Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Raman spectroscopy Related Abstracts

41 Vibratinal Spectroscopic Identification of Beta-Carotene in Usnic Acid and PAHs as a Potential Martian Analogue

Authors: A. I. Alajtal, H. G. M. Edwards, M. A. Elbagermi


Raman spectroscopy is currently a part of the instrumentation suite of the ESA ExoMars mission for the remote detection of life signatures in the Martian surface and subsurface. Terrestrial analogues of Martian sites have been identified and the biogeological modifications incurred as a result of extremophilic activity have been studied. Analytical instrumentation protocols for the unequivocal detection of biomarkers in suitable geological matrices are critical for future unmanned explorations, including the forthcoming ESA ExoMars mission to search for life on Mars scheduled for 2018 and Raman spectroscopy is currently a part of the Pasteur instrumentation suite of this mission. Here, Raman spectroscopy using 785nm excitation was evaluated for determining various concentrations of beta-carotene in admixture with polyaromatic hydrocarbons and usnic acid have been investigated by Raman microspectrometry to determine the lowest levels detectable in simulation of their potential identification remotely in geobiological conditions in Martian scenarios. Information from this study will be important for the development of a miniaturized Raman instrument for targetting Martian sites where the biosignatures of relict or extant life could remain in the geological record.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, mars-analog, beta-carotene, PAHs

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40 Formation and Characterization of the Epoxy Resin-Porous Glass Interphases

Authors: Aleksander Ostrowski, Hugh J. Byrne, Roland Sanctuary


Investigation of the polymer interphases is an emerging field nowadays. In many cases interphases determine the functionality of a system. There is a great demand for exploration of fundamental understanding of the interphases and elucidation of their formation, dimensions dependent on various influencing factors, change of functional properties, etc. The epoxy applied on porous glass penetrates its pores with an extent dependent on the pore size, temperature and epoxy components mixing ratio. Developed over the recent time challenging sample preparation procedure allowed to produce very smooth epoxy-porous glass cross-sections. In this study, Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the epoxy-porous glass interphases. It allowed for chemical differentiation between different regions at the cross-section and determination of the degree of cure of epoxy system in the porous glass.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, epoxy, interphases, porous glass

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39 Synthesis of Flower-Like Silver Nanoarchitectures in Special Shapes and Their Applications in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

Authors: Ales Panacek, Libor Kvítek, Radek Zbořil, Radka Králová, Václav Ranc


Surface–Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) is an optical spectroscopic technique with very good potential for sensitive detection of substances. In this research, active substrates with high enhancement were provided. Novel silver particles (nanostructures) with high roughened, flower–like morphology were prepared by reduction of cation complex [Ag(NH3)2]+ in presence of sodium borohydride as reducing agent and stabilized polyacrylic acid. The products were characterized by UV/VIS absorption spectrophotometry. Special shapes of silver particles were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM). Dispersions of this particle were put on fixed substrate to producing suitable layer for SERS. Adenine was applied as basic substance whose effect of enhancement on the layer of silver nanostructures was studied. By comparison with our work, the important influence of stabilizers, polyacrylic acid with various molecular weight and concentration, on the transfer of particles and formation of new structure was confirmed.

Keywords: Metals, Nanostructures, Raman spectroscopy, Optical Properties, chemical reduction

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38 Application of Adaptive Neural Network Algorithms for Determination of Salt Composition of Waters Using Laser Spectroscopy

Authors: Tatiana A. Dolenko, Sergey A. Burikov, Alexander O. Efitorov, Sergey A. Dolenko


In this study, a comparative analysis of the approaches associated with the use of neural network algorithms for effective solution of a complex inverse problem – the problem of identifying and determining the individual concentrations of inorganic salts in multicomponent aqueous solutions by the spectra of Raman scattering of light – is performed. It is shown that application of artificial neural networks provides the average accuracy of determination of concentration of each salt no worse than 0.025 M. The results of comparative analysis of input data compression methods are presented. It is demonstrated that use of uniform aggregation of input features allows decreasing the error of determination of individual concentrations of components by 16-18% on the average.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Inverse Problems, Raman spectroscopy, multi-component solutions

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37 Kohonen Self-Organizing Maps as a New Method for Determination of Salt Composition of Multi-Component Solutions

Authors: Tatiana A. Dolenko, Sergey A. Burikov, Sergey A. Dolenko, Kirill A. Gushchin


The paper presents the results of clusterization by Kohonen self-organizing maps (SOM) applied for analysis of array of Raman spectra of multi-component solutions of inorganic salts, for determination of types of salts present in the solution. It is demonstrated that use of SOM is a promising method for solution of clusterization and classification problems in spectroscopy of multi-component objects, as attributing a pattern to some cluster may be used for recognition of component composition of the object.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, multi-component solutions, Kohonen self-organizing maps, clusterization

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36 Possible Sulfur Induced Superconductivity in Nano-Diamond

Authors: J. Mona, R. R. da Silva, C.-L.Cheng, Y. Kopelevich


We report on a possible occurrence of superconductivity in 5 nm particle size diamond powders treated with sulfur (S) at 500 o C for 10 hours in ~10-2 Torr vacuum. Superconducting-like magnetization hysteresis loops M(H) have been measured up to ~ 50 K by means of the SQUID magnetometer (Quantum Design). Both X-ray (Θ-2Θ geometry) and Raman spectroscopy analyses revealed no impurity or additional phases. Nevertheless, the measured Raman spectra are characteristic to the diamond with embedded disordered carbon and/or graphitic fragments suggesting a link to the previous reports of the local or surface superconductivity in graphite- and amorphous carbon–sulfur composites.

