Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Radiation therapy Related Abstracts

3 Mathematical Model of Cancer Growth under the Influence of Radiation Therapy

Authors: Beata Jackowska-Zduniak

Abstract:

We formulate and analyze a mathematical model describing dynamics of cancer growth under the influence of radiation therapy. The effect of this type of therapy is considered as an additional equation of discussed model. Numerical simulations show that delay, which is added to ordinary differential equations and represent time needed for transformation from one type of cells to the other one, affects the behavior of the system. The validation and verification of proposed model is based on medical data. Analytical results are illustrated by numerical examples of the model dynamics. The model is able to reconstruct dynamics of treatment of cancer and may be used to determine the most effective treatment regimen based on the study of the behavior of individual treatment protocols.

Keywords: Mathematical Modeling, Radiation therapy, Numerical Simulation, Ordinary differential equations

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2 Cellular Mechanisms Involved in the Radiosensitization of Breast- and Lung Cancer Cells by Agents Targeting Microtubule Dynamics

Authors: Elsie M. Nolte, Annie M. Joubert, Roy Lakier, Maryke Etsebeth, Jolene M. Helena, Marcel Verwey, Laurence Lafanechere, Anne E. Theron

Abstract:

Treatment regimens for breast- and lung cancers may include both radiation- and chemotherapy. Ideally, a pharmaceutical agent which selectively sensitizes cancer cells to gamma (γ)-radiation would allow administration of lower doses of each modality, yielding synergistic anti-cancer benefits and lower metastasis occurrence, in addition to decreasing the side-effect profiles. A range of 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME) analogues, namely 2-ethyl-3-O-sulphamoyl-estra-1,3,5 (10) 15-tetraene-3-ol-17one (ESE-15-one), 2-ethyl-3-O-sulphamoyl-estra-1,3,5(10),15-tetraen-17-ol (ESE-15-ol) and 2-ethyl-3-O-sulphamoyl-estra-1,3,5(10)16-tetraene (ESE-16) were in silico-designed by our laboratory, with the aim of improving the parent compound’s bioavailability in vivo. The main effect of these compounds is the disruption of microtubule dynamics with a resultant mitotic accumulation and induction of programmed cell death in various cancer cell lines. This in vitro study aimed to determine the cellular responses involved in the radiation sensitization effects of these analogues at low doses in breast- and lung cancer cell lines. The oestrogen receptor positive MCF-7-, oestrogen receptor negative MDA-MB-231- and triple negative BT-20 breast cancer cell lines as well as the A549 lung cancer cell line were used. The minimal compound- and radiation doses able to induce apoptosis were determined using annexin-V and cell cycle progression markers. These doses (cell line dependent) were used to pre-sensitize the cancer cells 24 hours prior to 6 gray (Gy) radiation. Experiments were conducted on samples exposed to the individual- as well as the combination treatment conditions in order to determine whether the combination treatment yielded an additive cell death response. Morphological studies included light-, fluorescence- and transmission electron microscopy. Apoptosis induction was determined by flow cytometry employing annexin V, cell cycle analysis, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) signalling, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Clonogenic studies were performed by allowing colony formation for 10 days post radiation. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage was quantified via γ-H2AX foci and micronuclei quantification. Amplification of the p53 signalling pathway was determined by western blot. Results indicated that exposing breast- and lung cancer cells to nanomolar concentrations of these analogues 24 hours prior to γ-radiation induced more cell death than the compound- and radiation treatments alone. Hypercondensed chromatin, decreased cell density, a damaged cytoskeleton and an increase in apoptotic body formation were observed in cells exposed to the combination treatment condition. An increased number of cells present in the sub-G1 phase as well as increased annexin-V staining, elevation of ROS formation and decreased Bcl-2 signalling confirmed the additive effect of the combination treatment. In addition, colony formation decreased significantly. p53 signalling pathways were significantly amplified in cells exposed to the analogues 24 hours prior to radiation, as was the amount of DNA damage. In conclusion, our results indicated that pre-treatment of breast- and lung cancer cells with low doses of 2-ME analogues sensitized breast- and lung cancer cells to γ-radiation and induced apoptosis more so than the individual treatments alone. Future studies will focus on the effect of the combination treatment on non-malignant cellular counterparts.

Keywords: Cancer, Radiation therapy, microtubule dynamics, radiosensitization

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1 Enhancing Sensitization of Cervical Cancer Cells to γ-Radiation Ellagic Acid

Authors: Amit Kumar, Vidhula Ahire, K. P. Mishra, Gauri Kulkarni

Abstract:

Herbal polyphenols have gained significance because of their increasing promise in prevention and treatment of cancer. Therefore, development of a dietary compound as an effective radiosensitizer and a radioprotector is highly warranted for cervical cancer patients undergoing therapy. This study describes the cytotoxic effects of the flavonoid, ellagic acid (EA) when administered either alone or in combination with gamma radiation on cervical cancer HeLa cells in vitro. Apoptotic index and proliferation were measured by using trypan blue assay. Reproductive cell death was analyzed by clonogenic assay. Propidium iodide staining for flowcytometry was performed to analyze cell cycle modulation. Nuclear and mitochondrial changes were studied with specific dyes. DNA repair kinetics was analyzed by immunofluorescence assay. Evaluation and comparison of EA effects were performed with other clinically used breast cancer drugs. When tumor cells were exposed to 2 and 4 Gy of irradiation in presence of EA (10 μM), it yielded a synergistic cytotoxic effect on cervical cancer cells whereas in NIH3T3 cells it reversed the injury caused by irradiation and abetted in the regaining of normal healthy cells. At 24h ~25foci/cell was observed and 2.6 fold decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Up to 40% cell were arrested in the G1 phase and 20-36% cells exhibited apoptosis. Our results demonstrate the role of increased apoptosis and cell cycle modulation in the mechanism of EA mediated radiosensitization of cervical cancer cells and thus advocating EA as an adjuvant for preclinical trials in cancer chemo- radiotherapy.

Keywords: Radiation therapy, Cervical Cancer, Sensitization, ellagic acid

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