Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

qualitative study Related Abstracts

21 Positive Psychology Intervention for Dyslexia: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Chathurika Sewwandi Kannangara, Jerome Carson

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The objective of this research is to identify strengths among the individuals with dyslexia and design a positive psychology intervention to support such individuals. Dyslexia is a combination of abilities and difficulties that affect the learning process in areas as such reading, spelling and writing. It is a persistent condition. The research aims to adapt positive psychology techniques to support individuals with dyslexia. Population of the research will be undergraduate and college level students with dyslexia. First phase of the study will be conducted on a sample of undergraduate and college level students with dyslexia in Bolton, UK. The concept of treatment in positive psychology is not only to fix the component just what is wrong, instead it is also to develop and construct on what is right in the individual. The first phase of the research aims to identify the signature strengths among the individuals with dyslexia using Interviews, Descriptions on personal experiences on ‘My life with Dyslexia’, and Values in Action (VIA) strength survey. In order to conduct the survey for individuals with dyslexia, the VIA survey has been hosted in a website which is solely developed in the form of dyslexia friendly context. Dyslexia friendly website for surveys had designed and developed following the British Dyslexia Association guidelines. The findings of the first phase would be utilized for the second phase of the research to develop the positive psychology intervention.

Keywords: Positive Psychology, Dyslexia, learning difficulties, signature strengths, qualitative study

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20 Teenagers’ Decisions to Undergo Orthodontic Treatment: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Babak Nematshahrbabaki, Fallahi Arezoo

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Objective: The aim of this study was to describe teenagers’ decisions to undergo orthodontic treatment through a qualitative study. Materials and methods: Twenty-three patients (12 girls), aged 12–18 years, at a dental clinic in Sanandaj the western part of Iran participated. Face-to-face and semi-structured interviews and two focus group discussions were held to gather data. Data analyzed by the grounded theory method. Results: ‘Decision-making’ was the core category. During the data analysis four main themes were developed: ‘being like everyone else’, ‘being diagnosed’, ‘maintaining the mouth’ and ‘cultural-social and environmental factors’. Conclusions: cultural- social and environmental factors have crucial role in decision-making to undergo orthodontic treatment. The teenagers were not fully conscious of these external influences. They thought their decision to undergo orthodontic treatment is independent while it is related to cultural- social and environmental factors.

Keywords: Decision-making, orthodontic treatment, qualitative study, teenager

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19 Assessment of the Impact of Family Care Team in the District Health System of Regional Health, Thailand

Authors: Nithra Kitreerawutiwong, Sunsanee Mekrungrongwong, Artitaya Wongwonsin, Chakkraphan Phetphoom, Buaploy Phromjang

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Background: Thailand has implemented a district health system based on the concept of primary health care. Since 2014, Family Care Team (FCT) was launched to improve the quality of care through a multidisciplinary team include not only the health sector but also social sector work together. FCT classified into 3 levels: district, sub-district, and community. This system now consists of 66,353 teams, including 3,890 teams at district level, 12,237 teams at the sub-district level, and 50,326 teams at the community level. There is a report regarding assessment the situation and perception on FCT, however, relatively few examined the operationality of this policy. This study aimed to explore the perception of district manager on the process of the implementation of FCT policy and the factors associating to implement FCT in the district health system. Methods/Results: Forty in-depth interviews were performed: 5 of primary care manager at the provincial medical health office, 5 of community hospital director, 5 of district administrative health office, 10 of sub-district health promoting hospital, and 10 of local organization. Semi-structure interview guidelines were used in the discussions. The data was analyzed by thematic analysis. This policy was formulated based on the demographic change and epidemiology transition to serve a long term care for elderly. Facilitator factors are social capital in district health systems such as family health leader and multidisciplinary team. Barrier factors are communication to the frontline provider and local organization. The output of this policy in relation to the structure of FCT is well-defined. Unanticipated effects include training of FCT in community level. Conclusion: Early feedback from healthcare manager is valuable information for the improvement of FCT to function optimally. Moreover, in the long term, health outcome need to be evaluated.