Keywords: Nanodiamond, Superconductivity, Raman spectroscopy, sulfur

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35 Stabilization of Transition Metal Chromite Nanoparticles in Silica Matrix

Authors: J. Vejpravova, J. Plocek, P. Holec, S. Kubickova, B. Pacakova, I. Matulkova, A. Mantlikova, I. Němec, D. Niznansky


This article presents summary on preparation and characterization of zinc, copper, cadmium and cobalt chromite nano crystals, embedded in an amorphous silica matrix. The ZnCr2O4/SiO2, CuCr2O4/SiO2, CdCr2O4/SiO2 and CoCr2O4/SiO2 nano composites were prepared by a conventional sol-gel method under acid catalysis. Final heat treatment of the samples was carried out at temperatures in the range of 900–1200 °C to adjust the phase composition and the crystallite size, respectively. The resulting samples were characterized by Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), Raman/FTIR spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. Formation of the spinel phase was confirmed in all samples. The average size of the nano crystals was determined from the PXRD data and by direct particle size observation on HRTEM; both results were correlated. The mean particle size (reviewed by HRTEM) was in the range from ~ 4 to 46 nm. The results showed that the sol-gel method can be effectively used for preparation of the spinel chromite nano particles embedded in the silica matrix and the particle size is driven by the type of the cation A2+ in the spinel structure and the temperature of the final heat treatment. Magnetic properties of the nano crystals were found to be just moderately modified in comparison to the bulk phases.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Magnetic Properties, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Sol-Gel Method, spinel, Rietveld refinement, chromite

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34 Raman Spectroscopy of Carbon Nanostructures in Strong Magnetic Field

Authors: M. Kalbac, T. Verhagen, K. Drogowska, J. Vejpravova


One- and two-dimensional carbon nano structures with sp2 hybridization of carbon atoms (single walled carbon nano tubes and graphene) are promising materials in future electronic and spintronics devices due to specific character of their electronic structure. In this paper, we present a comparative study of graphene and single-wall carbon nano tubes by Raman spectro-microscopy in strong magnetic field. This unique method allows to study changes in electronic band structure of the two types of carbon nano structures induced by a strong magnetic field.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, Carbon Nano Structures, Magnetic Field, spectro-microscopy

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33 Influence of Shear Deformation on Carbon Onions Stability under High Pressure

Authors: D. P. Evdokimov, A. N. Kirichenko, V. D. Blank, V. N. Denisov, B. A. Kulnitskiy


In this study we investigated the stability of polyhedral carbon onions under influence of shear deformation and high pressures above 43 GPa by means of by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy (RS). It was found that at pressures up to 29 GPa and shear deformations of 40 degrees the onions are stable. At shear deformation applying at pressures above 30 GPa carbon onions collapsed with formation of amorphous carbon. At pressures above 43 GPa diamond-like carbon (DLC) was obtained.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, carbon onions, transmission electron spectroscopy

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32 Structural Determination of Nanocrystalline Si Films Using Raman Spectroscopy and the Ellipsometry

Authors: K. Kefif, Y. Bouizem, A. Belfedal, D. J. Sib, K. Zellama, l. Chahed


Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) thin films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at relatively low growth temperatures (Ts=100 °C). The films grown on glass substrate in order to use the new generation of substrates sensitive to elevated temperatures. Raman spectroscopy was applied to investigate the effect of the argon gas diluted in hydrogen, on the structural properties and the evolution of the micro structure in the films. Raman peak position, intensity and line width were used to characterize the quality and the percentage of the crystallites in the films. The results of this investigation suggest the existence of a threshold dilution around a gas mixture of argon (40%) and hydrogen (60%) for which the crystallization occurs, even at low deposition temperatures. The difference between the amorphous and the crystallized structures is well confirmed by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) technique.

Keywords: Thin Films, Raman spectroscopy, Silicon, structural properties, Ellipsometry

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31 Structural and Vibrational Studies of Ni Alx Fe2-x O4 Ferrites

Authors: Kamel Taıbı, Abdelmadjid Rais


Nickel–Aluminium ferrites with the general formula Ni Alx Fe2-x O4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) were studied using X-ray diffraction, Infra Red and Raman spectroscopy. XRD diffraction patterns and their Reitveld refinements show that all samples have a pure single-phase cubic spinel structure. From these patterns, the lattice parameters of these samples have been calculated and compared with those predicted theoretically. Most of the values were found to decrease with increasing Al content. Infra Red spectra showed two significant absorption bands. The high band corresponds to tetrahedral (A) sites and the lower band to octahedral [B] sites, thus confirming the single phase spinel structure. For all compositions, Raman spectra show the five active modes A1g + E1g + 3 T2g of the motion of O2- ions and both the A-site and B-site ions. The Raman frequencies trend with aluminium concentration show a blue shift for all modes consistent with the replacement of Fe3+ by lower mass Al3+. Composition dependence of the Raman frequency modes is discussed in relationship with the cations distribution among the A-sites and B-sites.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, XRD, Ni-Al ferrites, spinel structure

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30 Carbon Nanofilms on Diamond for All-Carbon Chemical Sensors

Authors: Vivek Kumar, Alexander M. Zaitsev


A study on chemical sensing properties of carbon nanofilms on diamond for developing all-carbon chemical sensors is presented. The films were obtained by high temperature graphitization of diamond followed by successive plasma etchings. Characterization of the films was done by Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and electrical measurements. Fast and selective response to common organic vapors as seen as sensitivity of electrical conductance was observed. The phenomenological description of the chemical sensitivity is proposed as a function of the surface and bulk material properties of the films.

