Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Racism Related Abstracts

10 Violence and Aggression of Women in Native Canada: A Postcolonial Feminist Study of The Rez Sisters and Rose by Tomson Highway

Authors: Sonia Sharma

Abstract:

In a multicultural country like Canada, Colonialism is still maintained in the form of Violence and Oppression. The Aboriginals are persistently facing Oppression and Marginalization in their own land owing to Colonial presence. Women in particular are getting most affected. They are facing double burden of patriarchy and their being Native. Tomson Highway, the Cree Canadian playwright has deftly exposed the theme of women violence and empowerment. In his plays (The Rez Sisters and Rose) taken from his Rez Septology, he has depicted Aboriginal women’s predicaments and sufferings. But simultaneously also talks about their empowerment and aggression refuting and fighting back to patriarchy and oppression. The Rez Sisters portrays women with shattering images and as a victim of both the male dominating society and the system. It represents the painful odyssey of the seven women facing several hardships. Rose represents women in entirely different light. They are shown more assertive and empowered raising their voice against the Violence and Discrimination meted out to them. The Aboriginal women in Canada are facing dual burden of Colonialism and Patriarchy which indeed is a Colonial construct. This paper is an attempt to explore the above facets Tomson Highway’s The Rez Sisters and Rose.

Keywords: Violence, Racism, Discrimination, postcolonialism feminism

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
9 Pakis and Whites: A Critical View of Nadeem Aslam’s Treatment of Racism in “Maps for Lost Lovers”

Authors: Humaira Tariq

Abstract:

An issue faced by a majority of immigrants, especially coming from the third world countries, is that of racism. The natives find it very hard to accept people of another race, origin and background amongst them. History is replete with incidents where immigrants have paid a heavy price for being the odd ones out. Being an integral part of the immigrant experience, this issue of racism, is an important theme in most of diaspora related fiction. The present paper will endeavor to expose and explore Nadeem Aslam’s handling of this theme in his novel, 'Maps for Lost Lovers'. The researcher has found Aslam to take an objective stance on this issue, as he shows that where the West is unwilling to accept the immigrants in their midst, there, majority of the immigrants, are also responsible for alienating themselves in the new environment. He shows a kind of persecution mania haunting the immigrants from the third world countries where they feel the condition for being much worse than it actually is. The paper presents a critical view of the handling of racism in Aslam’s novel where he is found to criticize not only the English for their mistreatment of Pakistani immigrants, but is also disapproving of the judgmental attitude of the immigrants.

Keywords: Racism, English, Immigrants, natives, pakistani

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
8 Working Effectively with Muslim Communities in the West

Authors: Lisa Tribuzio

Abstract:

This paper explores the complexity of working with Muslim communities in Australia. It will draw upon the notions of belonging, social inclusion and effective community programming to engage Muslim communities in Western environments given the current global political climate. Factors taken into consideration for effective engagement include: family engagement, considering key practices such as Ramadan, fasting and prayer and food requirements, gender relations, core values around faith and spirituality, considering attitudes towards self disclosure in a counseling setting and the notion of Us and Them in the media and systems and its effect on minority communities. It will explore recent research in the field from Australian researchers as well as recommendations from United Nations in working with Muslim communities. It will also explore current practice models applied in Australia in engaging effectively with diverse communities and addressing racism and discrimination in innovative ways.

Keywords: Racism, Cultural Diversity, Social Inclusion, muslim

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
7 Racism in Drug Policies: A Report on United States Legislation

Authors: Frederick Monyepao

Abstract:

Crack cocaine first appeared on the scene in the form of cocaine freebasing in the late 1970s. Stockbrokers, investment bankers, rock stars, Hollywood elites, and a few pro athletes were regular users of the substance. As criminogenic factors associated with substance abuse began to surface, congress passed new legislation. The laws led to the increase of health coverage insurances and the expansion of hospitals. By the mid-1980s, crack use spread into America's inner cities among impoverished African Americans and Latinos. While substance abuse increased among minority communities, legislation pertaining to substance abuse evolved. The prison industry also expanded the number of cells available. A qualitative approach was taken, drawing from a range secondary sources for contextual analysis. This paper traces out the continued marginalisation and racist undertones towards minorities as perpetuated by certain drug policies. It was discovered that the new legislation on crack was instrumental in the largest incarcerations the United States ever faced. Drug offenders increased in prisons eightfold from 1986 to 2000. The paper concludes that American drug control policies are consistently irrational and ineffective when measured by levels of substance use and abuse. On the contrary, these policies have been successful as agents of social control in maintaining the stratification patterns of racial/ethnic minorities and women. To move beyond prohibition, radical law and policy reform may require a change in narratives on substance use.

Keywords: Racism, Substance abuse, Drug Policy, Minorities, crack

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
6 Against the Philosophical-Scientific Racial Project of Biologizing Race

Authors: Anthony F. Peressini

Abstract:

The concept of race has recently come prominently back into discussion in the context of medicine and medical science, along with renewed effort to biologize racial concepts. This paper argues that this renewed effort to biologize race by way of medicine and population genetics fail on their own terms, and more importantly, that the philosophical project of biologizing race ought to be recognized for what it is—a retrograde racial project—and abandoned. There is clear agreement that standard racial categories and concepts cannot be grounded in the old way of racial naturalism, which understand race as a real, interest-independent biological/metaphysical category in which its members share “physical, moral, intellectual, and cultural characteristics.” But equally clear is the very real and pervasive presence of racial concepts in individual and collective consciousness and behavior, and so it remains a pressing area in which to seek deeper understanding. Recent philosophical work has endeavored to reconcile these two observations by developing a “thin” conception of race, grounded in scientific concepts but without the moral and metaphysical content. Such “thin,” science-based analyses take the “commonsense” or “folk” sense of race as it functions in contemporary society as the starting point for their philosophic-scientific projects to biologize racial concepts. A “philosophic-scientific analysis” is a special case of the cornerstone of analytic philosophy: a conceptual analysis. That is, a rendering of a concept into the more perspicuous concepts that constitute it. Thus a philosophic-scientific account of a concept is an attempt to work out an analysis of a concept that makes use of empirical science's insights to ground, legitimate and explicate the target concept in terms of clearer concepts informed by empirical results. The focus in this paper is on three recent philosophic-scientific cases for retaining “race” that all share this general analytic schema, but that make use of “medical necessity,” population genetics, and human genetic clustering, respectively. After arguing that each of these three approaches suffers from internal difficulties, the paper considers the general analytic schema employed by such biologizations of race. While such endeavors are inevitably prefaced with the disclaimer that the theory to follow is non-essentialist and non-racialist, the case will be made that such efforts are not neutral scientific or philosophical projects but rather are what sociologists call a racial project, that is, one of many competing efforts that conjoin a representation of what race means to specific efforts to determine social and institutional arrangements of power, resources, authority, etc. Accordingly, philosophic-scientific biologizations of race, since they begin from and condition their analyses on “folk” conceptions, cannot pretend to be “prior to” other disciplinary insights, nor to transcend the social-political dynamics involved in formulating theories of race. As a result, such traditional philosophical efforts can be seen to be disciplinarily parochial and to address only a caricature of a large and important human problem—and thereby further contributing to the unfortunate isolation of philosophical thinking about race from other disciplines.

Keywords: Population Genetics, Racism, Social Construction, ontology of race, race-based medicine, racial formation theory, racial projects

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
5 Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities: An Investigation of the Relationship between Race, Ethnicity, Health Care Access, and Health Status

Authors: Dorcas Matowe

Abstract:

