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quantum chemical calculations Related Abstracts

2 Quantum Chemical Calculations on Molecular Structure, Spectroscopy and Non-Linear Optical Properties of Some Chalcone Derivatives

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Archana Gupta

Abstract:

The chemistry of chalcones has generated intensive scientific studies throughout the world. Especially, interest has been focused on the synthesis and biodynamic activities of chalcones. The blue light transmittance, excellent crystallizability and the two planar rings connected through a conjugated double bond show that chalcone derivatives are superior nonlinear organic compounds. 3-(2-Chloro-6-fluoro¬phen¬yl)-1-(2-thien¬yl) prop-2-en-1-one, 3-(2, 4- Dichlorophenyl) – 1 - (4-methylphenyl) – prop -2-en-1-one, (2E)-3-[4-(methylsulfanyl) phenyl]-1-(4-nitrophenyl) prop-2-en-1-one are some chalcone derivatives exhibiting non linear optical (NLO) properties. NLO materials have been extensively investigated in recent years as they are the key elements for photonic technologies of optical communication, optical interconnect oscillator, amplifier, frequency converter etc. Due to their high molecular hyperpolarizabilities, organic materials display a number of significant NLO properties. Experimental measurements and theoretical calculations on molecular hyperpolarizability β have become one of the key factors in the design of second order NLO materials. Theoretical determination of hyperpolarizability is quite useful both in understanding the relationship between the molecular structure and NLO properties. It also provides a guideline to experimentalists for the design and synthesis of organic NLO materials. Quantum-chemical calculations have made an important contribution to the understanding of the electronic polarization underlying the molecular NLO processes and the establishment of structure–property relationships. In the present investigation, the detailed vibrational analysis of some chalcone derivatives is taken up to understand the correlation of the charge transfer interaction and the NLO activity of the molecules based on density functional theory calculations. The vibrational modes contributing toward the NLO activity have been identified and analyzed. Rather large hyperpolarizability derived by theoretical calculations suggests the possible future use of these compounds for non-linear optical applications. The study suggests the importance of π - conjugated systems for non-linear optical properties and the possibility of charge transfer interactions. We hope that the results of the present study of chalcone derivatives are of assistance in development of new efficient materials for technological applications.

Keywords: Molecular Structure, hyperpolarizability, NLO material, quantum chemical calculations

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1 Transition Metal Bis(Dicarbollide) Complexes in Design of Molecular Switches

Authors: Igor B. Sivaev

Abstract:

Design of molecular machines is an extraordinary growing and very important area of research that it was recognized by awarding Sauvage, Stoddart and Feringa the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2016 'for the design and synthesis of molecular machines'. Based on the type of motion being performed, molecular machines can be divided into two main types: molecular motors and molecular switches. Molecular switches are molecules or supramolecular complexes having bistability, i.e., the ability to exist in two or more stable forms, among which may be reversible transitions under external influence (heating, lighting, changing the medium acidity, the action of chemicals, exposure to magnetic or electric field). Molecular switches are the main structural element of any molecular electronics devices. Therefore, the design and the study of molecules and supramolecular systems capable of performing mechanical movement is an important and urgent problem of modern chemistry. There is growing interest in molecular switches and other devices of molecular electronics based on transition metal complexes; therefore choice of suitable stable organometallic unit is of great importance. An example of such unit is bis(dicarbollide) complexes of transition metals [3,3’-M(1,2-C₂B₉H₁₁)₂]ⁿ⁻. The control on the ligand rotation in such complexes can be reached by introducing substituents which could provide stabilization of certain rotamers due to specific interactions between the ligands, on the one hand, and which can participate as Lewis bases in complex formation with external metals resulting in a change in the rotation angle of the ligands, on the other hand. A series of isomeric methyl sulfide derivatives of cobalt bis(dicarbollide) complexes containing methyl sulfide substituents at boron atoms in different positions of the pentagonal face of the dicarbollide ligands [8,8’-(MeS)₂-3,3’-Co(1,2-C₂B₉H₁₀)₂]⁻, rac-[4,4’-(MeS)₂-3,3’-Co(1,2-C₂B₉H₁₀)₂]⁻ and meso-[4,7’-(MeS)₂-3,3’-Co(1,2-C₂B₉H₁₀)₂]⁻ were synthesized by the reaction of CoCl₂ with the corresponding methyl sulfide carborane derivatives [10-MeS-7,8-C₂B₉H₁₁)₂]⁻ and [10-MeS-7,8-C₂B₉H₁₁)₂]⁻. In the case of asymmetrically substituted cobalt bis(dicarbollide) complexes the corresponding rac- and meso-isomers were successfully separated by column chromatography as the tetrabutylammonium salts. The compounds obtained were studied by the methods of ¹H, ¹³C, and ¹¹B NMR spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, controlled potential coulometry and quantum chemical calculations. It was found that in the solid state, the transoid- and gauche-conformations of the 8,8’- and 4,4’-isomers are stabilized by four intramolecular CH···S(Me)B hydrogen bonds each one (2.683-2.712 Å and 2.709-2.752 Å, respectively), whereas gauche-conformation of the 4,7’-isomer is stabilized by two intramolecular CH···S hydrogen bonds (2.699-2.711 Å). The existence of the intramolecular CH·S(Me)B hydrogen bonding in solutions was supported by the 1H NMR spectroscopy. These data are in a good agreement with results of the quantum chemical calculations. The corresponding iron and nickel complexes were synthesized as well. The reaction of the methyl sulfide derivatives of cobalt bis(dicarbollide) with various labile transition metal complexes results in rupture of intramolecular hydrogen bonds and complexation of the methyl sulfide groups with external metal. This results in stabilization of other rotational conformation of cobalt bis(dicarbollide) and can be used in design of molecular switches. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (16-13-10331).

Keywords: NMR spectroscopy, Molecular Switches, quantum chemical calculations, single crystal X-ray diffraction, transition metal bis(dicarbollide) complexes

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