Keywords: Atomic Force Microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Chemical Sensor, carbon nanofilm, graphitization of diamond, plasma etching

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29 Photoluminescence Study of Erbium-Mixed Alkylated Silicon Nanocrystals

Authors: Khamael M. Abualnaja, Lidija Šiller, Benjamin R. Horrocks


Alkylated silicon nanocrystals (C11-SiNCs) were prepared successfully by galvanostatic etching of p-Si(100) wafers followed by a thermal hydrosilation reaction of 1-undecene in refluxing toluene in order to extract C11-SiNCs from porous silicon. Erbium trichloride was added to alkylated SiNCs using a simple mixing chemical route. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation on mixing SiNCs with erbium ions (III) by this chemical method. The chemical characterization of C11-SiNCs and their mixtures with Er3+ (Er/C11-SiNCs) were carried out using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The optical properties of C11-SiNCs and their mixtures with Er3+ were investigated using Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL). The erbium-mixed alkylated SiNCs shows an orange PL emission peak at around 595 nm that originates from radiative recombination of Si. Er/C11-SiNCs mixture also exhibits a weak PL emission peak at 1536 nm that originates from the intra-4f transition in erbium ions (Er3+). The PL peak of Si in Er/C11-SiNCs mixture is increased in the intensity up to three times as compared to pure C11-SiNCs. The collected data suggest that this chemical mixing route leads instead to a transfer of energy from erbium ions to alkylated SiNCs.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, Photoluminescence, silicon nanocrystals, erbium

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28 Deposition of Diamond Like Carbon Thin Film by Pulse Laser Deposition for Surgical Instruments

Authors: M. Khalid Alamgir, Javed Ahsan Bhatti, M. Zafarullah Khan


Thin film of amorphous carbon (DLC) was deposited on 316 steel using Nd: YAG laser having energy 300mJ. Pure graphite was used as a target. The vacuum in the deposition chamber was generated in the range of 10-6 mbar by turbo molecular pump. Ratio of sp3 to sp2 content shows amorphous nature of the film. This was confirmed by Raman spectra having two peaks around 1300 cm-1 i.e. D-band to 1700 cm-1 i.e. G-band. If sp3 bonding ratio is high, the films behave like diamond-like whereas, with high sp2, films are graphite-like. The ratio of sp3 and sp2 contents in the film depends upon the deposition method, hydrogen contents and system parameters. The structural study of the film was carried out by XRD. The hardness of the films as measured by Vickers hardness tester and was found to be 28 GPa. The EDX result shows the presence of carbon contents on the surface in high rate and optical microscopy result shows the smoothness of the film on substrate. The film possesses good adhesion and can be used to coat surgical instruments.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, thin film, XRD, EDX, DLC

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27 Raman Spectroscopic of Cardioprotective Mechanism During the Metabolic Inhibition of Heart Cells

Authors: A. Almohammedi, A. J. Hudson, N. M. Storey


Following ischaemia/reperfusion injury, as in a myocardial infraction, cardiac myocytes undergo oxidative stress which leads to several potential outcomes including; necrotic or apoptotic cell death or dysregulated calcium homeostasis or disruption of the electron transport chain. Several studies have shown that nitric oxide donors protect cardiomyocytes against ischemia and reperfusion. However until present, the mechanism of cardioprotective effect of nitric oxide donor in isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes is not fully understood and has not been investigated before using Raman spectroscopy. For these reasons, the aim of this study was to develop a novel technique, pre-resonance Raman spectroscopy, to investigate the mechanism of cardioprotective effect of nitric oxide donor in isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes exposed to metabolic inhibition and re-energisation. The results demonstrated the first time that Raman microspectroscopy technique has the capability to monitor the metabolic inhibition of cardiomyocytes and to monitor the effectiveness of cardioprotection by nitric oxide donor prior to metabolic inhibition of cardiomyocytes. Metabolic inhibition and reenergisation were used in this study to mimic the low and high oxygen levels experienced by cells during ischaemic and reperfusion treatments. A laser wavelength of 488 nm used in this study has been found to provide the most sensitive means of observe the cellular mechanisms of myoglobin during nitric oxide donor preconditioning, metabolic inhibition and re-energisation and did not cause any damage to the cells. The data also highlight the considerably different cellular responses to metabolic inhibition to ischaemia. Moreover, the data has been shown the relationship between the release of myoglobin and chemical ischemia where that the release of myoglobin from the cell only occurred if a cell did not recover contractility.

