Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Radioactivity Related Abstracts

6 Modeling of Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Concrete for Filling Trenches in Radioactive Waste Management

Authors: Ilija Plecas, Dalibor Arbutina


The leaching rate of 60Co from spent mix bead (anion and cation) exchange resins in a cement-bentonite matrix has been studied. Transport phenomena involved in the leaching of a radioactive material from a cement-bentonite matrix are investigated using three methods based on theoretical equations. These are: the diffusion equation for a plane source, an equation for diffusion coupled to a first order equation and an empirical method employing a polynomial equation. The results presented in this paper are from a 25-year mortar and concrete testing project that will influence the design choices for radioactive waste packaging for a future Serbian radioactive waste disposal center.

Keywords: Waste, Concrete, Radioactivity, Leaching, cement, Permeability, immobilization

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5 Natural Radioactivity in Foods Consumed in Turkey

Authors: A. Bozkurt, E. Kam, G. Karahan, H. Aslıyuksek


This study aims to determine the natural radioactivity levels in some foodstuffs produced in Turkey. For this purpose, 48 different foods samples were collected from different land parcels throughout the country. All samples were analyzed to designate both gross alpha and gross beta radioactivities and the radionuclides’ concentrations. The gross alpha radioactivities were measured as below 1 Bq kg-1 in most of the samples, some of them being due to the detection limit of the counting system. The gross beta radioactivity levels ranged from 1.8 Bq kg-1 to 453 Bq kg-1, larger levels being observed in leguminous seeds while the highest level being in haricot bean. The concentrations of natural radionuclides in the foodstuffs were investigated by the method of gamma spectroscopy. High levels of 40K were measured in all the samples, the highest activities being again in leguminous seeds. Low concentrations of 238U and 226Ra were found in some of the samples, which are comparable to the reported results in the literature. Based on the activity concentrations obtained in this study, average annual effective dose equivalents for the radionuclides 226Ra, 238U, and 40K were calculated as 77.416 µSv y-1, 0.978 µSv y-1, and 140.55 µSv y-1, respectively.

Keywords: Turkey, Radioactivity, Foods, gross alpha, gross beta, annual equivalent dose

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4 Spatial Distribution of Natural Radionuclides in Soil, Sediment and Waters in Oil Producing Areas in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

Authors: G. O. Avwiri, E. O. Agbalagba, C. P. Ononugbo


Activity concentrations of natural radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) in the soil, sediment and water of oil producing communities in Delta and Rivers States were determined using γ-ray spectrometry. The mean soil/sediment activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in onshore west in Delta state is 40.2±5.1Bqkg-1, 29.9±4.2Bqkg-1 and 361.5±20.0Bqkg-1 respectively, the corresponding values obtained in onshore east1 of Rivers state is 20.9±2.8Bqkg-1, 19.4±2.5Bqkg-1and 260.0±14.1Bqkg-1 respectively. While the mean activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in onshore east2 of Rivers state is 29.3±3.5Bqkg-1, 21.6±2.6Bqkg-1 and 262.1±14.6Bqkg-1 respectively. These values obtained show enhanced NORMs but are well within the world range. All the radiation hazard indices examined in soil have mean values lower than their maximum permissible limits. In drinking water, the obtained average values of226Ra, 228Ra and 40K is 8.4±0.9, 7.3±0.7 and 29.9±2.2Bql-1 respectively for well water, 4.5±0.6, 5.1±0.4 and 20.9±2.0Bql-1 respectively for borehole water and 11.3±1.2, 8.5±0.7 and 32.4±3.7Bql-1 respectively for river water in onshore west. For onshore east1, average activity concentration of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K is 8.3±1.0, 8.6±1.1 and 39.6±3.3Bql-1 respectively for well water, 3.8±0.8, 4.9±0.6 and 35.7±4.1Bql-1 respectively for borehole water and 5.5±0.8, 5.4±0.7 and 36.9±3.8Bql-1 respectively for river water. While in onshore east2 average value of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K is 10.1±1.1, 8.3±1.0 and 50.0±3.9Bql-1 respectively for well water, 4.7±0.9, 4.0±0.4 and 28.8±3.0Bql-1 respectively for borehole water and 7.7±0.9, 6.1±0.8 and 27.1±2.9Bql-1 respectively for river water and the average activity concentrations in the produced water226Ra, 228Ra and 40K is 5.182.14Bql-1, 6.042.48Bql-1 and 48.7813.67Bql-1 respectively. These values obtained are well above world average values of 1.0, 0.1 and 10Bql-1 for 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K respectively, those of the control site values and most reported values around the world. Though the hazard indices (Raeq, Hex, Hin) examined in water is still within the tolerable level, the committed effective dose estimated are above ICPR 0.1 mSvy-1 permissible limits. The overall results show that soil and sediment in the area are safe radiologically, but the result indicates some level of water pollution in the studied area.