Keywords: Primary Care, qualitative study, family care team, district health system

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18 Implementing Learner-Centered Teaching Approach In Iraqi Higher Education

Authors: Iman Ali Ahmed Al-Rashed

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This paper directs attention to the limitations of the teacher-centered strategy in teaching. The aim of this study is to draw more educational attention to learner-centered strategy in order to shift the emphasis from the traditional concept of teaching to a new concept in teaching. To begin bridging the traditional concept of teaching and the new concept, the study will explore the new concept of teaching to support teaching in Arab World generally and in Iraq specifically. A qualitative case study orientation was used to collect data in the form of classroom observations, interviews and field notes. The teaching practices used by three university instructors are investigated and according to the findings, some explanations and recommendations are made.

Keywords: Case study, qualitative study, traditional teaching, learner-centered strategy, teacher-centered strategy

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17 Steps towards Changing Students' Attitudes to Disability

Authors: Farzaneh Yazdani, Nastaran Yazdani, Laya Nobakht

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The aim of this study was to explore the changes that may happen in students attitudes regarding disability after attending the module ‘Disability: theories, nature and experiences’ designed around reflective self-awareness exercises. Literature indicates enhanced knowledge does not automatically lead to changes in attitude. Health care professionals are the most significant people to instil hope in their clients to pursue a happy life. As an advocate for people with disability, health care professionals need to believe themselves in people with disability being able to pursue a happy life as an abled body does. Researchers aimed to explore the impact of the ‘Disability’ module using discussion and reflective exercises, on students’ way of thinking and possible changes in attitude towards disability. Students were asked to write stories from the beginning and after completing the module. A thematic analysis was applied to identify the students’ way of communicating their thoughts and feelings about disable-bodied /disability before and after the module. Three major themes were identified to represent the differences before and after attending the module as: problem /solution oriented approach towards perceived problems, separating/ integrating disable/able-bodied, passive/ active role of disable-bodied and society.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, thematic analysis, qualitative study, reflection

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16 Combating Corruption to Enhance Learner Academic Achievement: A Qualitative Study of Zimbabwean Public Secondary Schools

Authors: Onesmus Nyaude

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The aim of the study was to investigate participants’ views on how corruption can be combated to enhance learner academic achievement. The study was undertaken on three select public secondary institutions in Zimbabwe. This study also focuses on exploring the various views of educators; parents and the learners on the role played by corruption in perpetuating the seemingly existing learner academic achievement disparities in various educational institutions. The study further interrogates and examines the nexus between the prevalence of corruption in schools and the subsequent influence on the academic achievement of learners. Corruption is considered a form of social injustice; hence in Zimbabwe, the general consensus is that it is perceived rife to the extent that it is overtaking the traditional factors that contributed to the poor academic achievement of learners. Coupled to this, have been the issue of gross abuse of power and some malpractices emanating from concealment of essential and official transactions in the conduct of business. Through proposing robust anti-corruption mechanisms, teaching and learning resources poured in schools would be put into good use. This would prevent the unlawful diversion and misappropriation of the resources in question which has always been the culture. This study is of paramount significance to curriculum planners, teachers, parents, and learners. The study was informed by the interpretive paradigm; thus qualitative research approaches were used. Both probability and non-probability sampling techniques were adopted in ‘site and participants’ selection. A representative sample of (150) participants was used. The study found that the majority of the participants perceived corruption as a social problem and a human right threat affecting the quality of teaching and learning processes in the education sector. It was established that corruption prevalence within institutions is as a result of the perpetual weakening of ethical values and other variables linked to upholding of ‘Ubuntu’ among general citizenry. It was further established that greediness and weak systems are major causes of rampant corruption within institutions of higher learning and are manifesting through abuse of power, bribery, misappropriation and embezzlement of material and financial resources. Therefore, there is great need to collectively address the problem of corruption in educational institutions and society at large. The study additionally concludes that successful combating of corruption will promote successful moral development of students as well as safeguarding their human rights entitlements. The study recommends the adoption of principles of good corporate governance within educational institutions in order to successfully curb corruption. The study further recommends the intensification of interventionist strategies and strengthening of systems in educational institutions as well as regular audits to overcome the problem associated with rampant corruption cases.

