Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Rainwater Related Abstracts

6 Development of Non-Point Pollutants Removal Equipments Using Media with Bacillus sp.

Authors: Han-Seul Lee, Min-Koo Kang, Sang-Ill Lee

Abstract:

This study was conducted to reduce runoff by rainwater infiltration facility using attached growth with Bacillus sp., which are reported to remove nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as organic matter effectively. This study was investigated non-point pollutants removal efficiency of organic, nitrogen, and phosphorus in column using the media attached growth with Bacillus sp. To compare attached growth with bacillus sp. and detached media, two columns filled with perlite, zeolite, vermiculite, pumice, peat-moss was installed. In A column (attached growth with bacillus sp.), in case of infiltration velocity 30 mm/hr in high concentration of influent, it showed the removal efficiency (after aging term) is SS (suspended solid) 85.8±1.2 %, T-P (total phosphorus) 67.0±8.1 %, T-N (total nitrogen) 66.0±4.9 %, COD (chemical oxygen demand) 73.6±2.9 %, NH4+-N 72.7±3.0 %. In B column (detached media), in case of infiltration velocity 30 mm/hr in high concentration of influent, it showed the removal efficiency (after aging term) is SS 86.0±2.2 %, T-P 62.5±11.3 %, T-N 53.3±3.9 %, COD 34.6±3.7 %, NH4+-N 61.5±2.8 %. Removal efficiency of A column is better than B column. As the result from this study, using media with Bacillus sp. can improve an effective removal of non-point source pollutants.

Keywords: Rainwater, non-point source pollutants, Bacillus sp, infiltration facility

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5 Use of Alternative Water Sources Based on a Rainwater in the Multi-Dwelling Urban Building 2030

Authors: Monika Lipska

Abstract:

Drinking water is water with a very high quality, and as such represents only 2.5% of the total quantity of all water in the world. For many years we have observed continuous increase in its consumption as a result of many factors such as: Growing world population (7 billion in 2011r.), increase of human lives comfort and – above all – the economic growth. Due to the rocketing consumption and growing costs of production of water with such high-quality parameters, we experience accelerating interest in alternative sources of obtaining potable water. One of the ways of saving this valuable material is using rainwater in the Urban Building. With an exponentially growing demand, the acquisition of additional sources of water is necessary to maintain the proper balance of all ecosystems. The first part of the paper describes what rainwater is and what are its potential sources and means of use, while the main part of the article focuses on the description of the methods of obtaining water from rain on the example of new urban building in Poland. It describes the method and installations of rainwater in the new urban building (“MBJ2030”). The paper addresses also the issue of monitoring of the whole recycling systems as well as the particular quality indicators important because of identification of the potential risks to human health. The third part describes the legal arrangements concerning the recycling of rainwater existing in different European Union countries with particular reference to Poland on example the new urban building in Warsaw.

Keywords: Potable water, Rainwater, Poland, non-potable water

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4 Spatial Characters Adapted to Rainwater Natural Circulation in Residential Landscape

Authors: Yun Zhang

Abstract:

Urban housing in China is typified by residential districts that occupy 25 to 40 percentage of the urban land. In residential districts, squares, roads, and building facades, as well as plants, usually form a four-grade spatial structure: district entrances, central landscapes, housing cluster entrances, green spaces between dwellings. This spatial structure and its elements not only compose the visible residential landscape but also play a major role of carrying rain water. These elements, therefore, imply ecological significance to urban fitness. Based upon theories of landscape ecology, residential landscape can be understood as a pattern typified by minor soft patch of planted area and major hard patch of buildings and squares, as well as hard corridors of roads. Use five landscape districts in Hangzhou as examples; this paper finds that the size, shape and slope direction of soft patch, the bend of roads, and the form of the four-grade spatial structure are influential for adapting to natural rainwater circulation.

Keywords: Urban Housing, Rainwater, Hangzhou China, residential landscape, spatial character

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3 Assessment of Socio-Economic and Water Related Topics at Community Level in Yatta Town, Palestine

Authors: Nibal Al-Batsh, Issam A. Al-Khatib, Subha Ghannam

Abstract:

Yatta is a town in the Governorate of Hebron, located 9 km south of Hebron City in the West Bank. The town houses over 100,000 people, 49% of which are females; a population that doubles every 15 years. Yatta has been connected to a water network since 1974 serving nearly 85% of the households. The water network is old and inadequate to meet the needs of the population. The water supply made available to the area is also very limited, estimated to be around 20 l/c/d. Residents are thus forced to rely on water vendors which supply water with a lower quality compared to municipal water while being 400% more expensive. As a cheaper and more reliable alternative, rainwater harvesting is a common practice in the area, with the majority of the households owning at least one cistern. Rainwater harvesting is of great socioeconomic importance in areas where water sources are scarce or polluted. In this research, the quality of harvested rainwater used for drinking and domestic purposes in the Yatta area was assessed throughout a year. A total of 100 samples, were collected from (cisterns) with an average capacity of 69 m3, which are adjacent to cement-roof catchment areas with an average area of 145 m2. Samples were analyzed for a number of parameters including: pH, alkalinity, hardness, turbidity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), NO3, NH4, chloride and salinity. Biological and microbiological contents such as Total Coliforms (TCC) and Fecal Coliforms (FC) bacteria were also tested. Results showed that most of the rainwater samples were within WHO and EPA guidelines set for chemical parameters. The research also addressed the impact of different socioeconomic attributes on rainwater harvesting through questionnaire that was pre-tested before the actual statically sample is collected.

Keywords: Water Quality, Harvesting, Rainwater, socio-economic aspects

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2 Comparative Assessment of Rainwater Management Alternatives for Dhaka City: Case Study of North South University

Authors: Nazmun Nahar, S. M. Islam, Wasi Uddin

Abstract:

Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, faces two contrasting problems; excess of water during monsoon season and scarcity of water during dry season. The first problem occurs due to rapid urbanization and mismanagement of rainwater whereas the second problem is related to climate change and increasing urban population. Inadequate drainage system also worsens the overall water management scenario in Dhaka city. Dhaka has a population density of 115,000 people per square miles. This results in a 2.5 billion liter water demand every day, 87% of which is fulfilled by groundwater. Over dependency on groundwater has resulted in more than 200 feet drop in the last 50 years and continues to decline at a rate of 9 feet per year. Considering the gravity of the problem, it is high time that practitioners, academicians and policymakers consider different water management practices and look into their cumulative impacts at different scales. The present study assesses different rainwater management options for North South University of Bangladesh and recommends the most feasible and sustainable rainwater management measure. North South University currently accommodates over 20,000 students, faculty members, and administrative staffs. To fulfill the water demand, there are two deep tube wells, which bring up approximately 150,000 liter of water every hour. The annual water demand is approximately 103 million liters. Dhaka receives approximately 1800 mm of rainfall every year. For the current study, two academic buildings and one administrative building consist of 4924 square meters of rooftop area was selected as catchment area. Both rainwater harvesting and groundwater recharge options were analyzed separately. It was estimated that by rainwater harvesting, annually a total of 7.2 million liters of water can be reused which is approximately 7% of the total annual water usage. In the monsoon, rainwater harvesting fulfills 12.2% of the monthly water demand. The approximate cost of the rainwater harvesting system is estimated to be 940975 bdt (USD 11500). For direct groundwater recharge, a system comprises of one de-siltation tank, two recharge tanks and one siltation tank were designed that requires approximately 532788 bdt (USD 6500). The payback period is approximately 7 years and 4 months for the groundwater recharge system whereas the payback period for rainwater harvesting option is approximately 12 years and 4 months. Based on the cost-benefit analysis, the present study finds the groundwater recharge system to be most suitable for North South University. The present study also demonstrates that if only one institution like North South University can add up a substantial amount of water to the aquifer, bringing other institutions in the network has the potential to create significant cumulative impact on replenishing the declining groundwater level of Dhaka city. As an additional benefit, it also prevents large amount of water being discharged into the storm sewers which results in severe flooding in Dhaka city during monsoon.

Keywords: Groundwater, Harvesting, Rainwater, Dhaka, recharge

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1 The Concentration of Formaldehyde in Rainwater and Typhoon Rainwater at Sakai City, Japan

Authors: Chinh Nguyen Nhu Bao, Hien To Thi, Norimichi Takenaka

Abstract:

Formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations in rainwater including in tropical storms in Sakai City, Osaka, Japan have been measured continuously during rain event by developed chemiluminescence method. The level of formaldehyde was ranged from 15 µg/L to 500 µg/L. The high concentration of HCHO in rainwater is related to the wind direction from the south and west sides of Sakai City where manufactures related to chemicals, oil-refinery, and steel. The in-situ irradiated experiment on rainwater sample was conducted to prove the aqueous phase photo-production of HCHO and the degradation of HCHO. In the daytime, the aqueous phase photolysis is the source of HCHO in rainwater (4.52 ± 5.74 µg/L/h for UV light source in-situ condition, 2.84-8.96 µg/L/h under sunlight). However, in the night time, the degradation is the function of microorganism.

Keywords: Chemiluminescence, Rainwater, formaldehyde, typhoon

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