Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

quorum sensing Related Abstracts

7 Quorum Quenching Activities of Bacteria Isolated from Red Sea Sediments

Authors: Zahid Rehman, TorOve Leiknes


Quorum sensing (QS) is the process by which bacteria communicate with each other through small signaling molecules, such as N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). Also, certain bacteria have the ability to degrade AHL molecules by a process referred to as quorum quenching (QQ); therefore, QQ can be used to control bacterial infections and biofilm formation. In this study, we aimed to identify new species of bacteria with QQ activities. To achieve this, sediments from Red Sea were collected either in the close vicinity of Sea grass or from area with no vegetation. From these samples, we isolated 72 bacterial strains and tested their ability to degrade/inactivate AHL molecules. Chromobacterium violaceum based bioassay was used in initial screening of isolates for QQ activity. The QQ activity of the positive isolates was further confirmed and quantified by employing liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. These analyses showed that isolated bacterial strain could degrade AHL molecules with different acyl chain length and modifications. Sequencing of 16S-rRNA genes of positive isolates revealed that they belong to three different genera. Specifically, two isolates belong to genus Erythrobacter, four to Labrenzia and one isolate belongs to Bacterioplanes. Time course experiment showed that isolate belonging to genus Erythrobacter could degrade AHLs faster than other isolates. Furthermore, these isolates were tested for their ability to inhibit formation of biofilm and degradation of 3OXO-C12 AHLs produced by P. aeruginosa PAO1. Our results showed that isolate VG12 is better at controlling biofilm formation. This aligns with the ability of VG12 to cause at least 10-fold reduction in the amount of different AHLs tested.

Keywords: Biofilm, quorum sensing, quorum quenching, anti-biofouling

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6 Immobilizing Quorum Sensing Inhibitors on Biomaterial Surfaces

Authors: Aditi Taunk, George Iskander, Kitty Ka Kit Ho, Mark Willcox, Naresh Kumar


Bacterial infections on biomaterial implants and medical devices accounts for 60-70% of all hospital acquired infections (HAIs). Treatment or removal of these infected devices results in high patient mortality and morbidity along with increased hospital expenses. In addition, with no effective strategies currently available and rapid development of antibacterial resistance has made device-related infections extremely difficult to treat. Therefore, in this project we have developed biomaterial surfaces using antibacterial compounds that inhibit biofilm formation by interfering with the bacterial communication mechanism known as quorum sensing (QS). This study focuses on covalent attachment of potent quorum sensing (QS) inhibiting compounds, halogenated furanones (FUs) and dihydropyrrol-2-ones (DHPs), onto glass surfaces. The FUs were attached by photoactivating the azide groups on the surface, and the acid functionalized DHPs were immobilized on amine surface via EDC/NHS coupling. The modified surfaces were tested in vitro against pathogenic organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Successful attachment of compounds on the substrates was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements. The antibacterial efficacy was assessed, and significant reduction in bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation was observed on the FU and DHP coated surfaces. The activity of the coating was dependent upon the type of substituent present on the phenyl group of the DHP compound. For example, the ortho-fluorophenyl DHP (DHP-2) exhibited 79% reduction in bacterial adhesion against S. aureus and para-fluorophenyl DHP (DHP-3) exhibited 70% reduction against P. aeruginosa. The results were found to be comparable to DHP coated surfaces prepared in earlier study via Michael addition reaction. FUs and DHPs were able to retain their in vitro antibacterial efficacy after covalent attachment via azide chemistry. This approach is a promising strategy to develop efficient antibacterial biomaterials to reduce device related infections.

Keywords: Surface functionalization, quorum sensing, antibacterial biomaterials, biomedical device-related infections

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5 Functional Switching of Serratia marcescens Transcriptional Regulator from Activator to Inhibitor of Quorum Sensing by Exogenous Addition

