against the toxic effect of nitrate, suggesting its role as a potential antioxidant.

Keywords: Liver, Oxidative Stress, rat, Hyparrhenia hirta, nitrate toxicity

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28 Nitrate-Induced Biochemical and Histopathological Changes in the Kidney of Rats: Attenuation by Hyparrhenia hirta

Authors: Ghada Ben Salah, Kamel Jamoussi, Najiba Zeghal, Hanen Bouaziz, Moez Rafrafi, Tahia Boudawara

Abstract:

The present study investigated the protective role of Hyparrhenia hirta against sodium nitrate (NaNO3)-induced nephrotoxicity. A high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS) method was developed to separate and identify flavonoids in Hyparrhenia hirta. Seven flavonoids were identified as 3-O-methylquercetin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-8-C-glucoside, luteolin-8-C-glucoside and luteolin-6-C-glucoside. Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: a control group and two treated groups during 50 days with NaNO3 administered either alone in drinking water or co-administered with Hyparrhenia hirta. NaNO3 treatment induced a significant increase in plasma levels of creatinine, urea and uric while urinary level decreased significantly. Nephrotoxicity induced by NaNO3 was characterized by significant increase in creatinine clearance. In parallel, a significant increase in malondialdehyde level along with a concomitant decrease in total glutathione content and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were observed in the kidney after NaNO3 treatment. The histopathological changes in kidney after NaNO3 administration were shrunken. There were renal tubule cell degeneration and infiltration of mononuclear cells. Most glomeruli revealed shrinkage, a wide capsular space and a peri-glomerular mononuclear cells infiltration. Hyparrhenia hirta supplementation showed a remarkable amelioration of the abnormalities cited above. The results concluded that the treatment with Hyparrhenia hirta had a significant role in protecting the animals from nitrate-induced kidney dysfunction.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, Kidney, Flavonoids, rat, Hyparrhenia hirta, nitrate toxicity

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27 Hepatoprotective Effect of Mycophenolate Mofetil against Tacrolimus Exposure in Rat

Authors: Ferjani Hanen, El Arem Amira, Boussema Ayed Imen, Bacha Hassen

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Tacrolimus (TAC), a calcineurin inhibitor, is clinically used as an immunosuppressive agent in the transplant recipient, but its use associated-hepatotoxicity. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), an anti-metabolite, is a potent immunosuppressive drug. MMF is not hepatotoxic and is the most common adjunctive immunosuppressant for TAC. The effects of TAC and MMF combination in the liver is still not well understood. This work aimed to investigate their combined effect against in liver in rats Wistar after 24 h. The oral median lethal doses (LD50) of TAC and MMF alone were evaluated in rats are 240 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg respectively. Oral administration of the MMF at 50 mg/kg to male Wistar intoxicated with TAC at 60 mg/kg, demonstrated a significant protective effect by lowering the levels of hepatic markers enzymes (AST, ALT) in the serum rat. MMF attenuated oxidative stress by restoring the activities of SOD, CAT and by reducing the malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl levels liver. This study provided evidence that MMF protects rat liver from TAC-induced injury and suggests a most combination use for organ transplantation.

Keywords: Liver, rat, combination, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil

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26 Gastroprotective Effect of Copper Complex On Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcer In Rats. Histological and Immunohistochemical Study

