Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Quantum Dot Related Abstracts

5 Rashba Spin Orbit Interaction Effect on Multiphoton Optical Transitions in a Quantum Dot for Bioimaging

Authors: Manoj Kumar, Pradip Kumar Jha


We demonstrate in this work the effect of Rashba spin orbit interaction on multiphoton optical transitions of a quantum dot in the presence of THz laser field and external static magnetic field. This combination is solved by accurate non-perturbative Floquet theory. Investigations are made for the optical response of intraband transition between the various states of the conduction band with spin flipping. Enhancement and power broadening observed for excited states probabilities with increase of external fields are directly linked to the emission spectra of QD and will be useful for making future bioimaging devices.

Keywords: Bioimaging, Quantum Dot, multiphoton processes, spin orbit interaction

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4 Anomalous Behaviors of Visible Luminescence from Graphene Quantum Dots

Authors: Hyunho Shin, Jaekwang Jung, Jeongho Park, Sungwon Hwang


For the application of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to optoelectronic nanodevices, it is of critical importance to understand the mechanisms which result in novel phenomena of their light absorption/emission. The optical transitions are known to be available up to ~6 eV in GQDs, especially useful for ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PDs). Here, we present size-dependent shape/edge-state variations of GQDs and visible photoluminescence (PL) showing anomalous size dependencies. With varying the average size (da) of GQDs from 5 to 35 nm, the peak energy of the absorption spectra monotonically decreases, while that of the visible PL spectra unusually shows nonmonotonic behaviors having a minimum at diameter ∼17 nm. The PL behaviors can be attributed to the novel feature of GQDs, that is, the circular-to-polygonal-shape and corresponding edge-state variations of GQDs at diameter ∼17 nm as the GQD size increases, as demonstrated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. We believe that such a comprehensive scheme in designing device architecture and the structural formulation of GQDs provides a device for practical realization of environmentally benign, high performance flexible devices in the future.

Keywords: Graphene, Quantum Dot, Photoluminescence, size

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3 Resonant Fluorescence in a Two-Level Atom and the Terahertz Gap

Authors: Nikolai N. Bogolubov, Andrey V. Soldatov


Terahertz radiation occupies a range of frequencies somewhere from 100 GHz to approximately 10 THz, just between microwaves and infrared waves. This range of frequencies holds promise for many useful applications in experimental applied physics and technology. At the same time, reliable, simple techniques for generation, amplification, and modulation of electromagnetic radiation in this range are far from been developed enough to meet the requirements of its practical usage, especially in comparison to the level of technological abilities already achieved for other domains of the electromagnetic spectrum. This situation of relative underdevelopment of this potentially very important range of electromagnetic spectrum is known under the name of the 'terahertz gap.' Among other things, technological progress in the terahertz area has been impeded by the lack of compact, low energy consumption, easily controlled and continuously radiating terahertz radiation sources. Therefore, development of new techniques serving this purpose as well as various devices based on them is of obvious necessity. No doubt, it would be highly advantageous to employ the simplest of suitable physical systems as major critical components in these techniques and devices. The purpose of the present research was to show by means of conventional methods of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics and the theory of open quantum systems, that a thoroughly studied two-level quantum system, also known as an one-electron two-level 'atom', being driven by external classical monochromatic high-frequency (e.g. laser) field, can radiate continuously at much lower (e.g. terahertz) frequency in the fluorescent regime if the transition dipole moment operator of this 'atom' possesses permanent non-equal diagonal matrix elements. This assumption contradicts conventional assumption routinely made in quantum optics that only the non-diagonal matrix elements persist. The conventional assumption is pertinent to natural atoms and molecules and stems from the property of spatial inversion symmetry of their eigenstates. At the same time, such an assumption is justified no more in regard to artificially manufactured quantum systems of reduced dimensionality, such as, for example, quantum dots, which are often nicknamed 'artificial atoms' due to striking similarity of their optical properties to those ones of the real atoms. Possible ways to experimental observation and practical implementation of the predicted effect are discussed too.

Keywords: Quantum Dot, terahertz gap, two-level atom, resonant fluorescence

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2 Ultrastrong Coupling of CdZnS/ZnS Quantum Dots and Breathing Plasmons in Aluminum Metal-Insulator-Metal Nanocavities in Near-Ultraviolet Spectrum

Authors: Li Li, Lei Wang, Chenglin Du, Mengxin Ren, Xinzheng Zhang, Wei Cai, Jingjun Xu


Strong coupling between excitons of quantum dots and plasmons in nanocavites can be realized at room temperature due to the strong confinement of the plasmon fields, which offers building blocks for quantum information systems or ultralow-power switches and lasers. In this work, by using cathodoluminescence, ultrastrong coupling with Rabi splitting above 1 eV between breathing plasmons in Aluminum metal-insulator-metal (MIM) cavity and excited state of CdZnS/ZnS quantum dots was reported in near-UV spectrum. Analytic analysis and full-wave electromagnetic simulations provide the evidence for the strong coupling and confirm the hybridization of the QDs exciton and LSP breathing mode. This study opens the way for new emerging applications based on strongly coupled light-matter states all over the visible region down to ultra-violet frequencies.

Keywords: Plasmonics, Ultraviolet, Quantum Dot, breathing mode, strong coupling

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1 A Low-Cost Memristor Based on Hybrid Structures of Metal-Oxide Quantum Dots and Thin Films

Authors: Amir Shariffar, Haider Salman, Tanveer Siddique, Omar Manasreh


According to the recent studies on metal-oxide memristors, researchers tend to improve the stability, endurance, and uniformity of resistive switching (RS) behavior in memristors. Specifically, the main challenge is to prevent abrupt ruptures in the memristor’s filament during the RS process. To address this problem, we are proposing a low-cost hybrid structure of metal oxide quantum dots (QDs) and thin films to control the formation of filaments in memristors. We aim to use metal oxide quantum dots because of their unique electronic properties and quantum confinement, which may improve the resistive switching behavior. QDs have discrete energy spectra due to electron confinement in three-dimensional space. Because of Coulomb repulsion between electrons, only a few free electrons are contained in a quantum dot. This fact might guide the growth direction for the conducting filaments in the metal oxide memristor. As a result, it is expected that QDs can improve the endurance and uniformity of RS behavior in memristors. Moreover, we use a hybrid structure of intrinsic n-type quantum dots and p-type thin films to introduce a potential barrier at the junction that can smooth the transition between high and low resistance states. A bottom-up approach is used for fabricating the proposed memristor using different types of metal-oxide QDs and thin films. We synthesize QDs including, zinc oxide, molybdenum trioxide, and nickel oxide combined with spin-coated thin films of titanium dioxide, copper oxide, and hafnium dioxide. We employ fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass as the substrate for deposition and bottom electrode. Then, the active layer composed of one type of quantum dots, and the opposite type of thin films is spin-coated onto the FTO. Lastly, circular gold electrodes are deposited with a shadow mask by using electron-beam (e-beam) evaporation at room temperature. The fabricated devices are characterized using a probe station with a semiconductor parameter analyzer. The current-voltage (I-V) characterization is analyzed for each device to determine the conduction mechanism. We evaluate the memristor’s performance in terms of stability, endurance, and retention time to identify the optimal memristive structure. Finally, we assess the proposed hypothesis before we proceed to the optimization process for fabricating the memristor.

Keywords: Quantum Dot, thin film, memristor, resistive switching

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