Authors: Norihiro Kato, Yuriko Takayama


Some gram-negative bacteria enable the simultaneous activation of gene expression involved in N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) dependent cell-to-cell communication system. Such regulatory system for the bacterial group behavior is termed as quorum sensing (QS) because a diffusible AHL signal can accumulate around the cell during the increase of the cell density and trigger activation of the sequential QS process. By blocking the QS, the expression of diverse genes related to infection, antibiotic production, and biofilm formation is inhibited. Conditioning of QS by regulation of the DNA-receptor-AHL interaction is a potential target for enhancing host defenses against pathogenicity. We focused on engineered application of transcriptional regulator SpnR produced in opportunistic human pathogen Serratia marcescens. The SpnR can interact with AHL signals at an N-terminal domain and also with a promoter region of a QS target gene at a C-terminal domain. As the initial process of the QS activation, the SpnR forms a complex with the AHL to enhance the expression of pig cluster; the SpnR normally acts as an activator for the expression of the QS-dependent gene. In this research, we attempt to artificially control QS by changing the role of SpnR. The QS-dependent prodigiosin production is expected to inhibit by externally added SpnR in the culture broth of AS-1 strain because the AHL concentration was kept below the threshold by AHL-SpnR complex formation. Maltose-binding protein (MBP)-tagged SpnR (MBP-SpnR) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified using an affinity chromatography equipped with an amylose resin column. The specific interaction between AHL and MBP-SpnR was demonstrated by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor. AHL with amino end-group was coupled with COOH-terminated self-assembled monolayer prepared on a gold electrode of 27-MHz quartz crystal sensor using water-soluble carbodiimide. After the injection of MBP-SpnR into a cup-type sensor cell filled with the buffer solution, time course of resonant frequency change (ΔFs) was determined. A decrease of ΔFs clearly showed the uptake of MBP-SpnR onto the AHL-immobilized electrode. Furthermore, no binding affinity was observed after the heat-inactivation of MBP-SpnR at 80ºC. These results suggest that MBP-SpnR possesses a specific affinity for AHL. MBP-SpnR was added to the culture medium as an AHL trap to study inhibitory effects on intracellularly accumulated prodigiosin. With approximately 2 µM MBP-SpnR, the amount of prodigiosin induced was half that of the control without any additives. In conclusion, the function of SpnR could be switched by adding it to the cell culture. Exogenously added MBP-SpnR possesses high affinity for AHL derived from cells and acts as an inhibitor of AHL-mediated QS.

Keywords: Microbial Biotechnology, Intracellular Signaling, quorum sensing, transcriptional regulator

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4 Engineered Control of Bacterial Cell-to-Cell Signaling Using Cyclodextrin

Authors: Yuriko Takayama, Norihiro Kato


Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-to-cell communication system in bacteria to regulate expression of target genes. In gram-negative bacteria, activation on QS is controlled by a concentration increase of N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL), which can diffuse in and out of the cell. Effective control of QS is expected to avoid virulence factor production in infectious pathogens, biofilm formation, and antibiotic production because various cell functions in gram-negative bacteria are controlled by AHL-mediated QS. In this research, we applied cyclodextrins (CDs) as artificial hosts for the AHL signal to reduce the AHL concentration in the culture broth below its threshold for QS activation. The AHL-receptor complex induced under the high AHL concentration activates transcription of the QS-target gene. Accordingly, artificial reduction of the AHL concentration is one of the effective strategies to inhibit the QS. A hydrophobic cavity of the CD can interact with the acyl-chain of the AHL due to hydrophobic interaction in aqueous media. We studied N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (C6HSL)-mediated QS in Serratia marcescens; accumulation of C6HSL is responsible for regulation of the expression of pig cluster. Inhibitory effects of added CDs on QS were demonstrated by determination of prodigiosin amount inside cells after reaching stationary phase, because production of prodigiosin depends on the C6HSL-mediated QS. By adding approximately 6 wt% hydroxypropyl-β-CD (HP-β-CD) in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium prior to inoculation of S. maecescens AS-1, the intracellularly accumulated prodigiosin was drastically reduced to 7-10%, which was determined after the extraction of prodigiosin in acidified ethanol. The AHL retention ability of HP-β-CD was also demonstrated by Chromobacterium violacuem CV026 bioassay. The CV026 strain is an AHL-synthase defective mutant that activates QS solely by adding AHLs from outside of cells. A purple pigment violacein is induced by activation of the AHL-mediated QS. We demonstrated that the violacein production was effectively suppressed when the C6HSL standard solution was spotted on a LB agar plate dispersing CV026 cells and HP-β-CD. Physico-chemical analysis was performed to study the affinity between the immobilized CD and added C6HSL using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor. The COOH-terminated self-assembled monolayer was prepared on a gold electrode of 27-MHz AT-cut quartz crystal. Mono(6-deoxy-6-N, N-diethylamino)-β-CD was immobilized on the electrode using water-soluble carbodiimide. The C6HSL interaction with the β-CD cavity was studied by injecting the C6HSL solution to a cup-type sensor cell filled with buffer solution. A decrement of resonant frequency (ΔFs) clearly showed the effective C6HSL complexation with immobilized β-CD and its stability constant for MBP-SpnR-C6HSL complex was on the order of 102 M-1. The CD has high potential for engineered control of QS because it is safe for human use.