Authors: Heba M. Saad Eldien, Ola Abdel-Tawab Hussein, Ahmed Yassein Nassar

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Background: Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti inflammatory drug. Indomethacin induces an injury to gastrointestinal mucosa in experimental animals and humans and their use is associated with a significant risk of hemorrhage, erosions and perforation of both gastric and intestinal ulcers. The anti-inflammatory action of copper complexes is an important activity of their anti-ulcer effect achieved by their intermediary role as a transport form of copper that allow activation of the several copper-dependent enzymes. Therefore, several copper complexes were synthesized and investigated as promising alternative anti-ulcer therapy. Aim of the work: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a copper chelating complex consisting of egg albumin and copper as one of the copper peptides that can be used as anti-inflammatory agent and effective in ameliorates the hazards of the indomethacin on the histological structure of the fundus of the stomach that could be added to raise the efficacy of the currently used simple and cheap gastric anti-inflammatory drug mucogel. Material &methods: This study was carried out on 40 adult male albino rats,divided equally into 4 groups;Group I(control group) received distilled water,Group II(indomethacin treated group) received (25 mg/kg body weight, oral intubation) once, Group III (mucogel treated group)2 mL/rat once daily, oral incubation, Group IV(copper complex group) 1 mL /rat of 30 gm of copper albumin complex was mixed uniformly with mucogel to 100 mL. Treatment has been started six hour after Induction of Ulcers and continued till the 3rd day. The animals sacrificed and was processed for light, transmission electron microscopy(TEM) and immunostaining for inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS). Results: Fundic mucosa of group II, showed exfoliation of epithelial cells lining the gland, discontinuity of surface epithelial cells (ulcer formation), vacuolation and detachment of cells, eosinophilic infiltration and congestion of blood vessels in the lamina propria and submucosa. There was thickening and disarrangement of mucosa, weak positive reaction for PAS and marked increase in the collagen fibers lamina propria and the submucosa of the fundus. TEM revealed degeneration of cheif and parietal cells.Marked increase positive reactive of iNOS in all cells of the fundic gland. Group III showed reconstruction of gastric gland with cystic dilatation and vacuolation, moderate decrease of collagen fibers, reduced the intensity of iNOS while in Group IV healthy mucosa with normal surface lining epithelium and fundic glands, strong positive reaction for PAS, marked decrease of collagen fibers and positive reaction for iNOS. TEM revealed regeneration of cheif and parietal cells. Conclusion: Co treatment of copper-albumin complex seems to be useful for gastric ulcer treatment and ameliorates most of hazards of indomethacin.

Keywords: rat, copper complex, indomethacin, gastric ulcer

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25 Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography in Rats with Gadobenate Dimeglumine at 3T

Authors: Jao Jo-Chi, Chen Yen-Ku, Jaw Twei-Shiun, Chen Po-Chou

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate the magnetic resonance (MR) signal enhancement ratio (ER) of contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) in normal rats with gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) using a clinical 3T scanner and an extremity coil. The relaxivities of Gd-BOPTA with saline only and with 4.5 % human serum albumin (HSA) were also measured. Compared with Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA), Gd-BOPTA had higher relaxivities. The maximum ER of Aorta (ERa), kidney, liver and muscle with Gd-BOPTA were higher than those with Gd-DTPA. The maximum ERa appeared at 1.2 min and decayed to half at 10 min after Gd-BOPTA injection. This information is helpful for the design of CE-MRA study of rats.

Keywords: rat, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography, Gd-BOPTA, Gd-DTPA

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24 Comparative Stem Cells Therapy for Regeneration of Liver Fibrosis

Authors: H. M. Imam, H. M. Rezk, A. F. Tohamy

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Background: Human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) is considered as a unique source for stem cells. HUCB contain different types of progenitor cells which could differentiate into hepatocytes. Aims: To investigate the potential of rat's liver damage repair using human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs). We investigated the feasibility for hUCMSCs in recovery from liver damage. Moreover, investigating fibrotic liver repair and using the CCl4-induced model for liver damage in the rat. Methods: Rats were injected with 0.5 ml/kg CCl4 to induce liver damage and progressive liver fibrosis. hUCMSCs were injected into the rats through the tail vein; Stem cells were transplanted at a dose of 1×106 cells/rat after 72 hours of CCl4 injection without receiving any immunosuppressant. After (6 and 8 weeks) of transplantation, blood samples were collected to assess liver functions (ALT, AST, GGT and ALB) and level of Procollagen III as a liver fibrosis marker. In addition, hepatic tissue regeneration was assessed histopathologically and immunohistochemically using antihuman monoclonal antibodies against CD34, CK19 and albumin. Results: Biochemical and histopathological analysis showed significantly increased recovery from liver damage in the transplanted group. In addition, HUCB stem cells transdifferentiated into functional hepatocytes in rats with hepatic injury which results in improving liver structure and function. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that transplantation of hUCMSCs may be a novel therapeutic approach for treating liver fibrosis. Therefore, hUCMSCs are a potential option for treatment of liver cirrhosis.

