Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

quenching Related Abstracts

8 Effect of Jet Diameter on Surface Quenching at Different Spatial Locations

Authors: R. Kumar, B. Chatterjee, C. Agrawal, A. Gupta

Abstract:

An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the cooling of a hot horizontal Stainless Steel surface of 3 mm thickness, which has 800±10 °C initial temperature. A round water jet of 22 ± 1 °C temperature was injected over the hot surface through straight tube type nozzles of 2.5-4.8 mm diameter and 250 mm length. The experiments were performed for the jet exit to target surface spacing of 4 times of jet diameter and jet Reynolds number of 5000-24000. The effect of change in jet Reynolds number on the surface quenching has been investigated form the stagnation point to 16 mm spatial location.

Keywords: quenching, hot-surface, jet impingement, stagnation point

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7 Study on the Changes in Material Strength According to Changes in Forming Methods in Hot-Stamping Process

Authors: Yong-Jun Jeon, Hyung-Pil Park, Min-Jae Song, Baeg-Soon Cha

Abstract:

Following the recent trend of having increased demand in producing lighter-weight car bodies for improvement of automobile safety and gas mileage, there is a forming method that makes use of hot-stamping technique, which satisfies all conditions mentioned above. Hot-stamping is a forming technique with advantages of excellent formability, good dimensional precision and others since it is a process in which steel plates are heated up to temperatures of at least approximately 900°C after which forming is conducted in die at room temperature followed by rapid cooling. In addition, it has characteristics of allowing for improvement in material strength through achievement of quenching effect by having simultaneous forming and rapid cooling of material of high temperatures. However, there is insufficient information on the changes in material strength according to changes in material temperature with regards to material heating method and forming process in hot-stamping. Accordingly, this study aims to design and press die for T-type product of the scale models of the center pillar and to understand the changes in material strength in relation to changes in forming methods of hot-stamping process. Thus in order to understand the changes in material strength due to quenching effect among the hot-stamping process, material strength and material forming precision were to be studied while varying the forming and forming method when forming. For test methods, material strength was observed by using boron steel that has boron additives, which was heated up to 950°C, after which it was transferred to a die and was cooled down to material temperature of 400°C followed by air cooling process. During the forming and cooling process here, experiment was conducted with forming parameters of 2 holding rates and 3 flange heating rates wherein changing appearance in material strength according to changes forming method were observed by verifying forming strength and forming precision for each of the conditions.

Keywords: Forming, quenching, formability, hot-stamping, press die, forming methods

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6 The Effect of Type of Nanoparticles on the Quenching Process

Authors: Abdurrahim Bolukbasi, Dogan Ciloglu, Harun Cifci

Abstract:

In this study, the experiments were carried out to determine the best coolant for the quenching process among water-based silica, alumina, titania and copper oxide nanofluids (0.1 vol%). A sphere made up off brass material was used in the experiments. After the spherical test specimen was heated at high temperatures, it was suddenly plunged into the nanofluid suspensions. All experiments were performed at saturated conditions and under atmospheric pressure. Using the temperature-time data of the specimen, the cooling curves were obtained. The experimental results showed that the cooling performance of test specimen depended on the type of nanofluids. The silica nanoparticles enhanced the performance of boiling heat transfer and it is the best coolant for the quenching among other nanoparticles.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Nanofluid, quenching, pool boiling

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5 Thermo-Mechanical Processing of Armor Steel Plates

Authors: Eman El-Shenawy, Maha El-Meligy, Taher El-Bitar, Almosilhy Almosilhy, Nader Dawood

Abstract:

The steel contains 0.3% C and 0.004% B, beside Mn, Cr, Mo, and Ni. The alloy was processed by using 20-ton capacity electric arc furnace (EAF), and then refined by ladle furnace (LF). Liquid steel was cast as rectangular ingots. Dilatation test showed the critical transformation temperatures Ac1, Ac3, Ms and Mf as 716, 835, 356, and 218 °C. The ingots were austenitized and soaked and then rough rolled to thin slabs with 80 mm thickness. The thin slabs were then reheated and soaked for finish rolling to 6.0 mm thickness plates. During the rough rolling, the roll force increases as a result of rolling at temperatures less than recrystallization temperature. However, during finish rolling, the steel reflects initially continuous static recrystallization after which it shows strain hardening due to fall of temperature. It was concluded that, the steel plates were successfully heat treated by quenching-tempering at 250 ºC for 20 min.