Keywords: Corruption, Academic Achievement, good corporate governance, qualitative study, combating

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15 Perceptions and Attitudes toward Pain in Patients with Chronic Low-Back Pain

Authors: Naomi Sato, Tomonori Sato, Kenji Masui, Rob Stanborough

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To date, there are few studies on the subjective experiences of patients with chronic low-back pain (CLBP). The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of CLBP patients’ perceptions and attitudes regarding pain. Individual, semi-constructed interviews were conducted with 7 Japanese and 10 Americans who had been diagnosed with CLBP. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed based on a content analysis approach. The study proposal was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the first author’s affiliate university. All participants provided written consent. Participants’ ages ranged from 48 to 82. Five main categories were emerged, namely, 'There are no reasons for long-term chronic pain,' 'Just will not worsen,' 'Have something to help me cope,' 'Pain restricts my life,' and 'Have something to relieve me.' Participants lived with CLBP, which could sometimes be avoided as a result of the coping strategies that they employed, and due to which they sometimes felt helpless, despite their efforts. As a result, they had mixed feelings, which included resignation, resoluteness, and optimism. However, their perceptions and attitudes toward pain seemed to differ based on their backgrounds, including biological, social, religious, and cultural status. There is a need for the development of a scale in future studies, to enable quantitative measurement of individuals’ perceptions of and attitudes toward pain. There is also a need for an investigation of factors influencing perceptions and attitudes toward pain.

Keywords: Perception, attitude, qualitative study, chronic low-back pain

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14 The Uptake of Reproductive Maternal Newborn and Child Healthcare in Gonji Kolela, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: A Qualitative Exploration of What Is on the Ground and What Could Be Helpful

Authors: Fei Yan, Yan Ding, Ji Liang, Hong Jiang, Xiaoguang Yang, Xu Qian

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The health status of GonjiKolela District, Amhara Region, Ethiopia is below its national average, and a sub-project of China UK Global Health Support Programme (GHSP) is expected to increase the uptake of a suite of reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH) interventions there. To explore what is on the ground and what could be helpful for the uptake of RMNCH services in GonjiKolela, a qualitative study was performed as part of the baseline assessment before the implementation of the project. Nine key informants from GonjiKolela were interviewed with self-designed interview guides and they were from the district Health Office, health centers, health posts, women health development army (community volunteer groups), mothers of newborns, and also a gynecologist from the maternal and child health center which is the referral center for pregnant women for this project. The interview were transcribed into words and sorted with qualitative analysis software MAXqda. Content analysis was mainly used to analyze the data. The district health office, the health centers and the health posts all had focal persons taking care of the management and provision of RMNCH services, and RMNCH related indicators were recorded and reported at each level routinely. In addition, district government and administration at community/administrative village level kept a close eye on the reduction of maternal, neonatal and child mortality. Women Health Development Amy at household level supported health workers at community/administrative village level (called health extension workers) in tracing, recording and reporting pregnant women, newborn and under-five children,organizing events for health education, demonstrating and leading health promotion activities, and stimulating the utilization of RMNCH.

Keywords: Ethiopia, qualitative study, Reproductive Maternal Newborn and Child Health, Health Care Utilization

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13 A Qualitative Study: Determination of the Working Conditions and Knowledge Levels of Oncology Nurses in Terms of Employee Safety

Authors: Ülkü Baykal, Rujnan Tuna

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The antineoplastic drugs used in cancer treatment directly have adverse effects on health of both patients receiving the treatment and oncology nurses preparing and administering the treatment. The purpose of this study is to determine the working conditions of the oncology nurses in terms of employee safety as well as their knowledge levels regarding the safe use of antineoplastic drugs. This is a qualitative study conducted in the phenomenological design. Purposeful sampling method was used to carry out the interviews. The individual, in-depth, and semi-structured face-to-face interviews continued with 25 oncology nurses, who were working in an oncology centre in the city of Istanbul. Qualitative content analysis approach was used for the analysis of the obtained data in the study. The results of the study were gathered under 4 main themes; work-related factors, employee safety, working conditions, and training. The interviewed oncology nurses stated that the protective measures related to the safe use of the antineoplastic drugs were insufficient, and only 20% of the nurses have chemotherapy preparation certificate and they received this certificate after they started working in this unit. Also, after they had begun to work in that unit, they started to experience with so many health problems As happens all over the world, there have also been policies and standards regarding the safe use of antineoplastic drugs in Turkey; however, it is found that they remain insufficient to put into practice.