Inequality in health care for racial and ethnic minorities continues to be a growing concern for many Americans. Some of the barriers hindering the elimination of health disparities include lack of insurance, socioeconomic status (SES), and racism. This study will specifically focus on the association between some of these factors- health care access, which includes insurance coverage and frequency of doctor visits, race, ethnicity, and health status. The purpose of this study will be to address the following questions: is having health insurance associated with increased doctor visits? Are racial and ethnic minorities with health insurance more or less likely to see a doctor? Is the association between having health insurance moderated by being an ethnic minority? Given the current implications of the 2010 Affordable Care Act, this study will highlight the need to prioritize health care access for minorities and confront institutional racism. Critical Race Theory (CRT) will demonstrate how racism has reinforced these health disparities. This quantitative study design will analyze secondary data from the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) questionnaire, a telephone survey conducted annually in all 50 states and three US territories by state health departments in conjunction with the Center for Disease Control (CDC). Non-identifying health-related data is gathered annually from over 400,000 adults 18 years and above about their health status and use of preventative services. Through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), the relationship between the predictor variables of health care access, race, and ethnicity, the criterion variable of health status, and the latent variables of emotional support and life satisfaction will be examined. It is hypothesized that there will be an interaction between certain racial and ethnic minorities who went to see a doctor, had insurance coverage, experienced racism, and the quality of their health status, emotional support, and life satisfaction.

Keywords: Racism, Health Disparities, ethnic minorities, health access

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
4 Examining Institutional and Structural Racism to Address Persistent Racial Inequities in US Cities

Authors: Zoe Polk

Abstract:

In cities across the US, race continues to predict an individual’s likelihood to be employed, to receive a quality education, to live in a safe neighborhood, to life expectancy to contacts with the criminal justice system. Deep and pervasive disparities exist despite laws enacted at the federal, state and local level to eliminate discrimination. This paper examines the strengths of the U.S. civil rights movement in making discrimination a moral issue. Following the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, cities throughout the US adopted laws that mirror the language, theories of practice and enforcement of the law. This paper argues that while those laws were relevant to the way discrimination was conducted in that time, they are limited in their ability to help cities address discrimination today. This paper reviews health indicators This paper concludes that in order for cities to create environments where race no longer predicts one’s success, cities must conduct institutional and structural racism audits.

Keywords: Social Justice, Racism, Constitutional Law, racial equity

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
3 A Model for Analysing Argumentative Structures and Online Deliberation in User-Generated Comments to the Website of a South African Newspaper

Authors: Marthinus Conradie

Abstract:

The conversational dynamics of democratically orientated deliberation continue to stimulate critical scholarship for its potential to bolster robust engagement between different sections of pluralist societies. Several axes of deliberation that have attracted academic attention include face-to-face vs. online interaction, and citizen-to-citizen communication vs. engagement between citizens and political elites. In all these areas, numerous researchers have explored deliberative procedures aimed at achieving instrumental goals such a securing consensus on policy issues, against procedures that prioritise expressive outcomes such as broadening the range of argumentative repertoires that discursively construct and mediate specific political issues. The study that informs this paper, works in the latter stream. Drawing its data from the reader-comments section of a South African broadsheet newspaper, the study investigates online, citizen-to-citizen deliberation by analysing the discursive practices through which competing understandings of social problems are articulated and contested. To advance this agenda, the paper deals specifically with user-generated comments posted in response to news stories on questions of race and racism in South Africa. The analysis works to discern and interpret the various sets of discourse practices that shape how citizens deliberate contentious political issues, especially racism. Since the website in question is designed to encourage the critical comparison of divergent interpretations of news events, without feeding directly into national policymaking, the study adopts an analytic framework that traces how citizens articulate arguments, rather than the instrumental effects that citizen deliberations might exert on policy. The paper starts from the argument that such expressive interactions are particularly crucial to current trends in South African politics, given that the precise nature of race and racism remain contested and uncertain. Centred on a sample of 2358 conversational moves in 814 posts to 18 news stories emanating from issues of race and racism, the analysis proceeds in a two-step fashion. The first stage conducts a qualitative content analysis that offers insights into the levels of reciprocity among commenters (do readers engage with each other or simply post isolated opinions?), as well as the structures of argumentation (do readers support opinions by citing evidence?). The second stage involves a more fine-grained discourse analysis, based on a theorisation of argumentation that delineates it into three components: opinions/conclusions, evidence/data to support opinions/conclusions and warrants that explicate precisely how evidence/data buttress opinions/conclusions. By tracing the manifestation and frequency of specific argumentative practices, this study contributes to the archive of research currently aggregating around the practices that characterise South Africans’ engagement with provocative political questions, especially racism and racial inequity. Additionally, the study also contributes to recent scholarship on the affordances of Web 2.0 software by eschewing a simplistic bifurcation between cyber-optimist vs. pessimism, in favour of a more nuanced and context-specific analysis of the patterns that structure online deliberation.