Keywords: quenching, martensite, tempering, armor steel, austenitizing, critical transformation temperatures (CTTs), dilatation curve, rough and finish rolling processes, soaking, thermo-mechanical processing

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4 The Mitigation Strategy Analysis of Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant Spent Fuel Pool Using MELCOR2.1/SNAP

Authors: J. R. Wang, C. Shih, Y. Chiang, S. W. Chen, Y. S. Tseng, J. H. Yang

Abstract:

Kuosheng nuclear power plant (NPP) is a BWR/6 plant in Taiwan. There is more concern for the safety of Spent Fuel Pools (SFPs) in Taiwan after Fukushima event. In order to estimate the safety of Kuosheng NPP SFP, by using MELCOR2.1 and SNAP, the safety analysis of Kuosheng NPP SFP was performed combined with the mitigation strategy of NEI 06-12 report. There were several steps in this research. First, the Kuosheng NPP SFP models were established by MELCOR2.1/SNAP. Second, the Station Blackout (SBO) analysis of Kuosheng SFP was done by TRACE and MELCOR under the cooling system failure condition. The results showed that the calculations of MELCOR and TRACE were very similar in this case. Second, the mitigation strategy analysis was done with the MELCOR model by following the NEI 06-12 report. The results showed the effectiveness of NEI 06-12 strategy in Kuosheng NPP SFP. Finally, a sensitivity study of SFP quenching was done to check the differences of different water injection time and the phenomena during the quenching. The results showed that if the cladding temperature was over 1600 K, the water injection may have chance to cause the accident more severe with more hydrogen generation. It was because of the oxidation heat and the “Breakaway” effect of the zirconium-water reaction. An animation model built by SNAP was also shown in this study.

Keywords: quenching, spent fuel pool, SNAP, MELCOR

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3 MAS Capped CdTe/ZnS Core/Shell Quantum Dot Based Sensor for Detection of Hg(II)

Authors: Dilip Saikia, Suparna Bhattacharjee, Nirab Adhikary

Abstract:

In this piece of work, we have presented the synthesis and characterization of CdTe/ZnS core/shell (CS) quantum dots (QD). CS QDs are used as a fluorescence probe to design a simple cost-effective and ultrasensitive sensor for the detection of toxic Hg(II) in an aqueous medium. Mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) has been used as a capping agent for the synthesis CdTe/ZnS CS QD. Photoluminescence quenching mechanism has been used in the detection experiment of Hg(II). The designed sensing technique shows a remarkably low detection limit of about 1 picomolar (pM). Here, the CS QDs are synthesized by a simple one-pot aqueous method. The synthesized CS QDs are characterized by using advanced diagnostics tools such as UV-vis, Photoluminescence, XRD, FTIR, TEM and Zeta potential analysis. The interaction between CS QDs and the Hg(II) ions results in the quenching of photoluminescence (PL) intensity of QDs, via the mechanism of excited state electron transfer. The proposed mechanism is explained using cyclic voltammetry and zeta potential analysis. The designed sensor is found to be highly selective towards Hg (II) ions. The analysis of the real samples such as drinking water and tap water has been carried out and the CS QDs show remarkably good results. Using this simple sensing method we have designed a prototype low-cost electronic device for the detection of Hg(II) in an aqueous medium. The findings of the experimental results of the designed sensor is crosschecked by using AAS analysis.