Keywords: Oncology, nurse, qualitative study, antineoplastic drug, employee safety

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12 The Employer Brand as Perceived by Salespeople: A Study Based on Glassdoor Reviews

Authors: Juliet F. Poujol, Jeff John Tanner, Christophe Fournier

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Employers desire a favorable brand as an employer. This research considers whether motivation theory is applied to identify universally desirable employer brand elements. Based on data from a website where employees give their opinion about their employer (N=200), this research examines what salespeople found positive and negative about their job. Results show that traditional motivators like opportunities of advancement, and 'hygiene' factors such as benefits and work conditions are a source of satisfaction for salespeople. We also found differences by sectors. Implications are related to sales force recruitment and management.

Keywords: Motivation, qualitative study, salespeople, employer brand

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11 Drivers of the Performance of Members of a Social Incubator Considering the Values of Work: A Qualitative Study with Social Entrepreneurs

Authors: Leticia Lengler, Vania Estivalete, Vivian Flores Costa, Tais De Andrade, Lisiane Fellini Faller

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Social entrepreneurship has emerged and driven a new development perspective, and as the literature mentions, it is based on innovation, and mainly, on the creation of social value, rather than personal wealth and shareholders. In this field of study, one of the focuses of discussion refers to the distinct characteristics of the individuals responsible for socially directed initiatives, named as social entrepreneurs. To contribute to this perspective, the present study aims to identify the values related to work that guide the performance of social entrepreneurs, members of enterprises that have developed themselves within a social incubator at a federal institution of higher education in Brazil. Each person's value system is present in different facets of his life, manifesting himself in his choices and in the way he conducts the relationship with other people in society. Especially the values of work, the focus of this research, play a significant role in organizational studies, since they are considered one of the important guiding principles of the behavior of individuals in the work environment. Regarding the method of the study, a descriptive and qualitative research was carried out. In the data collection, 24 entrepreneurs, members of five different enterprises belonging to the social incubator, were interviewed. The research instrument consisted of three open questions, which could be answered with the support of a "disc of values", an artifact organized to clearly demonstrate the values of the work to the respondents. The analysis of the interviews took into account the categories defined a priori, based on the model proposed by previous authors who validated these constructs within their research contexts, contemplating the following dimensions: Self-determination and stimulation; Safety; Conformity; Universalism and benevolence; Achievement; and Power. It should be noted that, in order to provide a better understanding of the interviewees, in the "disc of values" used in the research, these dimensions were represented by the objectives that define them, being respectively: Challenge; Financial independence; Commitment; Welfare of others; Personal success; And Power. Some preliminary results show that, as guiding principles of the investigation, priority is given to work values related to Self-determination and stimulation, Conformity and Universalism and benevolence. Such findings point to the importance given by these individuals to independent thinking and acting, as well as to novelty and constant challenge. Still, they demonstrate the appreciation of commitment to their enterprise, the people who make it and the quality of their work. They also point to the relevance of the possibility of contributing to the greater social good, that is, of the search for the well-being of close people and of society, as it is implied in models of social entrepreneurship coming from literature. With a lower degree of priority, the values denominated Safety and Realization, as the financial question at work and the search for satisfaction and personal success, through the use of socially recognized skills were mentioned aspects with little emphasis by social entrepreneurs. The Power value was not considered as guiding principle of the work for the respondents.

Keywords: qualitative study, social entrepreneur, social incubator, values of work

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10 The Exploration of Persuasive Skills and Participants Characteristics in Pyramid-Sale: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Xing Yan Fan, Xing Lin Xu, Man Yuan Chen, Pei Tzu Lee, Yu Ting Wang, Yi Xiao Cao, Rui Yao

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Pyramid sales have been a widespread issue in China. Victims who are defrauded not only lose money but damage interpersonal relationship. A deeper understanding of pyramid-sale models can be beneficial to prevent potential victims from fraud and improve the property security. The goals of this study were to detect psychological characteristics of pyramid-sale sellers, and analyse persuasive skills in pyramid organizations. A qualitative study was conducted in this study. Participants (n=6) recruited by 'snowball' sampling from present pyramid-sale sellers (n=3) and imprisoned pyramid-sale sellers (n=3). All participants accepted semi-structured interview for collecting data. Content analysis was adopted for data coding and analysis. The results indicate that pyramid organizations are used to utilize their appearance packaging and celebrity effect to strengthen the positions in participants’ mind. The status gap between pyramid-sale sellers in same organization, as well as rewards to increase reputation, are used to motivate participants in pyramid. The most significant common characteristics among all participants are that they tend to possess a high sense of belongingness within the firm. Moreover, the expression of pyramid-sale sellers on gambling mentality is expected to growth as constantly losing money. Findings suggest that the psychological characteristics of pyramid-sale sellers in accordance with Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, persuasive skills of pyramid organization confront to 'attitude-behaviour change model'. These findings have implication on 'immune education' that providing guidance for victims out of stuck and protecting ordinary people from the jeopardizing of pyramid sales.