Keywords: Liver Fibrosis, mesenchymal stem cells, rat, carbon tetra chloride

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23 Protective Effect of Ginger Root Extract on Dioxin-Induced Testicular Damage in Rats

Authors: Hamid Abdulroof Saleh

Abstract:

Background: Dioxins are one of the most widely distributed environmental pollutants. Dioxins consist of feedstock during the preparation of some industries, such as the paper industry as they can be produced in the atmosphere during the process of burning garbage and waste, especially medical waste. Dioxins can be found in the adipose tissues of animals in the food chain as well as in human breast milk. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin (TCDD) is the most toxic component of a large group of dioxins. Humans are exposed to TCDD through contaminated food items like meat, fish, milk products, eggs etc. Recently, natural formulations relating to reducing or eliminating TCDD toxicity have been in focus. Ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale R., family: Zingiberaceae), is used worldwide as a spice. Both antioxidative and androgenic activity of Z. officinale was reported in animal models. Researchers showed that ginger oil has dominative protective effect on DNA damage and might act as a scavenger of oxygen radical and might be used as an antioxidant. Aim of the work: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the toxic effect of TCDD on the structure and histoarchitecture of the testis and the protective role of co-administration of ginger root extract to prevent this toxicity. Materials & Methods: Male adult rats of Sprague-Dawley strain were assigned to four groups, eight rats in each; control group, dioxin treated group (given TCDD at the dose of 100 ng/kg Bwt/day by gavage), ginger treated group (given 50 mg/kg Bwt/day of ginger root extract by gavage), dioxin and ginger treated group (given TCDD at the dose of 100 ng/kg Bwt/day and 50 mg/kg Bwt/day of ginger root extract by gavages). After three weeks, rats were weighed and sacrificed where testis were removed and weighted. The testes were processed for routine paraffin embedding and staining. Tissue sections were examined for different morphometric and histopathological changes. Results: Dioxin administration showed a harmful effects in the body, testis weight and other morphometric parameters of the testis. In addition, it produced varying degrees of damage to the seminiferous tubules, which were shrunken and devoid of mature spermatids. The basement membrane was disorganized with vacuolization and loss of germinal cells. The co-administration of ginger root extract showed obvious improvement in the above changes and showed reversible morphometric and histopathological changes of the seminiferous tubules. Conclusion: Ginger root extract treatment in this study was successful in reversing all morphometric and histological changes of dioxin testicular damage. Therefore, it showed a protective effect on testis against dioxin toxicity.

Keywords: rat, testis, ginger, dioxin

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22 Preventive and Attenuative Effect of Vitamin E on Selenite-induced Cataract in Rat

Authors: Mehdi Tavana, Seyedeh Zeinab Peighambarzadeh

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Cataract is the most common cause of blindness worldwide and its incidence will increase as the World’s population ages. Even in modern ophthalmology, there is no effective medical treatment for cataract except surgery. Development of a drug which could prevent or delay the onset of cataract will lessen this burden and reduce the number of blind patients waiting for cataract surgery. This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of vitamin E on Selenite-induced Cataract in Sprague-dawely rats. Cataracts were induced in rats by administration of sodium selenite. On postpartum day ten, in group I, saline was injected subcutaneously. Group II rat pups received subcutaneous injection of vitamin E (60mg/kg B.W.) at day 8 postpartum and every other day thereafter. Group III and IV rat pups received a subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (13mg/kg B.W.) at day 10 postpartum. Group IV also received subcutaneous injection of vitamin E (60mg/kg B.W.) at day 8 postpartum and every other day thereafter. The development of cataract in rats was assessed clinically by slit-lamp biomicroscope from day 14 up to postpartum day 28. After sacrifice, extricated pup lenses were analyzed for total and soluble protein concentrations and eletrophoretic pattern (SDS-PAGE). There was no opacification of lens in Group I and II. There was mature cataract in 95% of Group III. In group IV, 55% of rats developed sub capsular or cortical cataract. Cataractous and biochemical changes of the crystalline lens proteins due to selenite can be retard or prevented by vitamin E.