Keywords: Discourse Analysis, Racism, online deliberation, qualitative content analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
2 The Representation of Anies Baswedan about the Issue of the Word 'Pribumi' in His DKI Jakarta Governor Inauguration Speech in Indonesian Media

Authors: Nizar Ibnus

Abstract:

The term 'pribumi' or indigenous people was originally coined in the colonisation era to differentiate between Dutch colonials and native Indonesian people. The term was also used to trigger nationalism among Indonesian people to liberate their country from any kind of colonialism which had seized their freedom for ages. However, after the war was over and the colonials had fled from the country, the usage began to be altered. It changed from nationalist propaganda term to somewhat racist term. Immigrants and half-blooded people were massively victimized. Then, in 1998 the government forbade the use of this term for public use. Apparently, this racial issue happens again. On 16th October 2017, Anies Baswedan as the new government of DKI Jakarta province mentioned this term in his inauguration speech. This indeed raises controversy among Indonesian people. Using critical discourse analysis, this paper examines how Indonesian media portray the figure of Anies Baswedan regarding the issue. The findings reveal that Indonesian media depict Anies Baswedan differently. Some view him guilty as he mentioned the controversial and forbidden term in public. While, the other media consider him as innocent as he used the term in different contexts. This various media point of view and framing is presumably emerged from their different ideologies.

Keywords: Racism, Critical Discourse Analysis, media framing, pribumi

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
1 Decolonial Aesthetics in Ronnie Govender’s at the Edge and Other Cato Manor Stories

Authors: Rajendra Chetty

Abstract:

Decolonial aesthetics departs and delinks from colonial ideas about ‘the arts’ and the modernist/colonial work of aesthetics. Education is trapped in the western epistemic and hermeneutical vocabulary, hence it is necessary to introduce new concepts and work the entanglement between co-existing concepts. This paper will discuss the contribution of Ronnie Govender, a South African writer, to build decolonial sensibilities and delink from the grand narrative of the colonial and apartheid literary landscape in Govender’s text, At the Edge and other Cato Manor Stories. Govender uses the world of art to make a decolonial statement. Decolonial artists have to work in the entanglement of power and engage with a border epistemology. Govender’s writings depart from an embodied consciousness of the colonial wound and moves toward healing. Border thinking and doing (artistic creativity) is precisely the decolonial methodology posited by Linda T. Smith, where theory comes in the form of storytelling. Govender’s stories engage with the wounds infringed by racism and patriarchy, two pillars of eurocentric knowing, sensing, and believing that sustain a structure of knowledge. This structure is embedded in characters, institutions, languages that regulate and mange the world of the excluded. Healing is the process of delinking, or regaining pride, dignity, and humanity, not through the psychoanalytic cure, but the popular healer. The legacies of the community of Cato Manor that was pushed out of their land are built in his stories. Decoloniality then is a concept that carries the experience of liberation struggles and recognizes the strenuous conditions of marginalized people together with their strength, wisdom, and endurance. Govender’s unique performative prose reconstructs and resurrects the lives of the people of Cato Manor, their vitality and humor, pain and humiliation: a vibrant and racially integrated community destroyed by the regime’s notorious racial laws. The paper notes that Govender’s objective with his plays and stories was to open windows to both the pain and joy of life; a mission that is not didactic but to shine a torch on both mankind’s waywardness as well as its inspiring and often moving achievements against huge odds.

Keywords: Racism, decoloniality, Exclusion, Govender, delinking, Cato Manor

Procedia PDF Downloads 1