Keywords: Characteristics, qualitative study, pyramid sales, persuasive skills

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9 Assessment of the Situation and the Cause of Junk Food Consumption in Iranians: A Qualitative Study

Authors: A. Rezazadeh, M. Hajian, B Damari, S. Riazi-Esfahani

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The consumption of junk food in Iran is alarmingly increasing. This study aimed to investigate the influencing factors of junk food consumption and amendable interventions that are criticized and approved by stakeholders, in order to presented to health policy makers. The articles and documents related to the content of study were collected by using the appropriate key words such as junk food, carbonated beverage, chocolate, candy, sweets, industrial fruit juices, potato chips, French fries, puffed corn, cakes, biscuits, sandwiches, prepared foods and popsicles, ice cream, bar, chewing gum, pastilles and snack, in scholar.google.com, pubmed.com, eric.ed.gov, cochrane.org, magiran.com, medlib.ir, irandoc.ac.ir, who.int, iranmedex.com, sid.ir, pubmed.org and sciencedirect.com databases. The main key points were extracted and included in a checklist and qualitatively analyzed. Then a summarized abstract was prepared in a format of a questionnaire to be presented to stakeholders. The design of this was qualitative (Delphi). According to this method, a questionnaire was prepared based on reviewing the articles and documents and it was emailed to stakeholders, who were asked to prioritize and choose the main problems and effective interventions. After three rounds, consensus was obtained.            Studies revealed high consumption of junk foods in the Iranian population, especially in children and adolescents. The most important affecting factors include availability, low price, media advertisements, preference of fast foods taste, the variety of the packages and their attractiveness, low awareness and changing in lifestyle. Main interventions recommended by stakeholders include developing a protective environment, educational interventions, increasing healthy food access and controlling media advertisements and putting pressure from the Industry and Mining Ministry on producers to produce healthy snacks. According to the findings, the results of this study may be proposed to public health policymakers as an advocacy paper and to be integrated in the interventional programs of Health and Education ministries and the media. Also, implementation of supportive meetings with the producers of alternative healthy products is suggested.

Keywords: Iran, situation, qualitative study, junk foods

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8 Students and Teachers Perceptions about Interactive Learning in Teaching Health Promotion Course: Implication for Nursing Education and Practice

Authors: Ahlam Alnatour

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Background: To our knowledge, there is lack of studies that describe the experience of studying health promotion courses using an interactive approach, and compare students’ and teachers perceptions about this method of teaching. The purpose of this study is to provide a comparison between student and teacher experiences and perspectives in learning health promotion course using interactive learning. Design: A descriptive qualitative design was used to provide an in-depth description and understanding of students’ and teachers experiences and perceptions of learning health promotion courses using an interactive learning. Study Participants: About 14 fourteen students (seven male, seven female) and eight teachers at governmental university in northern Jordan participated in this study. Data Analysis: Conventional content analysis approach was used for participants’ scripts to gain an in-depth description for both students' and teacher’s experiences. Results: The main themes emerged from the data analysis describing the students’ and teachers perceptions of the interactive health promotion class: teachers’ and students positive experience in adopting interactive learning, advantages and benefits of interactive teaching, barriers to interactive teaching, and suggestions for improvement. Conclusion: Both teachers and students reflected positive attitudes toward interactive learning. Interactive learning helped to engage in learning process physically and cognitively. Interactive learning enhanced learning process, promote student attention, enhanced final performance, and satisfied teachers and students accordingly. Interactive learning approach should be adopted in teaching graduate and undergraduate courses using updated and contemporary strategies. Nursing scholars and educators should be motivated to integrate interactive learning in teaching different nursing courses.