Keywords: Biophotonics, Raman spectroscopy, nitric oxide donor, cardioprotection, ex vivo biospectroscopy, cardiomyocytes, ischaemia / reperfusion injury

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26 Spectroscopy Investigation of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 Nano Ferrite Prepared by Soft Mechanochemical Synthesis

Authors: Z. Ž. Lazarević, V. N. Ivanovski, N. Ž. Romčević, Č. Jovalekić


Nickel-zinc ferrite, Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 was prepared by mechanochemical route in a planetary ball mill starting from mixture of the appropriate quantities of the Ni(OH)2, Zn(OH)2 and Fe(OH)3 hydroxide powders. In order to monitor the progress of chemical reaction and confirm phase formation, powder samples obtained after 5 h and 10 h of milling were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), IR, Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopy. It is shown that the soft mechanochemical method, i.e. mechanochemical activation of hydroxides, produces high quality single phase Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 samples in much more efficient way. From the IR spectroscopy of single phase samples it is obvious that energy of modes depends on the ratio of cations. It is obvious that all samples have more than 5 Raman active modes predicted by group theory in the normal spinel structure. Deconvolution of measured spectra allows one to conclude that all complex bands in the spectra are made of individual peaks with the intensities that vary from spectrum to spectrum. The deconvolution of Raman spectra alows to separate contributions of different cations to a particular type of vibration and to estimate the degree of inversion.

Keywords: Infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Mossbauer spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, ferrite

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25 A Structural and Magnetic Investigation of the Inversion Degree in Spinel NiFe2O4, ZnFe2O4 and Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 Ferrites Prepared by Soft Mechanochemical Synthesis

Authors: Z. Ž. Lazarević, D. L. Sekulić, V. N. Ivanovski, N. Ž. Romčević


NiFe2O4 (nickel ferrite), ZnFe2O4 (zinc ferrite) and Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 (nickel-zinc ferrite) were prepared by mechanochemical route in a planetary ball mill starting from mixture of the appropriate quantities of the Ni(OH)2/Fe(OH)3, Zn(OH)2/Fe(OH)3 and Ni(OH)2/Zn(OH)2/Fe(OH)3 hydroxide powders. In order to monitor the progress of chemical reaction and confirm phase formation, powder samples obtained after 25 h, 18 h and 10 h of milling were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), IR, Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopy. It is shown that the soft mechanochemical method, i.e. mechanochemical activation of hydroxides, produces high quality single phase ferrite samples in much more efficient way. From the IR spectroscopy of single phase samples it is obvious that energy of modes depends on the ratio of cations. It is obvious that all samples have more than 5 Raman active modes predicted by group theory in the normal spinel structure. Deconvolution of measured spectra allows one to conclude that all complex bands in the spectra are made of individual peaks with the intensities that vary from spectrum to spectrum. The deconvolution of Raman spectra allows to separate contributions of different cations to a particular type of vibration and to estimate the degree of inversion.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, ferrites, Mössbauer measurements

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24 Investigations on Microstructural and Raman Scattering Properties of B2O3 Doped Ba(Ti1-xZrx)O3 Nanoceramics

Authors: Kerim Emre Öksüz, Şaduman Şen, Uğur Şen


0.5 wt. % B2O3–doped Ba (Ti1-xZrx) O3, (x=0-0.4) lead-free nanoceramics were synthesized using the solid-state reaction method by adopting the ball milling technique. The influence of the substitution content on crystallographic structure, phase transition, microstructure and sintering behaviour of BT and BZT ceramics were investigated. XRD analysis at room temperature revealed a structural transformation from tetragonal to rhombohedral with enhancement of ZrO2 content in the barium titanate matrix. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to investigate microstructure and surface morphology of the sintered samples. The evolution of the Raman spectra was studied for various compositions, and the spectroscopic signature of the corresponding phase was determined. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) observations revealed enhanced microstructural uniformity and retarded grain growth with increasing Zr content.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, Nanoceramics, BaTiO3, barium-titanate-zirconate

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23 Characterization of Inkjet-Printed Carbon Nanotube Electrode Patterns on Cotton Fabric

Authors: N. Najafi, Laleh Maleknia, M. E. Olya


An aqueous conductive ink of single-walled carbon nanotubes for inkjet printing was formulated. To prepare the homogeneous SWCNT ink in a size small enough not to block a commercial inkjet printer nozzle, we used a kinetic ball-milling process to disperse the SWCNTs in an aqueous suspension. When a patterned electrode was overlaid by repeated inkjet printings of the ink on various types of fabric, the fabric resistance decreased rapidly following a power law, reaching approximately 760 X/sq, which is the lowest value ever for a dozen printings. The Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed that the oxidation of the SWCNTs was the source of the doped impurities. This study proved also that the droplet ejection velocity can have an impact on the CNT distribution and consequently on the electrical performances of the ink.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Ink-Jet Printing, Carbon Nanotube, cotton fabric, fabric ink, dozen printings

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22 Anharmonic Behavior in BaTiO3: Investigation by Raman Spectroscopy