Keywords: rat, vitamin E, preventive effect, selenite-induced cataract

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21 Acrylamide-Induced Thoracic Spinal Cord Axonopathy

Authors: afshin zahedi, Keivan Jamshidi

Abstract:

This study was conducted to determine the neurotoxic effects of different doses of ACR on the thoracic axons of the spinal cord of rat. To evaluate this hypothesis in the thoracic axons, amino-cupric silver staining technique of the de Olmos was conducted to define the histopathologic characteristic (argyrophilia) of axonal damage following ACR exposure. For this purpose 60 adult male rats (Wistar, approximately 250 g) were selected. Rats were hosed in polycarbonate boxes as two per each. Randomly assigned groups of rats (10 rats per exposure group, total 5 exposure groups as A, B, C, D and E) were exposed to 0.5, 5, 50, 100 and 500 mg/kg per day×11days intraperitoneal injection (IP injection) respectively. The remaining 10 rats were housed in group (F) as control group. Control rats received daily injections of 0.9% saline (3ml/kg). As indices of developing neurotoxicity, weight gain, gait scores and landing hindlimb foot splay (LHF) were determined. Weight gains were measured daily prior to injection. Gait scoring involved observation of spontaneous open field locomotion, included evaluations of ataxia, hopping, rearing and hind foot placement, and hindlimb foot splay were determined 3-4 times per week. Gait score was assigned from 1-4. After 11 days, two rats for silver stain, were randomly selected, dissected and proper samples were collected from thoracic portion of the spinal cord of rat. Results did show no neurological behavior in groups A, B and F, whereas severe neurotoxicity was observed in groups C and D. Rats in groups E died within 1-2 hours due to severe toxemia. In histopathological studies based on the de Olmos technique no argyrophilic neurons or processes were observed in stained sections obtained from the thoracic portion of the spinal cord of rats belong to groups A, B and F, while moderate to severe argyrophilic changes were observed in different stained sections obtained from the thoracic portion of the spinal cord of rats belong to groups C and D.

Keywords: rat, acrylamide, axonopathy, argyrophily, de Olmos

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20 Effect of Omeprazole on the Renal Cortex of Adult Male Albino Rats and the Possible Protective Role of Ginger: Histological and Immunohistochemical study

Authors: Nashwa A. Mohamed

Abstract:

Introduction: Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor used commonly in the treatment of acid-peptic disorders. Although omeprazole is generally well tolerated, serious adverse effects such as renal failure have been reported. Ginger is an antioxidant that could play a protective role in models of experimentally induced nephropathies. Aim of the work: The aim of this work was to study the possible histological changes induced by omeprazole on renal cortex and evaluate the possible protective effect of ginger on omeprazole-induced renal damage in adult male albino rats. Materials and methods: Twenty-four adult male albino rats divided into four groups (six rats each) were used in this study. Group I served as the control group. Rats of group II received only an aqueous extract of ginger daily for 3 months through a gastric tube. Rats of group III were received omeprazole orally through a gastric tube for 3 months. Rats of group IV were given both ginger and omeprazole at the same doses and through the same routes as the previous two groups. At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed. Renal tissue samples were processed for light, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic examination. The obtained results were analysed morphometrically and statistically. Results: Omeprazole caused several histological changes in the form of loss of normal appearance of renal cortex with degenerative changes in the renal corpuscle and tubules. Cellular infilteration was also observed. The filteration barrier was markedly affected. Ginger ameliorated the omeprazole-induced histological changes. Conclusion: Omeprazole induced injurious effects on renal cortex. Coadministration of ginger can ameliorate the histological changes induced by omeprazole.

Keywords: Kidney, rat, ginger, omeprazole

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19 Preventive Effects of Silymarin in Retinal Intoxication with Methanol in Rat: Transmission Electron Microscope Study

Authors: A. Zarenezhad, A. Esfandiari, E. Zarenezhad, M. Mardkhoshnood

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the ultra-structure of the photoreceptor layer of male rats under the effect of methanol intoxication and protective effect of silymarin against the methanol toxicity. Fifteen adult male rats were divided into three groups: Control group, Experimental group I (received 4g/kg methanol by intraperitoneal injection for five days), Experimental group II (received 4 g/kg methanol by intraperitoneal injection for five days and received 250 mg/kg silymarin orally for three months). At the end of the experiment, the eyes were removed; retina was separated near the optic disc and studied by transmission electron microscope. Results showed that the retina in the experimental group I exhibited loss of outer segments and disorganization in inner segment. Increased extra cellular space, disappearance of outer limiting membrane and pyknotic nuclei were seen in this group. But normal outer segment, organized inner segment and normal outer limiting membrane were obvious after treatment with silymarin in experimental group II. These findings show that methanol causes damage in the photoreceptor layer of the rat retina and silymarin can protect the damage to retina against the methanol intoxication.