Keywords: Health Promotion, Nursing, Interactive learning, qualitative study

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7 Teamwork on Innovation in Young Enterprises: A Qualitative Analysis

Authors: Polina Trusova

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The majority of young enterprises is founded and run by teams and develops new, innovative products or services. While problems within the team are considered to be an important reason for the failure of young enterprises, effective teamwork on innovation may be a key success factor. It may require special teamwork design or members’ creativity not needed during work routine. However, little is known about how young enterprises develop innovative solutions in teams, what makes their teamwork special and what influences its effectivity. Extending this knowledge is essential for understanding the success and failure factors for young enterprises. Previous research focused on working on innovation or professional teams in general. Rare studies combining these issues usually concentrate on homogenous groups like IT expert teams in innovation projects of big, well-established firms. The transferability of those studies’ findings to the entrepreneurial context is doubtful because of several reasons why teamwork should differ significantly between big, well-established firms and young enterprises. First, teamwork is conducted by team members, e.g., employees. The personality of employees in young enterprises, in contrast to that of employees in established firms, has been shown to be more similar to the personality of entrepreneurs. As entrepreneurs were found to be more open to experience and show less risk aversion, it may have a positive impact on their teamwork. Persons open to novelty are more likely to develop or accept a creative solution, which is especially important for teamwork on innovation. Secondly, young enterprises are often characterized by a flat hierarchy, so in general, teamwork should be more participative there. It encourages each member (and not only the founder) to produce and discuss innovative ideas, increasing their variety and enabling the team to select the best idea from the larger idea pool. Thirdly, teams in young enterprises are often multidisciplinary. It has some advantages but also increases the risk of internal conflicts making teamwork less effective. Despite the key role of teamwork on innovation and presented barriers for transferring existing evidence to the context of young enterprises, only a few researchers have addressed this issue. In order to close the existing research gap, to explore and understand how innovations are developed in teams of young enterprises and which factors influencing teamwork may be especially relevant for such teams, a qualitative study has been developed. The study consisting of 20 half-structured interviews with (co-)founders of young innovative enterprises in the UK and USA started in September 2017. The interview guide comprises but is not limited to teamwork dimensions discussed in literature like members’ skill or authority differentiation. Data will be evaluated following the rules of qualitative content analysis. First results indicate some factors which may be relevant especially for teamwork in young innovative enterprises. They will enrich the scientific discussion and provide the evidence needed to test a possible causality between identified factors and teamwork effectivity in future research on young innovative enterprises. Results and their discussion can be presented at the conference.

Keywords: Innovation, Teamwork, qualitative study, young enterprises

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6 Report of Happiness in the Iranian Educational System: A Qualitative Research

Authors: Babak Shamshiri, Najme Dastouri

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The purpose of this study is to understand the current situation of happiness in the Iranian educational system from the perspective of students, teachers and educational administrators. This research is done in qualitative paradigm. Data collection is done by in-depth interview method. Research participants were selected purposively according to sampling rules, with maximum variation and reaching the saturation point. According to most participants in this study, schools in Iran are not usually happy. This lack of happiness is associated with and related to the educational system, curriculum, teaching method, physical environment of schools and their facilities.

Keywords: Happiness, Iran, qualitative study, educational system

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5 Concealing Breast Cancer Status: A Qualitative Study in India

Authors: Shradha Parsekar, Suma Nair, Ajay Bailey, Binu V. S.