Authors: M. D. Fontana, I. Bejaoui Ouni, D. Chapron, H. Aroui


BaTiO3 (BT) is a well known ferroelectric material which has been thoroughly studied during several decades since it undergoes successive cubic-tetragonal-orthorhombic-rhombohedral phase transitions on cooling. It has several ferroelectric properties that allow it to be a good material for electronic applications such as the design of ferroelectric memories and pyroelectric elements. In the present work, we report the analysis of temperature dependence of Raman frequency and damping of the A1 modes polarized along the FE c axis as well as the optical phonons E corresponding to the ionic motions in the plane normal to c. Measurements were carried out at different temperatures ranging from 298 to 408 K (tetragonal phase) within different scattering configurations. Spectroscopic parameters of BT have determined using a high resolution Raman spectrometer and a fitting program. All the first order frequency modes exhibit a quasi linear decrease as function of the temperature, except for the A1[TO1], E[TO2] and E[TO4] lines which reveal a parabolic dependence illustrating an anharmonic process. The phonon frequency downshifts and damping evolutions are interpreted in terms of normal volume expansion and third- and fourth-order anharmonic potentials.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, Damping, Frequency, BaTiO3, anharmonic potential

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21 Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy with Plasmonic Lens Focused Longitudinal Electric Field Excitation

Authors: Mingqian Zhang


Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) is a scanning probe technique for individual objects and structured surfaces investigation that provides a wealth of enhanced spectral information with nanoscale spatial resolution and high detection sensitivity. It has become a powerful and promising chemical and physical information detection method in the nanometer scale. The TERS technique uses a sharp metallic tip regulated in the near-field of a sample surface, which is illuminated with a certain incident beam meeting the excitation conditions of the wave-vector matching. The local electric field, and, consequently, the Raman scattering, from the sample in the vicinity of the tip apex are both greatly tip-enhanced owning to the excitation of localized surface plasmons and the lightning-rod effect. Typically, a TERS setup is composed of a scanning probe microscope, excitation and collection optical configurations, and a Raman spectroscope. In the illumination configuration, an objective lens or a parabolic mirror is always used as the most important component, in order to focus the incident beam on the tip apex for excitation. In this research, a novel TERS setup was built up by introducing a plasmonic lens to the excitation optics as a focusing device. A plasmonic lens with symmetry breaking semi-annular slits corrugated on gold film was designed for the purpose of generating concentrated sub-wavelength light spots with strong longitudinal electric field. Compared to conventional far-field optical components, the designed plasmonic lens not only focuses an incident beam to a sub-wavelength light spot, but also realizes a strong z-component that dominants the electric field illumination, which is ideal for the excitation of tip-enhancement. Therefore, using a PL in the illumination configuration of TERS contributes to improve the detection sensitivity by both reducing the far-field background and effectively exciting the localized electric field enhancement. The FDTD method was employed to investigate the optical near-field distribution resulting from the light-nanostructure interaction. And the optical field distribution was characterized using an scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope to demonstrate the focusing performance of the lens. The experimental result is in agreement with the theoretically calculated one. It verifies the focusing performance of the plasmonic lens. The optical field distribution shows a bright elliptic spot in the lens center and several arc-like side-lobes on both sides. After the focusing performance was experimentally verified, the designed plasmonic lens was used as a focusing component in the excitation configuration of TERS setup to concentrate incident energy and generate a longitudinal optical field. A collimated linearly polarized laser beam, with along x-axis polarization, was incident from the bottom glass side on the plasmonic lens. The incident light focused by the plasmonic lens interacted with the silver-coated tip apex and enhanced the Raman signal of the sample locally. The scattered Raman signal was gathered by a parabolic mirror and detected with a Raman spectroscopy. Then, the plasmonic lens based setup was employed to investigate carbon nanotubes and TERS experiment was performed. Experimental results indicate that the Raman signal is considerably enhanced which proves that the novel TERS configuration is feasible and promising.

Keywords: Plasmonics, Raman spectroscopy, longitudinal electric field, tip-enhancement

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20 Determination of the Stability of Haloperidol Tablets and Phenytoin Capsules Stored in the Inpatient Dispensary System (Swisslog) by the Respective HPLC and Raman Spectroscopy Assay

Authors: Carol Yue-En Ong, Angelina Hui-Min Tan, Quan Liu, Paul Chi-Lui Ho


A public general hospital in Singapore has recently implemented an automated unit-dose machine in their inpatient dispensary, Swisslog, with the objective of reducing human error and improving patient safety. However, a concern in stability arises as tablets are removed from their original packaging (bottled loose tablets/capsules) and are repackaged into individual, clear plastic wrappers as unit doses in the system. Drugs that are light-sensitive and hygroscopic would be more susceptible to degradation as the wrapper does not offer full protection. Hence, this study was carried out to study the stability of haloperidol tablets and phenytoin capsules that are light-sensitive and hygroscopic respectively. Validated HPLC-UV assays were first established for quantification of these two compounds. The medications involved were put in the Swisslog and sampled every week for one month. The collected data was analysed and showed no degradation over time. This study also explored an alternative approach for drug stability determination-Raman spectroscopy. The advantage of Raman spectroscopy is its high time efficiency and non-destructive nature. The results suggest that drug degradation can indeed be detected using Raman microscopy, but further research is needed to establish this approach for quantification or qualification of compounds. NanoRam®, a portable Raman spectrocope was also used alongside Raman microscopy but was unsuccessful in detecting degradation in this study.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, HPLC, Haloperidol, drug stability, phenytoin, Swisslog

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19 Surface-Enhanced Raman Detection in Chip-Based Chromatography via a Droplet Interface