Keywords: Intracellular Signaling, quorum sensing, cyclodextrin, acylhomoserine lactone

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3 Molecular Implication of Interaction of Human Enteric Pathogens with Phylloplane of Tomato

Authors: Shilpi, Indu Gaur, Neha Bhadauria, Susmita Goswami, Prabir K. Paul


Cultivation and consumption of organically grown fruits and vegetables have increased by several folds. However, the presence of Human Enteric Pathogens on the surface of organically grown vegetables causing Gastro-intestinal diseases, are most likely due to contaminated water and fecal matter of farm animals. Human Enteric Pathogens are adapted to colonize the human gut, and also colonize plant surface. Microbes on plant surface communicate with each other to establish quorum sensing. The cross talk study is important because the enteric pathogens on phylloplane have been reported to mask the beneficial resident bacteria of plant. In the present study, HEPs and bacterial colonizers were identified using 16s rRNA sequencing. Microbial colonization patterns after interaction between Human Enteric Pathogens and natural bacterial residents on tomato phylloplane was studied. Tomato plants raised under aseptic conditions were inoculated with a mixture of Serratia fonticola and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The molecules involved in cross-talk between Human Enteric Pathogens and regular bacterial colonizers were isolated and identified using molecular techniques and HPLC. The colonization pattern was studied by leaf imprint method after 48 hours of incubation. The associated protein-protein interaction in the host cytoplasm was studied by use of crosslinkers. From treated leaves the crosstalk molecules and interaction proteins were separated on 1D SDS-PAGE and analyzed by MALDI-TOF-TOF analysis. The study is critical in understanding the molecular aspects of HEP’s adaption to phylloplane. The study revealed human enteric pathogens aggressively interact among themselves and resident bacteria. HEPs induced establishment of a signaling cascade through protein-protein interaction in the host cytoplasm. The study revealed that the adaptation of Human Enteric Pathogens on phylloplane of Solanum lycopersicum involves the establishment of complex molecular interaction between the microbe and the host including microbe-microbe interaction leading to an establishment of quorum sensing. The outcome will help in minimizing the HEP load on fresh farm produce, thereby curtailing incidences of food-borne diseases.

Keywords: quorum sensing, crosslinkers, human enteric pathogens (HEPs), phylloplane

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2 Molecular Basis of Anti-Biofilm and Anti-Adherence Activity of Syzygium aromaticum on Streptococcus mutans: In Vitro and in Vivo Study

Authors: Mohd Adil, Rosina Khan, Asad U. Khan, Vasantha Rupasinghe HP


The study examined the effects of Syzygium aromaticum extracts on the virulence properties of Streptococcus mutans. The activity of glucosyltransferases in the presence of crude and diethylether fraction was reduced to 80% at concentration 78.12μg/ml and 39.06μg/ml respectively. The glycolytic pH drop by S. mutans cells was also disrupted by these extracts without affecting the bacterial viability. Microscopic analysis revealed morphological changes of the S. mutans biofilms, indicating that these plant extracts at sub-MICs could significantly affect the ability of S. mutans to form biofilm with distorted extracellular matrix. Furthermore, with the help of quantitative RT-PCR, the expression of different genes involved in adherence, quorum sensing, in the presence of these extracts were down regulated. The crude and active fractions were found effective in preventing caries development in rats. The data showed that S. aromaticum holds promise as a naturally occurring source of compounds that may prevent biofilm-related oral diseases.

Keywords: Biofilm, Streptococcus mutans, quorum sensing, Syzygium aromaticum extract

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1 Utilizing the RhlR/RhlI Quorum Sensing System to Express the ß-Galactosidase Reporter Gene by Using the N-Butanoyl Homoserine Lactone and N-Hexanoyl Homoserine Lactone

Authors: Ngoc Tu Truong, Nuong T. Bui, Ben Rao, Ya L. Shen


Quorum sensing is a phenomenon present in many gram-negative bacteria that allows bacterial communication and controlled expression of a large suite of genes through quorum sensing signals - N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). In order to investigate the ability of the rhlR/rhlI quorum sensing system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa to express the ß-Galactosidase reporter gene, an engineered E. coli strain EpHL02, was genetically engineered. This engineered E. coli strain EpHL02 responded to the presence of the N-butanoyl homoserine lactone and N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone to express the ß-Galactosidase reporter gene at a concentration limit of 5x10⁻⁸ M. This was also found to be comparable to AHLs extraction from Serratia marcescens H31. Moreover, we examined this ability of this engineered E. coli strain for respond of AHLs from extractions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC9027. The results demonstrated that the rhlR/rhlI quorum sensing system can express the ß-Galactosidase reporter gene by using the N-butanoyl homoserine lactone, N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone and AHLs from extractions of Serratia marcescens H31 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC9027 in the engineered E. coli strain EpHL02.

Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, quorum sensing, Serratia marcescens, N-butanoyl homoserine lactone, C4-HSL, N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone, C6-HSL, ß-galactosidase reporter gene

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