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Background: Concealing of cancer-related information is seen in many low-and-middle-income countries and may be associated with multiple factors. Comparatively, there is lack of information about, how breast cancers diagnosed women disclose cancer-related information to their social contacts and vice versa. To get more insights on the participant’s experience, opinions, expectations, and attitudes, a qualitative study is a suitable approach. Therefore, this study involving in-depth interviews was planned to lessen this gap. Methods: Interviews were conducted separately among breast cancer patients and their caregivers with semi-structured qualitative interview guide. Purposive and convenient sampling was being used to recruit patients and caregivers, respectively. Ethical clearance and permission from the tertiary hospital were obtained and participants were selected from the Udupi district, Karnataka, India. After obtaining a list of breast cancer diagnosed cases, participants were contacted in person and their willingness to take part in the study was taken. About 39 caregivers and 35 patients belonging to different breast cancer stages were recruited. Interviews were recorded with prior permission. Data was managed by Atlas.ti 8 software. The recordings were transcribed, translated and coded in two cycles. Most of the patients belonged to stage II and III cancer. Codes were grouped together into to whom breast cancer status was concealed to and underneath reason for the same. Main findings: followings are the codes and code families which emerged from the data. 1) Concealing the breast cancer status from social contacts other than close family members (such as extended family, neighbor and friends). Participants perceived the reasons as, a) to avoid questions which people probe (which doesn’t have answers), b) to avoid people paying courtesy visit (to inquire about the health as it is Indian culture to visit the sick person) making it inconvenient for patient and caregivers have to offer something and talk to them, c) to avoid people getting shocked (react as if cancer is different from other diseases) or getting emotional/sad, or getting fear of death d) to avoid getting negative suggestion or talking anything in front of patient as it may affect patient negatively, e) to avoid getting stigmatized, f) to avoid getting obstacle in child’s marriage. 2) Participant concealed the breast cancer status of young children as they perceived that it may a) affect studies, b) affect emotionally, c) children may get scared. 3) Concealing the breast cancer status from patients as the caregivers perceived that they have fear of a) worsening patient’s health, b) patient getting tensed, c) patient getting shocked, and d) patient getting scared. However, some participants stressed important in disclosing the cancer status to social contact/patient to make the people aware of the disease. Conclusion: The news of breast cancer spreads like electricity in the wire, therefore, patient or family avoid it for many reasons. Although, globally, due to physicians’ ethical obligations, there is an inclination towards more disclosure of cancer diagnosis and status of prognosis to the patient. However, it is an ongoing argument whether patient/social contacts should know the status especially in a country like India.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, India, qualitative study, concealing cancer status

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4 Explaining the Role of Iran Health System in Polypharmacy among the Elderly

Authors: Seyede Salehe Mortazavi, Mohsen Shati, Seyed Kazem Malakouti, Hamidreza Khanke Fazlollah Ahmadi

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Taking unnecessary or excessive medication or using drugs with no indication (polypharmacy) by people of all ages, especially the elderly, is associated with increased adverse drug reactions (ADR), medical errors, hospitalization and escalating the costs. It may be facilitated or impeded by the healthcare system. In this study, we are going to describe the role of the health system in the practice of polypharmacy in Iranian elderly. In this Inductive qualitative content analysis using Graneheim and Lundman methods, purposeful sample selection until saturation has been made. Participants have been selected from doctors, pharmacists, policy-makers and the elderly. A total of 25 persons (9 men and 16 women) have participated in this study. Data analysis after incorporating codes with similar characteristics revealed 14 subcategories and six main categories of the referral system, physicians’ accessibility, health data management, drug market, laws enforcement, and social protection. Some of the conditions of the healthcare system have given rise to polypharmacy in the elderly. In the absence of a comprehensive specialty and subspecialty referral system, patients may go to any physician office so may well be confused about numerous doctors' prescriptions. Electronic records not being prepared for the patients, failure to comply with laws, lack of robust enforcement for the existing laws and close surveillance are among the contributing factors. Inadequate insurance and supportive services are also evident. Age-specific care providing has not yet been institutionalized, while, inadequate specialist workforce playing a major role. So, one may not ignore the health system as contributing factor in designing effective interventions to fix the problem.

Keywords: Elderly, Health System, Polypharmacy, qualitative study

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3 Experiencing Scarred Body among Thai Women Living with Breast Cancer

Authors: Pranee Liamputtong, Dusanee Suwankhong

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Breast surgery leaves undesirable scars to all women who experienced mastectomy, despite the fact that this could be a principle approach to save one life. This paper explores how Thai women living with breast cancer perceived and experienced a scarred body after breast surgery. In-depth interviews and drawing methods were employed among 20 women diagnosed with breast cancer. The interviewed data were analysed using thematic analysis method. The results showed that all women with breast cancer who underwent breast surgery perceived and experienced scar as a persisting and visible side-effect. This disfigurement appearance presented a negative image of feminine identity and led to emotional burdens among women. They responded to being scarred in different ways relating to their perceptions of body and changes. The older group had less embarrassed feelings towards being scarred comparing to the younger one. All women tried to seek means to cope with such physical impairment and keep balance life related to their condition. For example, they relied on Buddhism practice and tried to heal the keloid using natural products. Scars appeared to be an unpleasant effect for women who underwent breast mastectomy. Nurses and health care professionals in the local health service sectors need to pay close attention to how the women see the scarred body and their experiences of living with the distorted feminine appearance, and to provide sensitive support that meets the needs of these vulnerable women. The suitable supports can reduce the sense of embarrassment and increase their sense of self-confidence about their social femininity.