Authors: Renata Gerhardt, Detlev Belder


Raman spectroscopy has attracted much attention as a structurally descriptive and label-free detection method. It is particularly suited for chemical analysis given as it is non-destructive and molecules can be identified via the fingerprint region of the spectra. In this work possibilities are investigated how to integrate Raman spectroscopy as a detection method for chip-based chromatography, making use of a droplet interface. A demanding task in lab-on-a-chip applications is the specific and sensitive detection of low concentrated analytes in small volumes. Fluorescence detection is frequently utilized but restricted to fluorescent molecules. Furthermore, no structural information is provided. Another often applied technique is mass spectrometry which enables the identification of molecules based on their mass to charge ratio. Additionally, the obtained fragmentation pattern gives insight into the chemical structure. However, it is only applicable as an end-of-the-line detection because analytes are destroyed during measurements. In contrast to mass spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy can be applied on-chip and substances can be processed further downstream after detection. A major drawback of Raman spectroscopy is the inherent weakness of the Raman signal, which is due to the small cross-sections associated with the scattering process. Enhancement techniques, such as surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), are employed to overcome the poor sensitivity even allowing detection on a single molecule level. In SERS measurements, Raman signal intensity is improved by several orders of magnitude if the analyte is in close proximity to nanostructured metal surfaces or nanoparticles. The main gain of lab-on-a-chip technology is the building block-like ability to seamlessly integrate different functionalities, such as synthesis, separation, derivatization and detection on a single device. We intend to utilize this powerful toolbox to realize Raman detection in chip-based chromatography. By interfacing on-chip separations with a droplet generator, the separated analytes are encapsulated into numerous discrete containers. These droplets can then be injected with a silver nanoparticle solution and investigated via Raman spectroscopy. Droplet microfluidics is a sub-discipline of microfluidics which instead of a continuous flow operates with the segmented flow. Segmented flow is created by merging two immiscible phases (usually an aqueous phase and oil) thus forming small discrete volumes of one phase in the carrier phase. The study surveys different chip designs to realize coupling of chip-based chromatography with droplet microfluidics. With regards to maintaining a sufficient flow rate for chromatographic separation and ensuring stable eluent flow over the column different flow rates of eluent and oil phase are tested. Furthermore, the detection of analytes in droplets with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy is examined. The compartmentalization of separated compounds preserves the analytical resolution since the continuous phase restricts dispersion between the droplets. The droplets are ideal vessels for the insertion of silver colloids thus making use of the surface enhancement effect and improving the sensitivity of the detection. The long-term goal of this work is the first realization of coupling chip based chromatography with droplets microfluidics to employ surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy as means of detection.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, droplets, SERS, chip-based separation, chip LC

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18 Understanding Magnetic Properties of Cd1-xSnxCr2Se4 Using Local Structure Probes

Authors: P. Suchismita Behera, V. G. Sathe, A. K. Nigam, P. A. Bhobe


Co-existence of long-range ferromagnetism and semi-conductivity with correlated behavior of structural, magnetic, optical and electrical properties in various sites doping at CdCr2Se4 makes it a most promising candidate for spin-based electronic applications and magnetic devices. It orders ferromagnetically below TC = 130 K with a direct band gap of ~ 1.5 eV. The magnetic ordering is believed to result from strong competition between the direct antiferromagnetic Cr-Cr spin couplings and the ferromagnetic Cr-Se-Cr exchange interactions. With an aim of understanding the influence of crystal structure on its magnetic properties without disturbing the magnetic site, we investigated four compositions with 3%, 5%, 7% and 10% of Sn-substitution at Cd-site. Partial substitution of Cd2+ (0.78Å) by small sized nonmagnetic ion, Sn4+ (0.55Å), is expected to bring about local lattice distortion as well as a change in electronic charge distribution. The structural disorder would affect the Cd/Sn – Se bonds thus affecting the Cr-Cr and Cr-Se-Cr bonds. Whereas, the charge imbalance created due to Sn4+ substitution at Cd2+ leads to the possibility of Cr mixed valence state. Our investigation of the local crystal structure using the EXAFS, Raman spectroscopy and magnetic properties using SQUID magnetometry of the Cd1-xSnxCr2Se4 series reflects this premise. All compositions maintain the Fd3m cubic symmetry with tetrahedral distribution of Sn at Cd-site, as confirmed by XRD analysis. Lattice parameters were determined from the Rietveld refinement technique of the XRD data and further confirmed from the EXAFS spectra recorded at Cr K-edge. Presence of five Raman-active phonon vibrational modes viz. (T2g (1), T2g (2), T2g (3), Eg, A1g) in the Raman spectra further confirms the crystal symmetry. Temperature dependence of the Raman data provides interesting insight to the spin– phonon coupling, known to dominate the magneto-capacitive properties in the parent compound. Below the magnetic ordering temperature, the longitudinal damping of Eg mode associated with Se-Cd/Sn-Se bending and T2g (2) mode associated to Cr-Se-Cr interaction, show interesting deviations with respect to increase in Sn substitution. Besides providing the estimate of TC, the magnetic measurements recorded as a function of field provide the values of total magnetic moment for all the studied compositions indicative of formation of multiple Cr valences.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, ferromagnetism, EXAFS, exchange interactions, spinel chalcogenides

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17 Fabrication of Highly Conductive Graphene/ITO Transparent Bi-Film through Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Organic Additives-Free Sol-Gel Techniques