Keywords: Silymarin, rat, ultra-structure, photoreceptor layer, methanol intoxication

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18 The Effects of Prebiotic, Probiotic and Synbiotic Diets Containing Bacillus coagulans and Inulin on Serum Lipid Profile in the Rat

Authors: Khadijeh Abhari, Seyed Shahram Shekarforoush, Saeid Hosseinzadeh

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An in vivo trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of Bacillus coagulans, and inulin, either separately or in combination, on lipid profile using a rat model. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=8) and fed as follows: standard diet (control), standard diet with 5% w/w long chain inulin (prebiotic), standard diet with 109 spores/day spores of B. coagulans by orogastric gavage (probiotic), and standard diet with 5% w/w long chain inulin and 109 spores/day of B. coagulans (synbiotic). Rats were fed the treatments for 30 days. Serum samples were collected 10, 20 and 30 days following onset of treatment. Total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were analyzed. Results of this study showed that inulin potentially affected the lipid profile. An obvious decrease in serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholestrol of rats fed with inulin in synbiotic and prebiotic groups was seen in all sampling days. Inulin fed rats also demonstrated higher levels of HDL-cholesterol concentration; however this value in probiotic and control fed rats remains without significant change. According to the results of this study, B. coagulans did not contribute to any lipid profile changes after 30 days. Thus, further in vitro investigations on the characteristic of these bacteria could be useful to gain insights into understanding the treatment of probiotics in order to achieve the maximum beneficial effect.

Keywords: rat, lipid profile, inulin, bacillus coagulans, synbiotic diet

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17 Evaluation of Malva sylvestris L. Effect on Sodium Fluoride-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rat

Authors: S. Kianbakht, H. Fallah Huseini, P. Changaei, A. Mirjalili, J. Salehi, A. Babaei Zarch

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Background: Malva Sylvestris L. has antioxidant property and is widely used in the traditional medicine to treat gastrointestinal, respiratory, skin and urological disorders. Objective: In this study the protective effect of Malva Sylvestris against sodium fluoride-induced nephrotoxicity in rat were evaluated. Methods: The Malva Sylvestris flower extract was prepared and injected intraperitoneally at the doses of 100, 200, 400 mg/kg/day to group of rats ( 10 in each group) for 1 week and subsequently 600 ppm sodium fluoride was added to the rats drinking water for 1 additional week. After these steps, the rats’ serum levels of urea, creatinine, reduced glutathione, catalase and malondialdehyde were determined. The histopathologies of the rats’ kidneys were also studied. Results: Sodium fluoride administration increased levels of BUN, creatinine glutathione, catalase activity and decreased malondialdehyde indicating induction of nephrotoxicity in rats. Malva Sylvestris extract pretreatment significantly decreased the BUN and creatinine levels (P<0.05). Moreover, the levels of catalase and glutathione were increased by Malva, and this increase were also statistically significant (P<0.05). All three doses of Malva extract decreased the malondialdehyde level, but it was significant only for the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day (P<0.05). Histopathological findings also showed protective effect of Malva against renal damage induced by sodium fluoride. Conclusion: The results suggest that Malva Sylvestris has protective effect against sodium fluoride-induced nephrotoxicity maybe mediated by its antioxidant property.

Keywords: rat, nephrotoxicity, sodium fluoride, Malva sylvestris

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16 Histopathological and Biochemical Investigations of Protective Role of Honey in Rats with Experimental Aflatoxicosis