Keywords: Radioactivity, Soil, Niger Delta, sediment and water, gamma detector

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3 Spectral Anomaly Detection and Clustering in Radiological Search

Authors: Thomas L. McCullough, John D. Hague, Marylesa M. Howard, Matthew K. Kiser, Michael A. Mazur, Lance K. McLean, Johanna L. Turk


Radiological search and mapping depends on the successful recognition of anomalies in large data sets which contain varied and dynamic backgrounds. We present a new algorithmic approach for real-time anomaly detection which is resistant to common detector imperfections, avoids the limitations of a source template library and provides immediate, and easily interpretable, user feedback. This algorithm is based on a continuous wavelet transform for variance reduction and evaluates the deviation between a foreground measurement and a local background expectation using methods from linear algebra. We also present a technique for recognizing and visualizing spectrally similar clusters of data. This technique uses Laplacian Eigenmap Manifold Learning to perform dimensional reduction which preserves the geometric "closeness" of the data while maintaining sensitivity to outlying data. We illustrate the utility of both techniques on real-world data sets.

Keywords: Radiation Protection, Radioactivity, radiological search, radiological mapping

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2 Determination of Natural Gamma Radioactivity in Sand along the Black Sea Coastal Region of Giresun, North Turkey

Authors: A. Karadeniz, Belgin Kucukomeroglu


In this study natural gamma radioactivity levels are determined on sands along the coastal regions of Giresun/Turkey. The coast of Giresun about 290 km long in investigated to collect 101 sand samples. Natural and artificial radioactivity concentrations of sand samples were measured by using HPGe gamma spectrometry. The average activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs on sand samples of Giresun were found to be 10.83±2.92 Bq/kg, 21.28±3.22 Bq/kg, 6.42±1.06 Bq/kg, 230.94±10.67 Bq/kg respectively. The average activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other parts of Turkey and other countries. The average absorbed dose rate for Giresun was calculated to be 38.68 nGy/h respectively. This value is significantly lower than the World averaged value of 60 nGy/h. The external annual effective dose rate concentration in Giresun was found to be 0.047 mSv/y respectively. This result is much lower than the recommeded limit of 5 mSv/y. The external hazard dose rate for Giresun weas calculated to be 0.21 respectively. This result is much lower than the recommended limit of 1.0.

Keywords: Radioactivity, Concentration, Giresun, natural gamma radioactivity

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1 Rare Earth Elements and Radioactivity of Granitoid Rocks at Abu Marw Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

Authors: Adel H.El-Afandy, Abd Alrahman Embaby, Mona A. El Harairey


Abu Marw area is located in the southeastern part of the Eastern Desert, about 150km south east of Aswan. Abu Marw area is mainly covered by late Proterozoic igneous and metamorphic rocks. These basement rocks are nonconformably overlain by late Cretaceous Nubian sandstones in the western and northern parts of the areas. Abu Marw granitoid batholiths comprises a co-magmatic calc alkaline I type peraluminous suite of rocks ranging in composition from tonalite, granodiorite, monzogranite, syenogranite to alkali feldspar granite. The studied tonalite and granodiorite samples have ΣREE lower than the average REE values (250ppm) of granitic rocks, while the monzogranite, syenogranite and alkali feldspar granite samples have ΣREE above the average REE values of granitic rocks. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of the considered granites display a gull-wing shape, characterized by large to moderately fractionated patterns and high LREE relative to the MREE and HREE contents. Furthermore, the studied rocks have a steadily decreasing Eu/Eu* values from the tonalite to the alkali feldspar granite with simultaneous increase in the ΣREE contents. The average U contents in different granitic rocks.

Keywords: Radioactivity, rare earth element, granite, Abu Marw, south eastern desert

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