Keywords: Quantum Dots, Sensor, quenching, Photoluminescence

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2 Fluorescence Quenching as an Efficient Tool for Sensing Application: Study on the Fluorescence Quenching of Naphthalimide Dye by Graphene Oxide

Authors: Shohre Rouhani, Sanaz Seraj

Abstract:

Recently, graphene has gained much attention because of its unique optical, mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. Graphene has been used as a key material in the technological applications in various areas such as sensors, drug delivery, super capacitors, transparent conductor, and solar cell. It has a superior quenching efficiency for various fluorophores. Based on these unique properties, the optical sensors with graphene materials as the energy acceptors have demonstrated great success in recent years. During quenching, the emission of a fluorophore is perturbed by a quencher which can be a substrate or biomolecule, and due to this phenomenon, fluorophore-quencher has been used for selective detection of target molecules. Among fluorescence dyes, 1,8-naphthalimide is well known for its typical intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and photo-induced charge transfer (PET) fluorophore, strong absorption and emission in the visible region, high photo stability, and large Stokes shift. Derivatives of 1,8-naphthalimides have found applications in some areas, especially fluorescence sensors. Herein, the fluorescence quenching of graphene oxide has been carried out on a naphthalimide dye as a fluorescent probe model. The quenching ability of graphene oxide on naphthalimide dye was studied by UV-VIS and fluorescence spectroscopy. This study showed that graphene is an efficient quencher for fluorescent dyes. Therefore, it can be used as a suitable candidate sensing platform. To the best of our knowledge, studies on the quenching and absorption of naphthalimide dyes by graphene oxide are rare.

Keywords: Fluorescence, quenching, Graphene Oxide, naphthalimide dye

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1 Influence of Structured Capillary-Porous Coatings on Cryogenic Quenching Efficiency

Authors: Irina P. Starodubtseva, Aleksandr N. Pavlenko

Abstract:

Quenching is a term generally accepted for the process of rapid cooling of a solid that is overheated above the thermodynamic limit of the liquid superheat. The main objective of many previous studies on quenching is to find a way to reduce the total time of the transient process. Computational experiments were performed to simulate quenching by a falling liquid nitrogen film of an extremely overheated vertical copper plate with a structured capillary-porous coating. The coating was produced by directed plasma spraying. Due to the complexities in physical pattern of quenching from chaotic processes to phase transition, the mechanism of heat transfer during quenching is still not sufficiently understood. To our best knowledge, no information exists on when and how the first stable liquid-solid contact occurs and how the local contact area begins to expand. Here we have more models and hypotheses than authentically established facts. The peculiarities of the quench front dynamics and heat transfer in the transient process are studied. The created numerical model determines the quench front velocity and the temperature fields in the heater, varying in space and time. The dynamic pattern of the running quench front obtained numerically satisfactorily correlates with the pattern observed in experiments. Capillary-porous coatings with straight and reverse orientation of crests are investigated. The results show that the cooling rate is influenced by thermal properties of the coating as well as the structure and geometry of the protrusions. The presence of capillary-porous coating significantly affects the dynamics of quenching and reduces the total quenching time more than threefold. This effect is due to the fact that the initialization of a quench front on a plate with a capillary-porous coating occurs at a temperature significantly higher than the thermodynamic limit of the liquid superheat, when a stable solid-liquid contact is thermodynamically impossible. Waves present on the liquid-vapor interface and protrusions on the complex micro-structured surface cause destabilization of the vapor film and the appearance of local liquid-solid micro-contacts even though the average integral surface temperature is much higher than the liquid superheat limit. The reliability of the results is confirmed by direct comparison with experimental data on the quench front velocity, the quench front geometry, and the surface temperature change over time. Knowledge of the quench front velocity and total time of transition process is required for solving practically important problems of nuclear reactors safety.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Numerical Simulation, quenching, capillary-porous coating, Leidenfrost phenomenon

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