Authors: Ismail Celik, Zabit Yener, Turan Yaman

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The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant properties and protective role of honey, considered a part of traditional medicine, against carcinogen chemical aflatoxin (AF) exposure in rats, which were evaluated by histopathological changes in liver and kidney, measuring level of serum marker enzymes [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamil transpeptidase (GGT)], antioxidant defense systems [Reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT)], and lipid peroxidation content in liver, erythrocyte, brain, kidney, heart and lungs. For this purpose, a total of eighteen healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into three experimental groups: A (Control), B (AF-treated) and C (AF+honey-treated). While rats in group A were fed with a diet without AF, B, and C groups received 25 µg of AF/rat/day, where C group additionally received 1 mL/kg of honey by gavage for 90 days. At the end of the 90-day experimental period, we found that the honey supplementation decreased the lipid peroxidation and the levels of enzyme associated with liver damage, increased enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the AF+honey-treated rats. Hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects of honey is further substantiated by showing almost normal histological architecture in AF+honey-treated group, compared to degenerative changes in the liver and kidney of AF-treated rats. Additionally, honey supplementation ameliorated antioxidant defense systems and lipid peroxidation content in other tissues of AF+honey-treated rats. In conclusion, the present study indicates that honey has a hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effect in rats with experimental aflatoxicosis due to its antioxidant activity.

Keywords: Histopathology, honey, rat, antioxidant, malondialdehyde, aflatoxicosis

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15 The Antidiabetic Properties of Indonesian Swietenia mahagoni in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: T. Wresdiyati, S. Sa’diah, A. Winarto

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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease that can be indicated by the high level of blood glucose. The objective of this study was to observe the antidiabetic properties of ethanolic extract of Indonesian Swietenia mahagoni Jacq. seed on the profile of pancreatic superoxide dismutase and β-cells in the alloxan- experimental diabetic rats. The Swietenia mahagoni seed was obtained from Leuwiliang-Bogor, Indonesia. Extraction of Swietenia mahagoni was done by using ethanol with maceration methods. A total of 25 male Sprague dawley rats were divided into five groups; (a) negative control group, (b) positive control group (DM), (c) DM group that was treated with Swietenia mahagoni seed extract, (d) DM group that was treated with acarbose, and (e) non-DM group that was treated with Swietenia mahagoni seed extract. The DM groups were induced by alloxan (110 mg/kgBW). The extract was orally administrated to diabetic rats 500 mg/kg/BW/day for 28 days. The extract showed hypoglycemic effect, increased body weight, increased the content of superoxide dismutase in the pancreatic tissue, and delayed the rate of β-cells damage of experimental diabetic rats. These results suggested that the ethanolic extract of Indonesian Swietenia mahagoni Jacq. seed could be proposed as a potential anti-diabetic agent.

Keywords: Diabetes, beta cells, rat, hypoglycemic, Swietenia mahagoni

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14 Antihyperglycemic Potential of Chrysin and Diosmin alone or in Combination against Streptozotocin-Induced Hyperglycemia in Rats: Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Mechanisms

Authors: Sally A. El Awdan, Gehad A. Abdel Jaleel, Dalia O Saleh, Manal Badawi

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Background: Diabetes is a metabolic disease that affects a wide range of people worldwide and results in serious complications. Streptozotocin (STZ) causes selective cytotoxicity in the pancreatic β-cell, and it has been extensively used to induce diabetes mellitus in rats. The present study investigated the effects of diosmin and chrysin alone or in combination with each other on glucose level and on liver in STZ diabetic rats. Methods: In this study, rats were divided into six experimental groups (normal, untreated STZ-diabetic (60 mg/kg B.W., IP), treated STZ-diabetic with glycazide (10 mg/kg B.W, oral), treated STZ-diabetic with diosmin (100 mg/kg B. W., oral), treated STZ-diabetic with chrysin (80 mg/kg B.W., oral), treated STZ-diabetic with diosmin (50 mg/kg B.W, oral) + chrysin (40 mg/kg B.W., oral). After 2 weeks blood samples were withdrawn and glucose was measured. Animals were anaesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of sodium pentobarbital (60 mg/kg), and sacrificed for dissecting liver. Results: Throughout the experimental period, all treatments significantly (P<0.05) lowered serum glucose, AST, ALT, triglyceride, cholesterol, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β. Moreover, the treated diabetic rats showed higher levels of reduced glutathione (P<0.05) in the liver compared to the diabetic control rats and inhibited diabetes-induced elevation in the levels of malondialdehyde in liver. The results of this study clearly demonstrated that diosmin and chrysin possess several treatment-oriented properties, including the control of hyperglycemia, antioxidant effects and anti-inflammatory effects. Conclusion: Considering these observations, it appears that diosmin and chrysin may be a useful supplement to delay the developmentof diabetes and its complications.