Keywords: Breast Surgery, qualitative study, Thai women, emotional response, scars

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2 Inclusion as an Organizational Development Task of Adult Education Institutions: A Qualitative Study in the Federal State of Hessia in Germany

Authors: Ramona Kahl

Abstract:

By the ratification, the UN Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities by the federal republic of Germany in 2009, adult education organisations have been called upon to guarantee equal access for people with disabilities. In the context of demographic change, the demand for inclusive courses in general continuing education will continue to grow in the future. Institutions of general adult education are facing the task of an inclusive reorganization on an organizational, professional and micro-didactic level. So the adult education with the concept of lifelong learning has to open up for the results of the disability studies in the field of social and cultural inclusion. The project iQ_EB (2017-2020) analysis and supports this organizational task by developing a concept for the qualification of pedagogical personnel for inclusive education at adult education centers with focus on the target group of blind and visually impaired people. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research finances the project and several German associations in the field of blindness and visual impairment cooperate with the project team. Based on half-standardized interviews with the staff members of the Hessian adult education centers analyzed with the content analysis, the speech explores the different strategies of the general adult education centers concerning the task of inclusion. Three different practice strategies can be found so far: individual case solutions, special offers for disabled people and institutional cooperation with facilities in the domain of disabled care. Two organizational opening strategies are concise: the new cooperation with established disability care institutions and the creation of further learning spaces for disabled people in the public space of the adult education centers. By opening up for new target groups and cooperation partners, a reorganization of the institutional structures and the professional self-image becomes necessary. To become an inclusive organization, the analyzed adult education centers invest more or less effort depending on the region, the institutional conditions, and the qualifications of the staff.

Keywords: Continuing Education, Institutional Cooperation, Organizational Development, qualitative study

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1 Understanding How to Increase Restorativeness of Interiors: A Qualitative Exploratory Study on Attention Restoration Theory in Relation to Interior Design

Authors: Hande Burcu Deniz

Abstract:

People in the U.S. spend a considerable portion of their time indoors. This makes it crucial to provide environments that support the well-being of people. Restorative environments aim to help people recover their cognitive resources that were spent due to intensive use of directed attention. Spending time in nature and taking a nap are two of the best ways to restore these resources. However, they are not possible to do most of the time. The problem is that many studies have revealed how nature and spending time in natural contexts can help boost restoration, but there are fewer studies conducted to understand how cognitive resources can be restored in interior settings. This study aims to explore the answer to this question: which qualities of interiors increase the restorativeness of an interior setting and how do they mediate restorativeness of an interior. To do this, a phenomenological qualitative study was conducted. The study was interested in the definition of attention restoration and the experiences of the phenomena. As the themes emerged, they were analyzed to match with Attention Restoration Theory components (being away, extent, fascination, compatibility) to examine how interior design elements mediate the restorativeness of an interior. The data was gathered from semi-structured interviews with international residents of Minnesota. The interviewees represent young professionals who work in Minnesota and often experience mental fatigue. Also, they have less emotional connections with places in Minnesota, which enabled data to be based on the physical qualities of a space rather than emotional connections. In the interviews, participants were asked about where they prefer to be when they experience mental fatigue. Next, they were asked to describe the physical qualities of the places they prefer to be with reasons. Four themes were derived from the analysis of interviews. The themes are in order according to their frequency. The first, and most common, the theme was “connection to outside”. The analysis showed that people need to be either physically or visually connected to recover from mental fatigue. Direct connection to nature was reported as preferable, whereas urban settings were the secondary preference along with interiors. The second theme emerged from the analysis was “the presence of the artwork,” which was experienced differently by the interviewees. The third theme was “amenities”. Interviews pointed out that people prefer to have the amenities that support desired activity during recovery from mental fatigue. The last theme was “aesthetics.” Interviewees stated that they prefer places that are pleasing to their eyes. Additionally, they could not get rid of the feeling of being worn out in places that are not well-designed. When we matched the themes with the four art components (being away, extent, fascination, compatibility), some of the interior qualities showed overlapping since they were experienced differently by the interviewees. In conclusion, this study showed that interior settings have restorative potential, and they are multidimensional in their experience.

Keywords: Fatigue, Interior Design, Restorative environments, qualitative study, attention restoration

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