Authors: Jae-Kwan Kim, Ji-Myon Lee, Bastian Waduge Naveen Harindu Hemasiri


Indium tin oxide (ITO) remains the industrial standard transparent conducting oxides with better performances. Recently, graphene becomes as a strong material with unique properties to replace the ITO. However, graphene/ITO hybrid composite material is a newly born field in the electronic world. In this study, the graphene/ITO composite bi-film was synthesized by a two steps process. 10 wt.% tin-doped, ITO thin films were produced by an environmentally friendly aqueous sol-gel spin coating technique with economical salts of In(NO3)3.H2O and SnCl4 without using organic additives. The wettability and surface free energy (97.6986 mJ/m2) enhanced oxygen plasma treated glass substrates were used to form voids free continuous ITO film. The spin-coated samples were annealed at 600 0C for 1 hour under low vacuum conditions to obtained crystallized, ITO film. The crystal structure and crystalline phases of ITO thin films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The Scherrer equation was used to determine the crystallite size. Detailed information about chemical composition and elemental composition of the ITO film were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) coupled with FE-SEM respectively. Graphene synthesis was done under chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method by using Cu foil at 1000 0C for 1 min. The quality of the synthesized graphene was characterized by Raman spectroscopy (532nm excitation laser beam) and data was collected at room temperature and normal atmosphere. The surface and cross-sectional observation were done by using FE-SEM. The optical transmission and sheet resistance were measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy and four point probe head at room temperature respectively. Electrical properties were also measured by using V-I characteristics. XRD patterns reveal that the films contain the In2O3 phase only and exhibit the polycrystalline nature of the cubic structure with the main peak of (222) plane. The peak positions of In3d5/2 (444.28 eV) and Sn3d5/2 (486.7 eV) in XPS results indicated that indium and tin are in the oxide form only. The UV-visible transmittance shows 91.35 % at 550 nm with 5.88 x 10-3 Ωcm specific resistance. The G and 2D band in Raman spectroscopy of graphene appear at 1582.52 cm-1 and 2690.54 cm-1 respectively when the synthesized CVD graphene on SiO2/Si. The determined intensity ratios of 2D to G (I2D/IG) and D to G (ID/IG) were 1.531 and 0.108 respectively. However, the above-mentioned G and 2D peaks appear at 1573.57 cm-1 and 2668.14 cm-1 respectively when the CVD graphene on the ITO coated glass, the positions of G and 2D peaks were red shifted by 8.948 cm-1 and 22.396 cm-1 respectively. This graphene/ITO bi-film shows modified electrical properties when compares with sol-gel derived ITO film. The reduction of sheet resistance in the bi-film was 12.03 % from the ITO film. Further, the fabricated graphene/ITO bi-film shows 88.66 % transmittance at 550 nm wavelength.

Keywords: Graphene, Raman spectroscopy, sol-gel, chemical vapor deposition, ITO

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16 Optical and Dielectric Properties of Self-Assembled 0D Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Insulator

Authors: S. Kassou, R. El Mrabet, A. Belaaraj, P. Guionneau, N. Hadi, T. Lamcharfi


The organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite-like [C6H5C2H4NH3]2ZnCl4 (PEA-ZnCl4) was synthesized by saturated solutions method. X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible transmittance, and capacitance meter measurements have been used to characterize the structure, the functional groups, the optical parameters, and the dielectric constants of the material. The material has a layered structure. The optical transmittance (T %) was recorded and applied to deduce the absorption coefficient (α) and optical band gap (Eg). The hybrid shows an insulator character with a direct band gap about 4.46 eV, and presents high dielectric constants up to a frequency of about 105 Hz, which suggests a ferroelectric behavior. The reported optical and dielectric properties can help to understand the fundamental properties of perovskite materials and also to be used for optimizing or designing new devices.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, optical parameters, dielectric constants, optical band gap (eg), self-assembly organic inorganic hybrid

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15 Annealing of the Contact between Graphene and Metal: Electrical and Raman Study

Authors: A. Sakavičius, A. Lukša, V. Nargelienė, V. Bukauskas, G. Astromskas, A. Šetkus


We investigate the influence of annealing on the properties of a contact between graphene and metal (Au and Ni), using circular transmission line model (CTLM) contact geometry. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and Raman spectroscopy are applied for characterization of the surface and interface properties. Annealing causes a decrease of the metal-graphene contact resistance for both Ni and Au.

Keywords: Graphene, Raman spectroscopy, Au/Graphene contacts, Kelvin force probe microscopy, NiC/Graphene contacts, Ni/Graphene contacts

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14 Modification of Hexagonal Boron Nitride Induced by Focused Laser Beam