Keywords: Diabetes, Cytokines, rat, diosmin, chrysin, streptozocin

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13 Investigation of Possible Behavioural and Molecular Effects of Mobile Phone Exposure on Rats

Authors: S. Ozen, Ç. Gökçek-Saraç, N. Derin

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The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-dependent pathway is the major intracellular signaling pathway implemented in both short- and long-term memory formation in the hippocampus which is the most studied brain structure because of its well documented role in learning and memory. However, little is known about the effects of RF-EMR exposure on NMDA receptor signaling pathway including activation of protein kinases, notably Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha (CaMKIIα). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute and chronic 900 MHz RF-EMR exposure on both passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal levels of CaMKIIα and its phosphorylated form (pCaMKIIα). Rats were divided into the following groups: Sham rats, and rats exposed to 900 MHz RF-EMR for 2 h/day for 1 week (acute group) or 10 weeks (chronic group), respectively. Passive avoidance task was used as a behavioural method. The hippocampal levels of selected kinases were measured using Western Blotting technique. The results of passive avoidance task showed that both acute and chronic exposure to 900 MHz RF-EMR can impair passive avoidance behaviour with minor effects on chronic group of rats. The analysis of western blot data of selected protein kinases demonstrated that hippocampal levels of CaMKIIα and pCaMKIIα were significantly higher in chronic group of rats as compared to acute groups. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that different duration times (1 week vs 10 weeks) of 900 MHz RF-EMR exposure have different effects on both passive avoidance behaviour of rats and hippocampal levels of selected protein kinases.

Keywords: Hippocampus, rat, protein kinase, RF-EMR

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12 Detecting Rat’s Kidney Inflammation Using Real Time Photoacoustic Tomography

Authors: S. H. Park, D. H. Shin, M. Y. Lee, W.C. Ham, S.K. Ko, C. G. Song

Abstract:

Photoacoustic Tomography (PAT) is a promising medical imaging modality that combines optical imaging contrast with the spatial resolution of ultrasound imaging. It can also distinguish the changes in biological features. But, real-time PAT system should be confirmed due to photoacoustic effect for tissue. Thus, we have developed a real-time PAT system using a custom-developed data acquisition board and ultrasound linear probe. To evaluate performance of our system, phantom test was performed. As a result of those experiments, the system showed satisfactory performance and its usefulness has been confirmed. We monitored the degradation of inflammation which induced on the rat’s kidney using real-time PAT.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Kidney, rat, photoacoustic tomography, contrast agent, inflammation detection

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11 The Effects of Ellagic Acid on Rat Liver Induced Tobacco Smoke

Authors: Nalan Kaya, Elif Erdem, Mehmet Ali Kisacam, Gonca Ozan, Enver Ozan

Abstract:

Tobacco smokers continuously inhale thousands of carcinogens and free radicals. It is estimated that about 1017 oxidant molecules are present in each puff of tobacco smoke. It is known that smoking has adverse effects on the structure and functions of the liver. Ellagic acid (EA) has antioxidant, antiapoptotic, anticarcinogenic, antibacterial and antiinflammatory effects. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible protective effect of ellagic acid against tobacco smoke-mediated oxidative stress in the rat liver. Twenty-four male adult (8 weeks old) Spraque-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 4 equal groups: group I (control), group II (tobacco smoke), group III (tobacco smoke + corn oil) and group IV (tobacco smoke + ellagic acid). The rats in group II, III and IV, were exposed to tobacco smoke 1 hour twice a day for 12 weeks. In addition to tobacco smoke exposure, 12 mg/kg ellagic acid (dissolved in corn oil), was applied to the rats in group IV by oral gavage. An equal amount of corn oil used in solving ellagic acid was applied to the rats by oral gavage in group III. At the end of the experimental period, rats were decapitated, and liver tissues were removed. Histological and biochemical analyzes were performed. Sinusoidal dilatation, inflammatory cell infiltration in portal area, increased Kuppfer cells were examined in tobacco smoke group and tobacco smoke+ corn oil groups. The results, observed in tobacco smoke and tobacco smoke+corn oil groups, were found significantly decreased in tobacco smoke+EA group. Group-II and group-III MDA levels were significantly higher, and GSH activities were not different than group-I. Compared to group-II, group-IV MDA level was decreased, and GSH activities was increased significantly. The results indicate that ellagic acid could protect the liver tissue from the tobacco smoke harmful effects.

