Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

radius of curvature Related Abstracts

4 Experimental Study on Ultrasonic Shot Peening Forming and Surface Properties of AALY12

Authors: Shi-hong Lu, Chao-xun Liu, Yi-feng Zhu

Abstract:

Ultrasonic shot peening (USP) on AALY12 sheet was studied. Several parameters (arc heights, surface roughness, surface topography and microhardness) with different USP process parameters were measured. The research proposes that the radius of curvature of shot peened sheet increases with time and electric current decreasing, while it increases with pin diameter increasing, and radius of curvature reaches a saturation level after a specific processing time and electric current. An empirical model of the relationship between radius of curvature and pin diameter, electric current, time was also obtained. The research shows that the increment of surface and vertical microhardness of material is more obvious with longer time and higher value of electric current, which can be up to 20% and 28% respectively.

Keywords: Residual Stress, surface properties, USP forming, radius of curvature

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3 Opto-Mechanical Characterization of Aspheric Lenses from the Hybrid Method

Authors: Aliouane Toufik, Hamdi Amine, Bouzid Djamel

Abstract:

Aspheric optical components are an alternative to the use of conventional lenses in the implementation of imaging systems for the visible range. Spherical lenses are capable of producing aberrations. Therefore, they are not able to focus all the light into a single point. Instead, aspherical lenses correct aberrations and provide better resolution even with compact lenses incorporating a small number of lenses. Metrology of these components is very difficult especially when the resolution requirements increase and insufficient or complexity of conventional tools requires the development of specific approaches to characterization. This work is part of the problem existed because the objectives are the study and comparison of different methods used to measure surface rays hybrid aspherical lenses.

Keywords: roughness, radius of curvature, manufacture of lenses, aspherical surface, precision molding

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2 Failure Mechanism of Slip-Critical Connections on Curved Surface

Authors: Bae Doobyong, Yoo Jaejun, Park Ilgyu, Choi Seowon, Oh Chang Kook

Abstract:

Variation of slip coefficient in slip-critical connections of curved plates. This paper presents the results of analytical investigations of slip coefficients in slip-critical bolted connections of curved plates. It may depend on the contact stress distribution at interface and the flexibility of spliced plate. Non-linear FEM analyses have been made to simulate the behavior of bolted connections of curved plates with various radiuses of curvature and thicknesses.

Keywords: radius of curvature, slip coefficient, curved plates, slip-critical bolted connection

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1 Evaluation of River Meander Geometry Using Uniform Excess Energy Theory and Effects of Climate Change on River Meandering

Authors: Youssef I. Hafez

Abstract:

Since ancient history rivers have been the fostering and favorite place for people and civilizations to live and exist along river banks. However, due to floods and droughts, especially sever conditions due to global warming and climate change, river channels are completely evolving and moving in the lateral direction changing their plan form either through straightening of curved reaches (meander cut-off) or increasing meandering curvature. The lateral shift or shrink of a river channel affects severely the river banks and the flood plain with tremendous impact on the surrounding environment. Therefore, understanding the formation and the continual processes of river channel meandering is of paramount importance. So far, in spite of the huge number of publications about river-meandering, there has not been a satisfactory theory or approach that provides a clear explanation of the formation of river meanders and the mechanics of their associated geometries. In particular two parameters are often needed to describe meander geometry. The first one is a scale parameter such as the meander arc length. The second is a shape parameter such as the maximum angle a meander path makes with the channel mean down path direction. These two parameters, if known, can determine the meander path and geometry as for example when they are incorporated in the well known sine-generated curve. In this study, a uniform excess energy theory is used to illustrate the origin and mechanics of formation of river meandering. This theory advocates that the longitudinal imbalance between the valley and channel slopes (with the former is greater than the second) leads to formation of curved meander channel in order to reduce the excess energy through its expenditure as transverse energy loss. Two relations are developed based on this theory; one for the determination of river channel radius of curvature at the bend apex (shape parameter) and the other for the determination of river channel sinuosity. The sinuosity equation tested very well when applied to existing available field data. In addition, existing model data were used to develop a relation between the meander arc length and the Darcy-Weisback friction factor. Then, the meander wave length was determined from the equations of the arc length and the sinuosity. The developed equation compared well with available field data. Effects of the transverse bed slope and grain size on river channel sinuosity are addressed. In addition, the concept of maximum channel sinuosity is introduced in order to explain the changes of river channel plan form due to changes in flow discharges and sediment loads induced by global warming and climate changes.

Keywords: Climate Change, Global Warming, grain size, radius of curvature, river channel meandering, sinuosity, meander arc length, uniform excess energy theory, transverse energy loss, transverse bed slope, flow discharges, sediment loads

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