Authors: I. Wlasny, Z. Klusek, A. Wysmolek


Hexagonal boron nitride is a representative of a widely popular class of two-dimensional Van Der Waals materials. It finds its uses, among others, in construction of complexly layered heterostructures. Hexagonal boron nitride attracts great interest because of its properties characteristic for wide-gap semiconductors as well as an ultra-flat surface.Van Der Waals heterostructures composed of two-dimensional layered materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides or graphene give hope for miniaturization of various electronic and optoelectronic elements. In our presentation, we will show the results of our investigations of the not previously reported modification of the hexagonal boron nitride layers with focused laser beam. The electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) images reveal that the irradiation leads to changes of the local electric fields for a wide range of laser wavelengths (from 442 to 785 nm). These changes are also accompanied by alterations of crystallographic structure of the material, as reflected by Raman spectra. They exhibit high stability and remain visible after at least five months. This behavior can be explained in terms of photoionization of the defect centers in h-BN which influence non-uniform electrostatic field screening by the photo-excited charge carriers. Analyzed changes influence local defect structure, and thus the interatomic distances within the lattice. These effects can be amplified by the piezoelectric character of hexagonal boron nitride, similar to that found in nitrides (e.g., GaN, AlN). Our results shed new light on the optical properties of the hexagonal boron nitride, in particular, those associated with electron-phonon coupling. Our study also opens new possibilities for h-BN applications in layered heterostructures where electrostatic fields can be used in tailoring of the local properties of the structures for use in micro- and nanoelectronics or field-controlled memory storage. This work is supported by National Science Centre project granted on the basis of the decision number DEC-2015/16/S/ST3/00451.

Keywords: Atomic Force Microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Optical Properties, hexagonal boron nitride

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13 Raman Spectroscopy Analysis of MnTiO₃-TiO₂ Eutectic

Authors: Adrian Niewiadomski, Barbara Surma, Katarzyna Kolodziejak, Dorota A. Pawlak


Oxide-oxide eutectic is attracting increasing interest of scientific community because of their unique properties and numerous potential applications. Some of the most interesting examples of applications are metamaterials, glucose sensors, photoactive materials, thermoelectric materials, and photocatalysts. Their unique properties result from the fact that composite materials consist of two or more phases. As a result, these materials have additive and product properties. Additive properties originate from particular phases while product properties originate from the interaction between phases. MnTiO3-TiO2 eutectic is one of such materials. TiO2 is a well-known semiconductor, and it is used as a photocatalyst. Moreover, it may be used to produce solar cells, in a gas sensing devices and in electrochemistry. MnTiO3 is a semiconductor and antiferromagnetic. Therefore it has potential application in integrated circuits devices, and as a gas and humidity sensor, in non-linear optics and as a visible-light activated photocatalyst. The above facts indicate that eutectic MnTiO3-TiO2 constitutes an extremely promising material that should be studied. Despite that Raman spectroscopy is a powerful method to characterize materials, to our knowledge Raman studies of eutectics are very limited, and there are no studies of the MnTiO3-TiO2 eutectic. While to our knowledge the papers regarding this material are scarce. The MnTiO3-TiO2 eutectic, as well as TiO2 and MnTiO3 single crystals, were grown by the micro-pulling-down method at the Institute of Electronic Materials Technology in Warsaw, Poland. A nitrogen atmosphere was maintained during whole crystal growth process. The as-grown samples of MnTiO3-TiO2 eutectic, as well as TiO2 and MnTiO3 single crystals, are black and opaque. Samples were cut perpendicular to the growth direction. Cross sections were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and with Raman spectroscopy. The present studies showed that maintaining nitrogen atmosphere during crystal growth process may result in obtaining black TiO2 crystals. SEM and Raman experiments showed that studied eutectic consists of three distinct regions. Furthermore, two of these regions correspond with MnTiO3, while the third region corresponds with the TiO2-xNx phase. Raman studies pointed out that TiO2-xNx phase crystallizes in rutile structure. The studies show that Raman experiments may be successfully used to characterize eutectic materials. The MnTiO3-TiO2 eutectic was grown by the micro-pulling-down method. SEM and micro-Raman experiments were used to establish phase composition of studied eutectic. The studies revealed that the TiO2 phase had been doped with nitrogen. Therefore the TiO2 phase is, in fact, a solid solution with TiO2-xNx composition. The remaining two phases exhibit Raman lines of both rutile TiO2 and MnTiO3. This points out to some kind of coexistence of these phases in studied eutectic.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, compound materials, eutectic growth and characterization, rutile TiO₂

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12 In situ High Temperature Characterization of Diamond-Like Carbon Films

Authors: M. Rouhani, F. C. N. Hong, Y. R. Jeng


The tribological performance of DLC films is limited by graphitization at elevated temperatures. Despite of numerous studies on the thermal stability of DLC films, a comprehensive in-situ characterization at elevated temperature is still lacking. In this study, DLC films were deposited using filtered cathodic arc vacuum method. Thermal stability of the films was characterized in-situally using a synchronized technique integrating Raman spectroscopy and depth-sensing measurements. Tests were performed in a high temperature chamber coupled with feedback control to make it possible to study the temperature effects in the range of 21 – 450 ̊C. Co-located SPM and Raman microscopy maps at different temperature over a specific area on the surface of the film were prepared. The results show that the thermal stability of the DLC films depends on their sp3 content. Films with lower sp3 content endure graphitization during the temperature-course used in this study. The graphitization is accompanied with significant changes in surface roughness and Raman spectrum of the film. Surface roughness of the films start to change even before graphitization transformation could be detected using Raman spectroscopy. Depth-sensing tests (nanoindentation, nano-scratch and wear) endorse the surface roughness change seen before graphitization occurrence. This in-situ study showed that the surface of the films is more sensitive to temperature rise compared to the bulk. We presume the changes observed in films hardness, surface roughness and scratch resistance with temperature rise, before graphitization occurrence, is due to surface relaxation.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, Thermal Stability, Nanoindentation, DLC film

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