Keywords: Liver, rat, ellagic acid, tobacco smoke

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10 The Effects of Ellagic Acid on Rat Lungs Induced Tobacco Smoke

Authors: Nalan Kaya, Elif Erdem, Gonca Ozan, Enver Ozan, Neriman Colakoglu

Abstract:

The toxic effects of tobacco smoke exposure have been detected in numerous studies. Ellagic acid (EA), (2,3,7,8-tetrahydroxy [1]-benzopyranol [5,4,3-cde] benzopyran 5,10-dione), a natural phenolic lactone compound, is found in various plant species including pomegranate, grape, strawberries, blackberries and raspberries. Similar to the other effective antioxidants, EA can safely interact with the free radicals and reduces oxidative stress through the phenolic ring and hydroxyl components in its structure. The aim of the present study was to examine the protective effects of ellagic acid against oxidative damage on lung tissues of rats induced by tobacco smoke. Twenty-four male adult (8 weeks old) Spraque-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 4 equal groups: group I (Control), group II (Tobacco smoke), group III (Tobacco smoke + corn oil) and group IV (Tobacco smoke + ellagic acid). The rats in group II, III and IV, were exposed to tobacco smoke 1 hour twice a day for 12 weeks. In addition to tobacco smoke exposure, 12 mg/kg ellagic acid (dissolved in corn oil), was applied to the rats in group IV by oral gavage. Equal amount of corn oil used in solving ellagic acid was applied to the rats by oral gavage in group III. At the end of the experimental period, rats were decapitated. Lung tissues and blood samples were taken. The lung slides were stained by H&E and Masson’s Trichrome methods. Also, galactin-3 stain was applied. Biochemical analyzes were performed. Vascular congestion and inflammatory cell infiltration in pulmonary interstitium, thickness in interalveolar septum, cytoplasmic vacuolation in some macrophages and galactin-3 positive cells were observed in histological examination of tobacco smoke group. In addition to these findings, hemorrhage in pulmonary interstitium and bronchial lumen was detected in tobacco smoke + corn oil group. Reduced vascular congestion and hemorrhage in pulmoner interstitium and rarely thickness in interalveolar septum were shown in tobacco smoke + EA group. Compared to group-I, group-II GSH level was decreased and MDA level was increased significantly. Nevertheless group-IV GSH level was higher and MDA level was lower than group-II. The results indicate that ellagic acid could protect the lung tissue from the tobacco smoke harmful effects.

Keywords: Lung, rat, ellagic acid, tobacco smoke

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9 Effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid on Limb Lengths in Neonatal Rats Exposed to Maternal Tobacco Smoke

Authors: Nalan Kaya, Elif Erdem, Gonca Ozan, Enver Ozan, Ramazan F. Akkoc, D. Özlem Dabak

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Maternal tobacco smoke exposure is known to cause growth retardation in the neonatal skeletal system. Alpha lipoic acid, a natural antioxidant found in some foods, limits the activities of osteoclasts and supports the osteoblast's bone formation mechanism. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effects of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) on the height, long bones and tail lengths of pups exposed to maternal tobacco smoke. The rats were divided into four groups: 1) control group, 2) tobacco smoke group, 3) tobacco smoke + ALA group, and 4) ALA group. Rats in the group 2 (tobacco smoke), group 3 (tobacco smoke + ALA) were exposed to tobacco smoke twice a day for one hour starting from eight weeks before mating and during pregnancy. In addition to tobacco smoke, 20 mg/kg of alpha lipoic acid was administered via oral gavage to the rats in the group 3 (tobacco smoke + ALA). Only alpha lipoic acid was administered to the rats in the group 4. On day 21 postpartum, the height and tail lengths of the pups in all groups were measured, and the length of the extremity long bones was measured after decapitation. All morphometric measurements performed in group 2 (tobacco smoke) showed a significant decrease compared to group 1 (control), while all measurements in group 3 (tobacco smoke + ALA) showed a significant increase compared to group 2 (tobacco smoke). It has been shown that ALA has a protective effect against the regression of height, long bones and tail lengths of pups exposed to maternal tobacco smoke.

Keywords: Bone, rat, morphometry, tobacco smoke, alpha lipoic acid

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